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of it is too powerful for the control of the summoning Enchanter, nor does it overstep the circle which should keep it from breaking in upon the knowledge that is to guide it. His pathos is too much expanded to be effective, nor is there the forcible simplicity of unstudied language which Nature acknowledges as her own by involuntary approbation and heart-felt pleasure; the Orator is apt to appear where art should be entirely shrouded : hence the secret source of tears seems to have been hidden from Chrysostom, nor is he frequently successful in exciting the gentle, or pleasing, or mournful emotions of the soul ; his march is that of a victorious monarch, splendid in retinue and gorgeous in attire, but amid the whole of the pomp are to be discovered the instru. ments of power and conquest,--under the gold and purple of the robe are seen the panoply of polished proof,—and his dominion is the result of force and not of persuasion.' pp. 99-102.
Of the merits of a Divine whose worth will not be known till an answer be given to the question, Whether a Platonic idea, • hovering to the right on the orifice of Chaos, might drive away 'the squadrons of democratical atoms?' our readers must, we apprehend, remain ignorant; but such a question may serve to shew them the miserable obscurities and the mystic jargon which have been mixed up with Christian theology, and may satisfy them in respect to the character of Synesius as a Platonic divine. Of the turbulent Cyril of Alexandria, to whom the Romish Church is so much indebted for asserting the appropriation of the title, Mother of God,' to the Virgin Mary, a very just account is given by Mr. Clarke (pp. 135—146); and few of those who read it, will be anxious to study the works of a writer who shrouds
with blackness what was before obscure, and inextricably entangles what was perplexed.' In the account of Theodoret,
one of the most eminent of even the most valuable Fathers,' (pp. 154–185,) we find some remarks which every reader of the Fathers and early ecclesiastical historians should understand, and the spirit of which will induce him to reverse many of the judgments pronounced by them. We agree with Mr. Clarke, that it would not be difficult to prove that some of those termed 'heresiarchs were maintainers of pure doctrine, and restorers of • the ancient faith.' We shall extract the two following articles.
• BOETIUS, A.D. 510. Sprung from one of the most illustrious families of Rome, An. Man. Torq. Severin, Boetius was educated according to his rank: for eighteen years he studied at Athens, the university of the Roman world. A. Ď. 487, he was created consul ; he was afterwards raised by Theodoric to be Magister Palatii ; in 510 he again bore the consular office; and in 522 he was constituted consul for the third time. Shortly after this, he fell into suspicion with Theodoric, and there were not wanting accusers to hasten the downfal of a favorite: Gaudentius, Opilio, and Basilius charged him with endeavouring to restore Rome
to its original republican government; the accusation was believed, or at any rate acted on, and Boetius was sent by the king to expiate his virtues in a prison at Pavia, where, after some time had elapsed, he was beheaded by the king's order. Boetius was author of several works on Theology, Philosophy, Science, Logic, with some controversial Works: those only will be here noticed that have reference to the object of this work.
• Against Eutyches and Nestorius.—A Treatise on the two Natures of Christ contained in one Person; it is addressed to John, a deacon of Rome. He enters into deep and subtle distinctions, and calls in the Aristotelian philosophy to help him in his theological distinctions and difficulties.
On the Trinity,--addressed to Symmachus the Consul. A subject too high for human comprehension is here treated in such a way as to render it even more obscure: metaphysical subtleties and nice distinctions perplex a point which ultimately we must credit, not because we can prove it by reasoning, but because it is clearly revealed in the word of Him who cannot lie.
• On the Trinity,-addressed to John the Deacon of Rome, upon this Question, "Whether each Person of the Trinity may be affirmed to be substantially the Divinity."
· The Consolation of Philosophy.-A Treatise written while Boetius was in prison, to console himself under his reverse of fortune: it is written in the form of a Dialogue between him and Philosophy, consisting of prose and different kinds of verse intermingled ; there are five books. The first book contains the complaint and lamentation of Boetius, comparing his former with his present state :-the second represents the assuasions Philosophy affords to a dejected mind, and how wrong it is to blame fortune for the events of life:—the third enters deeper into the cure of a wounded spirit, and, to the overthrow of false happiness, shews that which is true:—the fourth proves that the wicked are always wretched, and the good happy; speaks of Fate and the superintendence of Divine Providence, arguing that nothing happens casually, and that the pains of the righteous and the joys of the unholy are not really such to either :—the fifth speaks of Chance, Free-will, and the agreement of God's Omniscience with the Freeagency of man. It is upon this treatise that Boetius's fame most especially rests: here are none of those perplexing distinctions and scholastic niceties which bewilder the reader by argument, and make him blind with excess of light. Boetius led the way to the introduction of the Aristotelian method of reasoning in controversial Divinity, and few even of his own scholars, the schoolmen, have exceeded or excelled him in the use of it: but in this work there is nothing of the sort ; the style of the prose is perspicuous and good, and that of the poetry is abundant in beauty : it is a work which has stood firmly balanced upon its own excellence till the present time, and will sink in estimation only when taste is extinct, and the perception of philosophic beauty is destroyed. •Boethu Opera, Venet, 1491.
• Boecius, Consol. of Philosoph., translated by Geoff. Chaucer, and printed by Caxton.
· The Boke of Comfort,-called in Laten, Boetius de Consol. Philosoph.; translated into Englesse Tonge: in Verse by John Waltwnem : Enprented in the exempt Monastery of Tavestock, in Denshyre ; by me, Dan Thomas Rychard, Monke of the said Monastery, 4to. 1525. “ Perhaps the scarcest work in the English language.”
by Richard, Lord Viscount Preston, 8vo. Lond. 1695, Sec. Edit. 8vo. Lond. 1712.
by the Rev. Phil. Ridpath, with Notes and Illustr. 8vo. Lond. 1785.'
The Consolation of Philosophy is an Eclectic Treatise, in which the doctrines of the Academics and the Stoics are incorporated; and, in strict accordance with its title, the topics are without reference to the truths of Christianity. Boetius is the last of the writers to whom the appellation of ancient is given. The following article should have had a place in the enumeration of editions. Boethi Consolationis Philosophiæ Lib. I. AngloSaxonice redditi ab Alfredo Anglo-Saxonum Rege, edidit Rawlinson, 8vo. Oxon. 1698.
ALDHELMUS, A.D. 680. • After visiting Italy, where he cultivated his taste for literature, Aldhelmus returned to England, and was made Abbot of Malmsbury, and afterwards Bishop of Salisbury: he died A.D. 702, with a high character among his contemporaries for theological and human learning. Of his writings there are extant, a book
* In Praise of Virginity,—in prose, consisting of thirty chapters : the state of Virginity is praised in general, and very many examples given of celebrated men and women who lived in a state of celibacy ; their praises are recorded, and some particulars of their lives mentioned.—The style of this work is affectedly ornamented, and, from the use of barbarous terms and words in forced meanings, it is at once known as the production of an age when the old models were indeed known, but the taste was so vitiated as either to neglect or to strive to excel them! From the 29th chapter we find that this prose work preceded the following one in verse, for he there says, that he shall, if life be spared, treat upon the same subject in poetry ; which intention afterwards produced the following.- Biblioth. Patr. vol. iii. p. 275.
• The Praise of Virgins.—There is a singular poetical Preface, addressed to the Abbess Maxima, in hexameter verse; the initial and terminal letters of the lines of the Preface are each an acrostic of the first line, and the last line is the first repeated backward, so that the four sides of the Poem, as they are read backward or forward, or up or down, still present the commencing line of the Preface, which is,
• Metrica tirones nunc promant carmina castos. • The two following lines are instances of the same words being presented, whether read forward or backward,
VOL. IX.- N.S.
Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor.
Sole medere pede, ede, perede melos. And the following three-fold Acrostic on the word Jesus is an instance of a similar facility of conceit,
I-nter cuncta micans I-gniti sidera cæl-I,
• The Poem in praise of Virgins is the same as the prose
work; it partakes of the same defects, with the addition of metrical errors:
On the Eight principal l'ices.-Of the evils that they are authors of, he gives instances, and in four hexameters represents the calamities they produce. These two works are given by Canisius, Lect. Antiq. vol. i. p. 713.
Problems,-in verse, amounting to about 1000 lines.'
Aldhelmus was bishop of Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, not of Salisbury, which was not erected into a see till many ages after his death.
Art. VII.-1. The Canadas as they now are. Comprehending a
View of their Climate, Rivers, Lakes, Canals, Government, Laws, Taxes, Towns, Trade, &c. ; with a Description of the Soil and Advantages or Disadvantages of every Township in each Province: derived from the Reports of the Inspectors made to the Justices at Quarter Sessions, and from other authentic Sources, assisted by local knowledge. With a Map, shewing the Position of cach Township. By a late Resident. 12mo. pp. xv. 116.
Price 4s. 6d. London, 1833. 2. Statistical Sketches of Upper Canada, for the Use of Emigrants.
By a Backwoodsman. 12mo. pp. 120. Price ls. 6d. London,
1832. 3. Practical Notes made during a Tour in Canada, and a Portion of
the United States, in MDCCCXXXI. By Adam Fergusson, of Woodhill, Advocate. Dedicated, by Permission, to the Highland
Society of Scotland. 12mo. pp. xvi. 380. Edinburgh, 1833. 4. Manual for Emigrants. By Calvin Colton, A.M., of America.
18mo. pp. 203. Price 2s. 6d. London, 1832. A NEW Scotland is fast growing up at the back of New Eng
land and New York. The gulf-stream of emigration, running strong from the Frith of Clyde towards the shores of Lake Huron and Lake Erie, is bearing on its current the 'failing farmers and webless weavers' of the old country, to turn forests into corn-fields, and plant towns in the wilderness, and spread the English language and the British race, in the heart of the Red man's country, far, far away. And yet, thanks to that wonderful and wonder-working thing which our grandfathers and grandmothers, like their ancestors, were in the habit of seeing escape from their tea-kettles without dreaming that it could be of any earthly use,--thanks to the triumphs of steam, the great magician, of whom, when we were young, we read in the Arabian Nights, how he was shut up in a little casket, from which when he escaped, he towered up to the heavens, little imagining that the legend prefigured or predicted a discovery which converts it into fact,- thanks to steam, Canada is not so very far off and out of the world as we have been accustomed to consider it. Half the distance between the two continents has been annihilated. For so admirably provided by nature is North America with the means of internal navigation, so marvellously intersected with water-ways which seem made on purpose for steamers, that a backwoodsman may step on board off his own estate at Goderich on the banks of Lake Huron, 1500 miles from the ocean, and, without setting his foot on land, run across the great water to take a peep at old friends at Greenock. And the very idea that he can accomplish this, tends to reconcile him to the distant separation.
• If any man', says the lively Writer of the Statistical Sketches, • will only take the trouble to cast his eye over a map of the province, he will perceive that no country under heaven was ever so completely adapted for internal navigation. He will then see the line of the St. Lawrence and the lakes; the line from the bay of Quinté to Lake Simcoe, and that from the foot of Lake Ontario to the Ottawa, by the Cataraqui and Rideau Canal; from the Lake of the Thousand Islands to the Ottawa by the Petite Nation; from Lake Huron to the Ottawa by the double line of Lake Simcoe and Lake Nippissing; and the numerous tributaries of all these, which very little expense would render navigable ;—so that were Mr. Brindley to rise from the dead, he would boldly pronounce that Nature intended all these as feeders to canals, to intersect the country in every possible direction.'
Stat. Sketches, p.
58. Speaking of the Canada Company's Huron tract, which appears to be at presen tthe favourite part of the province, and is even attracting some of the steady Dutch settlers from their old farms in other quarters,--Mr. Dunlop says:
• It has been objected by some, that this tract of country is out of the world. But no place can be considered in this light, to which a steamboat can come ; and on this continent, if you find a tract of good land, and open it for sale, the world will very soon come to you. Sixteen