from the playing side and ceased to roll, it cannot be touched by a straight-edge placed against the wires on the side from which it was played.

7. Ball driven partly through Hoop.—A ball driven partly through its

hoop from the non-playing side, cannot run the hoop at its next stroke, if it can be touched by a straight-edge placed against the wires on the non-playing side.

8. Points counted to Non-Striker's Ball.—A ball driven through its hoop,

or against the turning peg, by any stroke not fou), whether of its own or of the adverse side, counts the point so made.

9. Points made for Adversary's Ball.—If a point be made for an adver

sary's ball, the striker must inform his adversary of it. Should the striker neglect to do so, and the adversary make the point again, he may continue his turn as though he had played for his right point.

10. The Turn.—A player, when his turn comes round, may roquet each

ball once, and may do this again after each point made. The player continues his turn so long as he makes a point or a roquet.

11. Croquet imperative after Roquet.— A player who roquets a ball must

take croquet, and in so doing must move both balls (see Law 25.) In taking croquet, the striker is not allowed to place his foot on the ball.

12. Ball in hand after Roquet.—No point or roquet can be made by a ball

which is in hand. If a ball in hand displace any other balls, they must remain where they are driven. Any point made in consequence of such displacement counts, notwithstanding that the ball displacing them is in hand.

13. Balls Roqueted simultaneously.—When a player roquets two balls

simultaneously, he may choose from which of them he will take croquet; and a second roquet will be required before he can take croquet from the other ball.

14. Balls found Touching.— If at the commencement of a turn the striker's

ball be found touching another, roquet is deemed to be made, and croquet must be taken at once.

15. Roquet and Hoop made by same Stroke.—Should a ball, in making its

hoop, roquet another that lies beyond the hoop, and then pass through, the hoop counts as well as the roquet . A ball is deemed to be beyond the hoop if it lies so that it cannot be touched by a straight-edge

Elaced against the wires on the playing side. Should any part of the all that is roqueted be lying on the playing side of the hoop, the roquet counts, but not the hoop.

16. Pegging out.—If a rover (except when in hand) be caused to hit the

winning peg by any stroke of the same side, not foul, the rover is out of the game, and must be removed from the ground. A rover may similarly be pegged out by an adverse rover.

17. Rover pegged out by Roquet.—A player who pegs out a rover by a roquet

loses the remainder of his turn.

18. Balls sent off the Ground.—A ball sent off the ground must at once be

replaced 3 feet within the boundary, measured from the spot where it went off, and at right angles to the margin. If this spot be already occupied, the ball last sent off is to be placed anywhere in contact with the other, at the option of the player sending off the bail,

19. Ball sent off near Corner.—A ball sent off within 3 feet of a corner is to

be replaced 3 feet from both boundaries.

20. Ball touching Boundary.—If the boundary be marked by a line on the

turf, a ball touching the line is deemed to have been off the ground. If the boundary be raised, a ball touching the boundary is similarly deemed to have been off the ground.

21. Ball sent off and returning toGround.—If a ball be sent off the ground,

and return to it, the ball must be similarly replaced, measuring from the point of first contact with the boundary.

22. Ball sent within "Sfect of Boundary.—A ball sent within 3 feet of the

boundary, but not off the ground, is to be replaced as though it had been sent off—except in the case of the striker's ball, when the striker has the option of bringing his ball in, or of playing from where it lies.

23. Boundary interfering with Stroke.—If it be found that the height of

the boundary interferes with the stroke, the striker, with the sanction of the umpire, may bring in the balls a longer distance than 3 feet, so as to allow a free swing of the mallet. Balls so brought in must be moved in the line of aim.

24. Dead Boundary.—If, in taking croquet, the striker send his own ball,

or the ball croqueted, off the ground, he loses the remainder of his turn ; but if by the same stroke he make a roquet, his ball, being in hand, may pass the boundary without penalty. Should either ball while rolling after a croquet be touched or diverted from its course by an opponent, the striker has the option given him by Law 26, and is not liable to lose his turn should the ball which has been touched or diverted pass the boundary.

25. Foul Strokes.—If a player make a foul stroke, he loses the remainder

of his turn, and any point or roquet made by such stroke does not count. Balls moved by a foul stroke are to remain where they lie, or be replaced, at the option of the adversary. If the foul be made when taking croquet, and the adversary elect to have the balls replaced, they must be replaced in contact as they stood when the croquet was taken. The following are foul strokes:

(a) To strike with the mallet another ball instead of or beside one's

own in making the stroke.

(b) To spoon, i.e., to push a ball without an audible knock.

(c) To strike a ball twice in the same stroke.

(d) To touch, stop, or divert the course of a ball when in play and

rolling, whether this be done by the striker or his partner.

(e) To allow a ball to touch the mallet in rebounding from a peg or

wire. (/) To move a ball which lies close to a peg or wire by striking the

peg or wire. (g) To press a ball round a peg or wire (crushing stroke). (h) To play a stroke after roquet without taking croquet (»') To fail to move both balls in taking croquet. (k) To croquet a ball which the striker is not entitled to croquet.

26. Balls touched by Adversary.—Should a ball when rolling, except it be

in hand, be touched, stopped, or diverted from its course by an adversary, the striker may elect whether he will take the stroke again, or whether the ball shall remain where it stopped, or be placed where, in the judgment of the umpire, it would have rolled to.

27. Balls stopped or diverted by Umpire. — Should a ball be stopped or

diverted from its course by an umpire, he is to place it where he considers it would have rolled to.

28. Playing out of Turn, or with the Wrong Ball.—If a player play out of

turn, or with the wrong ball, the remainder of the turn is lost, and any point or roquet made after the mistake. The balls remain where they lie when the penalty is claimed, or are replaced as they were before the last stroke was made, at the option of the adversary. But if the adverse side play without claiming the penalty, the turn holds good, and any point or points made after the mistake are scored to the ball by which they have been made—that is, the ball is deemed to be for the point next in order to the last point made in the turn—except . when the adversary's ball has been played with, in which case the points are scored to the ball which ought to have been played with. If more than one ball be played with during the turn, all points made during the turn, whether before or after the mistake, are scored to the ball last played with. Whether the penalty be claimed or not, the adversary may follow with cither ball of his own side.

29. Playing for Wrong Point. — If a player make a wrong point it does not

count, and, therefore —unless he have, by the same stroke, taken croquet, or made a roquet—all subsequent strokes are in error, the remainder of the turn is lost, and any point or roquet made after the mistake. The balls remain where they lie when the penalty is claimed, or are replaced as they were before the last stroke was made, at the option of the adversary. But if the player make another point, or the adverse side play, before the penalty is claimed, the turn holds good; and the player who made the mistake is deemed to be for the point next in order to that which he last made.

30. Information as to Score.—Every player is entitled to be informed which

is the next point of any ball.

31. State of Game,if disputed.—When clips are used, their position, in case

of dispute, shall be conclusive as to the position of the balls in the game.

32. Wires knocked out of Ground.—Should a player, in trying to run his

hoop, knock a wire of that hoop out of the ground with his ball, the hoop does not count. The ball must be replaced, and the stroke taken again; but if by the same stroke a roquet be made, the striker may elect whether he will claim the roquet or have the balls replaced.

33. Pegs or Hoops not Upright.—Any player may set upright a peg or hoop,

except the one next in order; and that must not be altered except by the umpire.

34. Ball lying in a Hole or on Bad Ground.—A ball lying in a hole or on

bad ground may be moved with the sanction of the umpire. The ball must be put back—i.e., away from the object aimed at—and so as not to alter the line of aim.

35. Umpires.—An umpire shall not give his opinion, or notice any error

that may be made, unless appealed to by one of the players. The decision of an umpire, when appealed to, shall be final. The duties of an umpire are—

(a) To decide matters in dispute during the game, if appealed to.

(b) To keep the score, and, if asked by a player, to disclose the state

of it.

(c) To move the clips, or to see that they are properly moved.

(rf) To replace balls sent off the ground, or to see that they are properly replaced.

(e) To adjust the hoops or pegs not upright, or to see that they are properly adjusted.

36. Absence of Umpire.—When, there is no umpire present, permission to

move a ball, or to set up a peg or hoop, or other indulgence for which an umpire would be appealed to, must be asked of the other side.

37. Appeal to Referee.—Should an umpire be unable to decide any point at

issue, he may appeal to the referee, whose decision shall be final; but no player may appeal to the referee from the decision of an umpire.

The prohibitory clause at the end is directed against the ingenuity of certain individuals," more ingenious than ingenuous," who invented strange methods of playing. One player had the handle end of his mallet " topped" like a billiard cue, and for critical fine strokes went down on his knees and played his ball as on a billiard table, much to the astonishment of friends and foes. Another lay flat on his face," lined " his ball carefully, then, placing the mallet on the ground, the centre of the head almost touching the ball, pushed it sharply forward, making, in fact, the " mace stroke" at billiards. These and other eccentricities of inventive genius necessitated some restriction of the latitude allowed to players within at least reasonable limits.

Keep Your Own Balls Together, And Your Adversary's Apart. In this lies the secret of all successful management of a game. However hard it may seem at the time to give up a strong position with one ball, in order to go back and help its laggard brother, or to stop a combination of the enemy, it must be done, and done systematically too, at all hazards. One ball by itself is a very lame and impotent affair: two together become a host .

If at the end of a break you find nothing immediately to your hand for you to do, as must constantly happen as soon as your ball has made all or most of its hoops, and with but one turn left, lie up to your second ball, unless, of course, it be close to an enemy, when such play would be simply suicidal. You thus place your enemy in this position: Either he must go on with his game, and risk letting you in with your two balls together,—a thing no player would think of, unless he had a series of absolutely certain strokes before him, which would make it worth his while to brave the after risk,—or you compel him to leave his game, and come and separate your balls. In either case you retard his game, which is the same thing as advancing your own. We have seen many a game lost and won by attention or neglect of this simple rule.

Failing space bids us now take leave of this interesting game, which we will again venture to press upon the notice of our young readers as well worthy their attention. If they will only bring to it—as every English boy should to all he undertakes—determination and perseverance, with lots of energy and good temper, they will find no reason to repent of following our recommendation, but will rather thank us for introducing them to a new and lasting pleasure; and so we wish them all good speed.


Under this heading may be included the various games of Skittles. Four Corners, Knockemdowns, and American Bowls, the object in each being to knock down, or, technically speaking, to "floor" the greatest number of pins in the least possible number of throws. It is to be regretted that these good old-fashioned English games should (so far as London is concerned, at all events) be confined chiefly to the lower classes, and that a skittle-player is generally considered to be everything that is bad; for although it may not be a very intellectual pastime, there can be no doubt of its being a healthy recreation, one requiring a certain amount of skill and endurance, and particularly adapted to those who follow sedentary employments.

In Skittles, nine pins are used (placed on a wooden frame, as shown in the accompanying diagram) and a "cheese" ball, weighing generally from eight to fourteen and sometimes even sixteen pounds; the player delivering


the ball from a distance of about twenty-one feet. In playing the ordinary "standfair" game, only one step is allowed to be taken whilst delivering the ball; but the "trotting" is very frequently played, in which two or three steps are permitted, and in some instances the objectionable practice of "running up" is carried on to such an extent that the ball is hardly out of the hand before it touches the front pin. This ought always to be discountenanced, as even the weakest player must surely be able to deliver the ball on the third step. Whilst throwing, care should be taken to get a good firm grasp of the ball, which should be held in a slightly slanting position, and to strike the front pin on the shoulder, sufficient impetus being given to enable the ball to reach the back pin if possible.

A good player will sometimes hit five pins with the ball, in which case he generally gets the whole nine. A tyro at the game may always think himself fortunate if he secure the entire number in three throws, and a man who can rely on getting them in twice may be considered a good sound player. Some of the best players have been known to knock down and set up a hundred or even more full frames within the hour. One of the most extraordinary performances of this kind on record is that of J. Sullivan, who at the "Horse and Groom," Newington Butts, on Feb. 22, 1822, succeeded in knocking down and setting up 110 full frames in 57 min. 57 sec, he being at that time only nineteen years of age. Ben Sexton is also credited with flooring 830 pins in 100 throws, on May 12, 1865, at Leinton, Suffolk; likewise with some wonderful performances with a man standing in the frame. Of course, however, feats of this class are not to be met with among amateur players, but rather with those who make a business of the game. The number of chalks is generally two or three; this is, however, optional with the competitors. In fact there is so much difference in the way the game is played

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