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the argument for three days, but the disputation was managed according to the fashion of the times, with reproaches and menaces on the stronger side ; and the proloeutor ended it with saying, “ You have the word, but we have the sword."*
This year  began with Wyat's rebellion, occasioned by a general dislike of the queen's marriage with Philip off Spain: it was a raw anadvised attempt, and occasioned great mischiefs to'the Protestants, though religion had no share in the conspiracy, Wyat himself being a Papist: this gentleman got together four thousand nen, with whom he marched directly to London; but coming into Southwark, February 2, he found the bridge so well fortified that he could not force it without cannon; so he marched about, and having crossed the Thames at Kingston, he came by Charing-cross to Ludgate next morning, in hopes the citizens would have opened their gates; but being disappointed, he yielded himself a prisoner at Temple-bar, and was afterward executed; as were the lady Jane Grey, lord Guilford her husband, and others; the lady Elizabeth herself hardly escaping. Wyat upon
his trial accused her, in hopes of saving his life; upon which she was ordered into custody: but when Wyať saw he must die, he acquitted her on the scaffold; and upon the queen's marriage this summer she obtained her pardon.
As soon as the nation was a little settled, her majesty, by virtue of the supremacy, gave instructions to her bishops to visit the clergy. The injunctions were drawn up by Gardiner, and contain an angry recital of all the innovations introduced into the church in the reign of king Edward; and
* Burpet's Hist. Ref. vol. 2. p. 267.
Bishop Warburton, in his notes on Mr. Neal's History (see a supplemental volume of his works, 8vo. 1788. p. 455.) wittà greať anger inpeaches the truch of this passage. “This is to lie (says his lordship) under the cover of trath. Can any body in his senses believe that when the only contention between the two parties was, who had the word; that the more powerful would yield it up to their adversaries. Withiout all doubl, some Protestant member, in the heat of dispute, said, “We have the word;' upon which the prolocator insultingly answers, But we have the sword;' withogt thinking any one would be so foolishi as to join the two propositions into one, and then give it to the prolocator.” In reply to these unhandsome reflections, it is sufficient to say, that Mr Neal spokeon the authority of bishop Burnet, whom he truly quotes: and whom it would have been more consistent with candour and the love of truth for bishop Warburton to have consulted the authority, before he insinuated his conjectures against the statement of a fact, and without authority pointed his charge of folly and falsehood: of which Mr. Neal, by quoling his author, stands perfectly clear; and which if well founded must fall, not on bim but bishop Burnet,-whose remarks on the prolocutor's speech is; that " by it he truly pointed out wherein the strength of both causes lay."-ED.
a charge to the bishops, « to execute all the ecclesiastical laws that had been in force in king Henry VIII.'s reign; but not to proceed in their courts in the queen's name. She enjoins them not to epact the oath of supremacy any more, but to punish heretics and heresies, and to remove all married clergymen from their wives; but for those that would renounce their wives they might put them into some other cures. All the ceremonies, holidays, and fasts, used in king Henry's time were to be revived. Those clergymen who had been ordained by the late service-book were to be reordained, or have the defects of their ordination supplied; that is, the anointing, the giving the priestly vestments, with other rites of the Román pontifical. And lastly, it was declared, that all people should be compelled to come to church."*-The archbishop of York, the bishops of St. David's, Chester, and Bristol, were deprived for being mar'ried; and the bishops of Lincoln, Gloucester, and Hereford, were deprived by the royal pleasure, as holding their bishopricks by such a patent. It was very arbitrary to turn out the married bishops, while there was a law subsisting to legitimate their marriages; and to deprive the other bishops without any manner of process, merely for the royal pleasure. This was acting up to the height of the supremacy, which though the queen believed to be an unlawful power, yet she claimed and used it for the service of the Romish cburch. The vacant bishopricks were filled up the latter end of March, with men after the queen's heart, to the number of sixteen, in the room of so many deprived or dead.
The new bishops in their visitation, and particularly bishop Bonner, executed the queen's injunctions with rigour. The mass was set up in all places, and the old Popish rites and ceremonies revived. The carvers and makers of statues had a quick trade for roods, and other images, that were to be set up again in churches. The most eminent preachers in London were under confinement; and all the married clergy throughout the kingdom were deprived. Dr. Parker reckons, that of sixteen thousand clergymen twelve thousand were turned out; which is not probable, for if we compute by the diocess of Norwich, which is almost an eighth part of England, and in which there were but three hundred
* Burnet's History of the Reformation, vol. 2. p. 291. 274. Ocllection of Records, num. 15.
and thirty-five deprived, the whole number will fall short of three thousand.* Some were turned out without conviction, upon common fame: some were never cited, and yet turned out for not appearing. Those that quitted their wives, and did penance, were nevertheless deprived; which was grounded on the vow that (as was pretended) they had made. Such was the deplorable condition of the reformed this summer, and such the cruelty of their adversaries.
The queen's second parliament met April 2d. The court had taken care of the elections by large promises of money from Spain. Their design was to persuade the parliament to approve of the Spanish match ;t which they accomplished, with this proviso, that the queen alone should have the government of the kingdom; after which the houses were presently dissolved. King Philip arrived in England July 20th, and was married to the queen on the 27th, at Winchester, he being then in the twenty-seventh year of his age, and the queen in her thirty-eighth. He brought with him a vast mass of wealth; twenty-seven chests of bullion, every chest being above a yard long; and ninetypine horse-loads and two cart-loads of coined silverand gold.
The reformers complaining of their usage in the late dispute held in convocation, the court resolved to give them a fresh mortification, by appointing another at Oxford in presence of the whole university; and because archbishop Cranmer, bishops Ridley and Latimer, were the most celebrated divines of the Reformation, they were by warrant from the queen removed from the Tower to Oxford, to manage the dispute. The convocation sent their prolocutor and several of their members, who arriving on the 13th of April, being Friday, sent for the bishops on Saturday, and appointed them Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday,
* Burnet's Hist. Ref. vol. 3. p. 226.
t“ This,” observes Dr. Warner, " is the first instance to be met with in the English history of corrupling parliaments : but the precedent has been so well followed ever since, that if ever this nation should lose its liberties and be enslaved and ruined, it will be by means of parliamenl corrupted with bribes and places.". Ecclesiastical History, vol. 2. p. 341. -Ed.
# The view of Philip, in this match, was undoubtedly to make himself master of the kingdom. When afterward Mary was supposed to be pregnant, he applied to parliament to be appointed regent daring the minority of the child, and offered security to resign the government on its coming of age. The motion was warmly debated in the house of peers, and nearly carried; when the lord Paget stood up and said, “ Pray who shall sue the king's bond?” This laconic speech bad its intended effect, and the debate was soon concluded in the negative. "Granger's Biogr. History of England, vol. 1. p. 161. note, 8vo. edition.-Ed.
every one his day, to defend their doctrine. The questions were, upon transubstantiation, and the propitiatory saerifice of the mass. The particulars of the dispute are in Mr. Fox's Book of Martyrs. The bishops behaved with great modesty and presence of mind; but their adversaries insulted and triumphed in the most barbarous manner. Bishop Ridley writes, “ that there were perpetual shoutings, tauntings, reproaches, noise, and confusion." Cranmer and old Latimer were hissed and laughed at;* and Ridley was borne down with noise and clamour; “ In all my life (says he) I never saw any thing carried more vainly and tumultuously; I could not have thought that there could have been found any Englishman honoured with degrees in learning, that could allow of such thrasonical ostentations, more fit for the stage than the schools.” On the 28th of April they were summoned again to St. Mary's, and required by Westo the prolocutor to subscribe, as having been vanquished in disputation; but they all refusing, were declared obstinate heretics, and no longer members of the Catholic church.
It was designed to expose the reformers by another disputation at Cambridge; but the prisoners in London hearing of it published a paper, declaring " that they would not dispute but in writing, except it were before the queen and council, or before either house of parliament, because of the misreports and unfair usage they had every where met with.” At the same time they printed a summary of their faith, for which they were ready to offer up their lives to the halter or the fire, as God should appoint.
And here they declared, “ that they believed the Scriptures to be the true word of God, and the judge of all controversies in matters of religion; and that the church is to be obeyed as long as she followed this word.
“ That they adhered to the Apostles' creed; and those creeds set out by the councils of Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon; and by the first and fourth councils of Toledo ; and the symbols of Athanasius, Irenæus, Tertullian, and Damasus.
They believed justification by faith alone; which faith was not only an opinion, but a certain persuasion wrought by the Holy Ghost, which did illuminate the mind, and supple the heart to submit itself unfeignedly to God. Strype's Life *Cranmer, p. 338.
† Hist. Ref. vol. 2. p. 285.
“ They acknowledged the necessity of an inherent righteousness; but that justification and pardon of sins came only by Christ's righteousness imputed to them.
66 They affirmed, that the worship of God ought to be performed in a tongue understood by the people.
“ Thạt Christ only, and not the saints, were to be prayed to.
“That immediately after death departed souls pass either into the state of the blessed, or of the damned, without any purgatory between.
“ That baptism and the Lord's supper are the sacraments of Christ, which ought to be administered according to his institutions; and therefore they condemned the denying the cup to the people, transubstantiation, the adoration or sacrifice of the mass : and asserted the lawfulness of marriage to all ranks and orders of men.”
These truths they declare themselves ready to defend, as before; and in conclusion they charged all people to enter into no rebellion against the queen, but to obey her in all points, except where her commands are contrary to the law of God. This put an end to all farther triumphs of the Popish party for the present, and was a noble testimony to the chief and distinguishing doctrines of the Protestant faith.
But since the reformers were not to be run down by noise and clamour, therefore their steadfastness must undergo the fiery trial.
The queen's third parliament met November 11, 1554. In the writs of summons the title of Supreme Head of the Church was omitted, though it was still by law vested in the crown.. The money brought from Spain had procured a house of commons devoted to the court. The first bill passed in the house was the repeal of cardinal Pole's attainder. It had the royal assent November 22d, and the cardinal himself arrived in England two days after in quality of the pope's legate, with a commission to receive the kingdom of England into the bosom of the Catholic church under the pope as their supreme pastor. On the 27th he made a speech in parliament, inviting them to a reconciliation with the apostolic see. Two days after a committee of lords and commons was appointed to draw up a supplication to the king and queen, to intercede with the legate for a reconciliation ; with a promise to repeal all acts made against the pope's