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100.000 The whole of the water in this sample had not been driven off by the burning

A sample of American burnt sienna had the following composition : Water, hygroscopic,

2.60 per cent. Water, combined,

2:10 Ferric oxide, Fe, 03,

89.13 Alumina, Al, 03, .

2-53 Silica, Si 02,

4.56 Manganese and Lime,

traces. Why raw siennas should give an orange-red pigment on calcining and ochres a red is somewhat uncertain ; probably the fact that siennas contain organic matter and that the iron is in both the ferrous and ferric conditions may have some influence.

MARS COLOURS. Under the generic name of Mars colours the late George Field, a noted colour manufacturer, introduced a series of yellows, oranges, reds, and violets, owing their colour to ferric oxide. Field did not publish any account of the method by which he produced these colours; but descriptions of similar products have been given by various French and German writers on pigments. These colours present no advantage over ochres and iron-reds as regards permanency or brightness of tone, but have disadvantages as regards cost.

Mars yellow is made by taking equal weights of ferrous sulphate and alum, and adding a solution of carbonate of soda, thereby precipitating the iron and alumina; the precipitate is collected, washed well with water, and dried slowly.

Mars orange is made by slightly calcining the yellow.
Mars red is made by calcining the yellow at a red heat.
Mars violet is made by calcining the yellow at a white heat.

By using milk of lime instead of the soda salt the colours could be made cheaper, a plan which is in use for making some forms of iron-reds (see p. 114).

Mars brown was made in a similar manner from a mixture of ferrous sulphate, alum, and manganese chloride.


Mars colours can be distinguished from the ochres and ochroreds by being soluble in strong hydrochloric acid, and by containing a large proportion of alumina, but no silica.


TURNER'S YELLOW. Turner's yellow (so named after the inventor, James Turner), or patent yellow (from its having been patented in 1781) was at one time largely used; but since the introduction of the chromeyellows it has been gradually, and, perhaps, entirely abandoned, It has been known as Montpelier yellow, Cassel yellow, Kassler yellow, Verona yellow, mineral yellow, and, probably, by other

It is essentially an oxychloride or basic chloride of lead. It is made by mixing two parts of litharge and one part of salt with water to a thin paste and allowing the mixture to stand for 24 hours, stirring at intervals; at the end of this time it will, as a rule, have a white colour; if it has not, more water must be added and the mixture again allowed to stand for another 24 hours or until it becomes white; it is now washed (to free it from alkaline salts), dried, then put into a crucible, and calcined at a gentle heat sufficient to melt the mass. The shade of colour depends upon the temperature and duration of the heating; usually small samples are taken out of the crucible from time to time, and when the right shade has been obtained the contents of the crucible are allowed to cool, after which they are ready for use.

Sal ammoniac may be used in the place of salt. Another method of preparation consists in precipitating a solution of lead with hydrochloric acid, collecting the precipitate, and washing and calcining the lead chloride so obtained; but the result is not so good as that obtained by the process above described.

Turner's yellow is met with in many shades of yellow, from a fairly bright yellow to a dark orange-yellow; usually it is in the form of heavy, glassy-looking masses, which are rather difficult to grind. It has a good body or covering power, and can be used either as an oil- or water-colour. It is not a permanent colour, being affected by exposure to light and air and to sulphureous gases, which turn it brownish-black.


Like the last this is a lead colour and has been superseded by the chromes. Naples yellow is a compound of the oxides of

antimony and lead, and can be prepared of various shades and from different materials.

(a) 1 part of tartar emetic, 2 parts of lead nitrate, and 4 parts of salt are intimately mixed together, and the mixture placed in a crucible and heated to fusion, at which point it is kept for 2 hours; after which the fused mass is treated with water to wash out the soluble alkaline salts present in it, and the pigment is dried at a gentle heat.

(6) 1 part of tartar emetic, 2 parts of red lead, and 4 parts of salt are treated as above.

(c) 3 parts of antimony, 1 part of zinc oxide, and 2 parts of red lead are heated to fusion in a covered crucible for 4 hours; after which they are ground under water and the pigment dried at a gentle heat.

(d) A process of preparing an antimony-lead yellow from the dross of lead refining was patented in 1858, by Dick, which consisted in mixing this dross (which is a mixture of the oxides of lead and antimony with some small quantities of other impurities) with salt, fusing the mass for 2 to 3 hours, then washing it well with water and drying the pigment.

(e) A yellow not unlike Naples yellow has been made from the three oxides of tin, lead, and antimony, by calcining for 3 to 4 hours in a crucible a mixture of 2 parts of levigated crude antimony, 2 parts of tin ashes, and 5 parts of white lead; or 1 part each of tin ashes, litharge, and antimony may be used.

(f) 1 part of type-metal, 2 parts of potassium nitrate, and 4 parts of salt are fused together, and the fused mass treated as in process a.

(9) Processes for preparing antimony yellows were patented by Hallet and Stenhouse, in 1861, as follows :-1. Antimony ore was calcined and then mixed with oxide of zinc and litharge, the mixture being fused. 2. A mixture of type-metal and zinc oxide are fused together.

The yellows made by the above methods have been sold under various names-Naples yellow, Jaune, solid yellow, antimony yellow, &c. They were rather favourite colours at one time with artists, but their use has become nearly obsolete. They are bright colours, although not equal to the chromes in this respect; are fairly fast to light, but, like all lead colours, are affected by sulphureous gases; iron has an injurious effect upon these colours so that they cannot be ground in iron mills with safety. They are equally useful as oil- or water-colours, and are of good body or covering power.


This yellow, which at one time was in extensive use, is the trisulphide of arsenic, As, Sg. It is found native as the mineral orpiment, which is sometimes ground up and used us a pigment. The artificial colour is usually made by precipitation, but it can also be made by sublimation.

1. By Precipitation.-(a) Arsenic is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and a current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas passed through the solution ; a fine yellow precipitate of the colour is obtained, which is collected and dried at a gentle heat. (b) A fine yellow pigment, formerly sold under the name of Royal yellow, is made by mixing 2 parts of barium sulphate with 1 part of charcoal and calcining the mixture, when barium sulphide is formed; this is ground with orpiment and water into a fine paste, and by boiling with water a sulpho-arsenite of barium is obtained; to this is added dilute sulphuric acid which precipitates a mixture of barium sulphate and sulphide of arsenic as a fine yellow colour, which is collected, washed, and dried.

2. By Sublimation.—1 lb. of sublimed sulphur and 2 lbs. of white arsenic are thoroughly mixed together and placed in a crucible; this covered with another crucible or with a special condenser, and heated in a furnace. The arsenic and sulphur react and form the sulphide, which, being volatile, sublimes into the cover, and is collected, washed, and dried; it varies a little from time to time in shade.

King's or arsenic yellow is a very bright pigment, almost rivalling the chromes in beauty. It has good body and works well either in oil or water, but is not a durable colour, as exposure to light causes it to fade, while air and moisture have no action on it. It does not mix well with other pigments, since, when associated with lead pigments, or with verdigris, emerald green, or other copper pigments, it gradually acquires a dark brownish tint owing to the formation of the black sulphides of lead and copper. It can be mixed with ultramarine, cadmium yellow, or oxide of iron without change. Being an arsenic colour it is very poisonous, and, therefore, its use is not to be recommended. Partly in consequence of this objection it has become nearly, if not entirely, obsolete. King's yellow forms a colourless solution with strong hydrochloric acid; as also with caustic soda, from which, on adding acid, the pigment is reprecipitated. The presence of arsenic may be tested for by means of Marsh's test, described in the section on emerald green.

REALGAR, ARSENIC ORANGE. Realgar is a native arsenic disulphide found in small quantities in various localities. It is prepared artificially by a process of sublimation as follows :-(a) A mixture of 8 lbs. of white arsenic (arsenious oxide) and 4 lbs. of flowers of sulphur are heated in a crucible as in making orpiment. (b) A mixture of 30 lbs. of arsenic, 20 lbs. of flowers of sulphur, and 40 lbs. of charcoal is made ; a charge of 60 lbs. of this mixture is heated at a time in earthenware crucibles so arranged that the product which sublimes can be collected. . This sublimate is then remelted to form the colour. Realgar has the same properties as orpiment.

INDIAN YELLOW. Indian yellow or Purree is a most curious product. It has long been used in India, but is of comparatively recent introduction in this country, where its use is limited. It is made exclusively at Monghyr in Bengal by a caste of people known as the Gwalas. It is made from the urine of cows fed upon the leaves of the mango tree, which food increases the secretion of bile and the excess passes into the urine to which it imparts a strong yellow colour. The flow of the urine is stimulated by the Gwalas gently rubbing the urinary organs two or three times a day; indeed, the cows are so habituated to this that they are unable to pass the urine themselves; the feeding with mango leaves is so injurious that its long continuance causes the death of the cows, and grass, &c., is occasionally substituted for them; the average life of these cows is from six to seven years. The urine as it comes from the cows is collected, and each evening it is boiled down in earthen vessels when the yellow is deposited; it is gathered on calico, made into balls and sent into the market for sale. The annual production is said to be about 100 to 120 cwts.

Indian yellow is a fairly bright yellow pigment, and is sold in the form of small round balls ; it is non-poisonous and has a good colouring power; unfortunately it is not durable, as exposure to light soon causes it to fade. Authorities differ somewhat upon the composition of Indian yellow, but most agree that it is a compound of a peculiar acid known as euxanthic acid (which exists in the purree) combined with magnesia; there is also present potassium benzoate and other bodies. The acid itself generally crystallises in small needles of a pale yellow colour; it is slightly soluble in cold water, more readily in boiling

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