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Stamps, telegrams and expressage.
Stenographic expenses

On deposit State Bank of Evanston
Petty cash on hand

Receipts.

Balance received from Geo. P. Costigan, retiring treasurer,

Cash in bank

Petty cash

To the Association of American Law Schools:

As Treasurer of the Association, I submit the following report:

Membership fees

Interests on deposits through July, 1913...

Total

Expenditures.

Express on proceedings

U. of C. Press, printing letter heads...

H. B. Bates, expenses Executive Committee Meeting...
W. W. Cook, expenses Executive Committee Meeting.

D. O. McGovney, expenses Executive Committee Meeting....
H. W. Rogers, expenses Committee Meeting.....
James P. Hall, expenses Committee Meeting..

H. M. Bates, expenses to N. Y. City to confer with Carnegie
Foundation

Lord Baltimore Press, printing proceedings..

Envelopes and postage for proceedings..

....

Other postage

Geo. B. Sears, clerical work.

Lenore B. Jamison, clerical work....

Notary's fees (bills for Oklahoma and Wisconsin).

Exchange on checks deposited...

$6.01

9.95

736.48

2.10

Balance in State Bank of Evanston, Ill., not checked against on Aug. 28, 1913......

Cash on hand

$846.34

$ 736.48 2.10 420.00 7.56

$1,166.14

5.85

3.85

57.64

63.65

131.90

4.50

25.00

56.55

86.00

13.65

5.00

2.25

18.63 .50 1.50

686.72 2.95

Total..

Respectfully submitted, this 28th day of August, 1913,

Walter W. Cook, Secretary and Treasurer.

$1,166.14

The President:

Is the Committee on Nominations of Officers ready to report?

A. H. Tuttle, of Ohio:

The Committee on Nominations beg leave to report the following nominations:

For President: Joseph H. Beale.

For Secretary-Treasurer: Walter W. Cook.

For Members of the Executive Committee: Roscoe Pound; D. O. McGovney, Henry M. Bates.

On motion the report was received and the nominees duly elected.

Adjourned to Wednesday, September 3, 1913, at 2 P. M.

SECTION OF LEGAL EDUCATION.

JOINT SESSION.

Wednesday, September 3, 1913, 2.30 P. M.

Walter George Smith, of Pennsylvania :

The meeting will be in order. This is a joint meeting of two organizations that are separate and distinct entities: The Association of American Law Schools, which concerns itself with matters connected with legal education especially of interest to teachers, and the Section of Legal Education of the American Bar Association, which takes in the entire subject of legal education including to a certain extent the sphere of thought of the Law Schools Association.

The program at this meeting of the American Bar Association has been so very full of interest that it was found impossible to carry out the program of both organizations without a joint meeting. Therefore, it was arranged that the distinguished gentlemen who are to address you this afternoon should speak to both organizations at the same time.

The Executive Committee have arranged that the Chairman of the Association of American Law Schools, Mr. Henry M. Bates, of Michigan, should preside at this meeting, and it gives me very great pleasure to present him.

Chairman Bates:

If only personal qualifications and personal considerations were to count, they would all require that the distinguished Chairman of the Section on Legal Education should preside throughout this meeting. But this is a joint session of the Association of American Law Schools, with the Legal Education Section, and the Law School Association, through me, a sort of imperfect symbolism as it were, wishes to call the attention of the members of the Bar to the fact that in the Association of Law Schools you have a body of men devoted to the service of the law and to the profession which practises it.

It would be idle of course for me to go through the form of introducing Mr. Taft to any audience. I wish only to say to you, sir, that we all deeply appreciate the interest in legal education, and the kindliness and courtesy which have led you to accept our invitation to address us.

It gives me pleasure to present William Howard Taft, Kent Professor of Law in Yale University Law School.

William Howard Taft, of Yale Law School: Then read his address on "The Social Importance of Proper Standards for Admission to the Bar."

(The address follows these minutes, page 924.)

Chairman Bates:

We will now have a paper on "The Relation of Law Schools to Bar Examinations," by Dean Thayer, of Harvard Law School.

(The address follows these minutes, page 938.)

Chairman Bates:

I believe Mr. Sanborn, of the Wisconsin State Board of Law Examiners, has been asked to discuss this subject. Will Mr. Sanborn kindly step forward?

John B. Sanborn, of Wisconsin:

Mr. Chairman and gentlemen: What I have particularly observed in the matter of the opening discussions is that one of the chief functions of the person who opens a discussion is to

demonstrate how little the speaker knows of what he is talking about. If I attempt that I presume you will infer from Dean Thayer's remarks that I never graduated from a university. The only suggestions which I have to make are a couple of rather practical ones, which have been forced upon my attention in connection with the work of Bar examiners. For several years the Association of American Law Schools and the Section of Legal Education have been discussing the proper standard for admission to the Bar, and they have agreed at every one of the meetings that the standards are too low and that they should be materially raised. The difficulty of that, however, particularly in those states where the standard is set by the legislature in the form of statutes or in the constitution, as in Indiana, is this: The members of the legislature who belong to the legal profession have very little to do with the American Bar Association or the Association of American Law Schools, and what we say here and what we resolve makes very little impression by the mere fact that we say it or that we resolve it upon the judiciary committees of the legislatures when they are considering bills to raise the standard for admission to the Bar.

So the first suggestion that I have to make is that the members of the American Bar Association need to work with the Bar generally to instil a sentiment in regard to this matter. There is, as any Bar examiner will find, still considerable impression of the idea that one of the things mentioned in the Declaration of Independence and guaranteed by the constitution is the inherent right of every young man to practise law.

The other suggestion is that no matter what your standard iswhether it be set by the court or set by the legislature-the final standard and the ultimate and only real standard is that set by the Board of Bar Examiners themselves in the ordinary process in the states where the admission to the bar is by examination. No matter what you may say or what you require, it is the questions they put and the standards which they have in their minds that determine the standard in that state.

That brings me to the importance of the selection of the members of the Board of Bar Examiners. Upon that I think we are

confronted with a problem-and, at least in one state a very serious problem-and I freely admit that I have no solution of it. What Dean Thayer has said about the difficulty of preparing the questions and marking papers only serves to emphasize what I had in mind; and, on that, I agree thoroughly with the shortcomings of the questions which are put by the Boards of Bar Examiners. The difficulty is in getting the men to act upon the Board of Bar Examiners. In my own state--and I take that merely as an illustration because I am familiar with it and with the conditions there we do not have a very large number of applicants as compared with certain other states, yet last year it took the members of the board a solid month to perform the duties of their work. The trouble comes in this, as was indicated in Dean Thayer's remarks upon the work of the Bar Examiners, it requires a great deal of study; not the study that a practitioner gets at the Bar, but an independent study of the law as a science, to properly perform the work of a bar examiner.

As the examiners are now constituted they are taken from the members of the Bar, from lawyers in active practice, and they simply step out of their practice for a short time and they have two or three examinations a year, covering a week or two, and then they go back through their practice and they are unable to get any of the real professional spirit that should pervade Bar examiners. Now, unless you can make the work enough of an occupation, enough of an object in itself, there is where you are going to have the difficulty, because it does not take anything like a whole year, and, therefore, you cannot get the legislature to give salaries to the Bar Examiners that are adequate and sufficiently attractive to induce members of the Bar to give up their

⚫ practice even for the short time required for this work.

Then you have the difficulty that no member of the Bar in active practice feels that he can afford to spend that much time for more than a few years, and then he expects that someone else will come in and take his place. You have on many of the Boards of Bar Examiners a constantly shifting membership, and, under the present condition of things it is inevitably so, that when a man has been on the board for two or three years or perhaps four

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