« ForrigeFortsett »
'Boecius, Consol. of Philosoph., translated by Geoff. Chaucer, and printed by Caxton.
'The Bake of Comfort, - called in Laten, Boelius de Consol. Philosoph.; translated into Englesse Tonge: in Verse by John Waltwnem: Enprented in the exempt Monastery of Tavestock, in Denshyre; by me, Dan Thomas Rycliard, Monke of the said Monastery, 4to. 1525". "Perhaps the scarcest work in the English language."
by Richard, Lord Viscount Preston, 8vo.
Lond. 1695, Sec. Edit. 8vo. Lond. 1712.
by the Rev. Phil. Ridpath, with Notes and
Illustr. 8vo. Lond. 1785.'
The Consolation of Philosophy is an Eclectic Treatise, in which the doctrines of the Academics and the Stoics are incorporated; and, in strict accordance with its title, the topics are without reference to the truths of Christianity. Boetius is the last of the writers to whom the appellation of ancient is given. The following article should have had a place in the enumeration of editions. Boethii Consolationis Philosophise Lib. V. AngloSaxonjce redditi ab Alfredo Anglo-Saxonum Rege, edidit Rawlinson, 8vo. Oxon. 1698.
'ALDHELMUS, A.d. 680.
'After visiting Italy, where he cultivated his taste for literature, Aldhelmus returned to England, and was made Abbot of Malmsbury, and afterwards Bishop of Salisbury: he died A.d. 702, with a high character among his contemporaries for theological and human learning. Of his writings there are extant, a book—
'In Praise of Virginity,—in prose, consisting of thirty chapters: the state of Virginity is praised in general, and very many examples given of celebrated men and women who lived in a state of celibacy; their praises are recorded, and some particulars of their lives mentioned.—The style of this work is affectedly ornamented, and, from the use of barbarous terms and words in forced meanings, it is at once known as the production of an age when the old models were indeed known, but the taste was so vitiated as either to neglect or to strive to excel them! From the 29th chapter we find that this prose work preceded the following one in verse, for he there says, that he shall, if life be spared, treat upon the same subject in poetry; which intention afterwards produced the following.— Biblioth. Pair. vol. iii. p. 275.
'The Praise of Virgins.—There is a singular poetical Preface, addressed to the Abbess Maxima, in hexameter verse; the initial and terminal letters of the lines of the Preface are each an acrostic of the first line, and the last line is the first repeated backward, so that the four sides of the Poem, as they are read backward or forward, or up or down, still present the commencing line of the Preface, which is,
'Metrica drones mine promant carmina castos. 'The two following lines are instances of the same words being presented, whether read forward or backward,
vOL. IX.— U.s. T T
Roma iibi subito motibus ibit amor. .
And the following three-fold Acrostic on the word Jesus is an instance of a similar facility of conceit,
I-nter cuncta micans I-gniti sidera ccel-I,
J-oy beaming Phoebus, mid the orbs on high,
H. S. BOYD.
'The Poem in praise of Virgins is the same as the prose work; it partakes of the same defects, with the addition of metrical errors:
'On Ike Eight principal Vices.—Of the evils that they are authors of, he gives instances, and in four hexameters represents the calamities they produce.—These two works are given by Canisius, Lect. Antiq. vol. i. p. 713.
'Problems,—in verse, amounting to about 1000 lines.'
Aldhelmus was bishop of Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, not of Salisbury, which was not erected into a see till many ages after his death.
Art. VII.—1. The Canadas as they now are. Comprehending a View of their Climate, Rivers, Lakes, Canals, Government, Laws, Taxes, Towns, Trade, &c.; with a Description of the Soil and Advantages or Disadvantages of every Township in each Province: derived from the Reports of the Inspectors made to the Justices at Quarter Sessions, and from other authentic Sources, assisted by local knowledge. With a Map, shewing the Position of each Township. By a late Resident. 12mo. pp. xv. llrj. Price As. 6d. London, 1833.
2. Statistical Sketches of Upper Canada, for the Use of Emigrants. By a Backwoodsman. 12mo. pp. 120. Price If. 6d. London, 1832.
3. Practical Notes made during a Tour in Canada, and a Portion of the United States, in MDCCCXXXT. By Adam Fergusson, of Woodhill, Advocate. Dedicated, by Permission, to the Highland Society of Scotland. 12mo. pp. xvi. 380. Edinburgh, 1833.
4. Manual for Emigrants. By Calvin Colton, A.M., of America.
18mo. pp. 203. Price 2*. rjrf. London, 1832.
A NEW Scotland is fast growing up at the back of New England and New York. The gulf-stream of emigration, runrung strong from the Frith of Clyde towards the shores of Lake Huron and Lake Erie, is bearing on its current the 'failing farmers and webless weavers' of the old country, to turn forests into corn-fields, and plant towns in the wilderness, and spread the English language and the British race, in the heart of the Red nun's country, far, far away. And yet, thanks to that wonderful and wonder-working thing which our grandfathers and grandmothers, like their ancestors, were in the habit of seeing escape from their tea-kettles without dreaming that it could be of any earthly use,—thanks to the triumphs of steam, the great magician, of whom, when we were young, we read in the Arabian Nights, how he was shut up in a little casket, from which when he escaped, he towered up to the heavens, little imagining that the legend prefigured or predicted a discovery which converts it into fact,—thanks to steam, Canada is not so very far off and out of the world as we have been accustomed to consider it. Half the distance between the two continents has been annihilated. For so admirably provided by nature is North America with the means of internal navigation, so marvellously intersected with water-ways which seem made on purpose for steamers, that a backwoodsman may step on board off his own estate at Goderich on the banks of Lake Huron, 1500 miles from the ocean, and, without setting his foot on land, run across the great water to take a peep at old friends at Greenock. And the very idea that he can accomplish this, tends to reconcile him to the distant separation.
'If any man', says the lively Writer of the Statistical Sketches, 'will only take the trouble to cast his eye over a map of the province, he will perceive that no country under heaven was ever so completely adapted for internal navigation. He will then see the line of the St. Lawrence and the lakes; the line from the bay of Quinte to Lake Simcoe, and that from the foot of Lake Ontario to the Ottawa, bv the Cataraqui and Rideau Canal; from the Lake of the Thousand Islands to the Ottawa by the Petite Nation; from Lake Huron to the Ottawa by the double line of Lake Simcoe and Lake Nippissing; and the numerous tributaries of all these, which very little expense would render navigable;—so that were Mr. Brindley to rise from the dead, he would boldly pronounce that Nature intended all these as feeders to canals, to intersect the country in every possible direction.'
Stal. Sketches, p. 58.
Speaking of the Canada Company's Huron tract, which appears to be at presen tthe favourite part of the province, and is even attracting some of the steady Dutch settlers from their old farms in other quarters,—Mr. Dunlop says:
'It has been objected by some, that this tract of country is out of the morld. But no .place can be considered in this light, to which a steamboat can come ; and on this continent, if you find a tract of good land, and open it for sale, the world will very soon come to you. Sixteen years ago, the town of Rochester consisted of a tavern and a blacksmith's shop: it is now a town containing upwards of 16,000 inhabitants. The first time the Huron tract was ever trod by the foot of a white man, was in the summer of 1827 ; next summer a road was commenced ; and that winter and in the ensuing spring of 1829, a few individuals made a lodgement. Now it contains upwards of GOO inhabitants, with taverns, shops, stores, grist and saw-mills, and every kind of convenience that a new settler can require. And if the tide of emigration continues to set in as strongly as it has done, in ten years from this date, it may be as thickly settled as any part of America; for Goderich has water-powers quite equal to Rochester; and the surrounding country possesses much superior soil.' .Slut. Sketches, pp. 25, 26.
Who should go to Canada?—Not the man who can afford to live in Great Britain, however he may fret against taxes and poor's rates, and quarrel with a Whig government. A man sometimes quarrels with those he loves, and when they are away, is miserable at having only himself to quarrel with. No man of fortune, our Backwoodsman honestly says, ought to go to Canada. 'It is emphatically the poor mans country, but it would be dif'ficult to make it the country of the rich.'
'It is a good country for a poor man to acquire a living in, or for a man of small fortune to economise and provide for his family; but I can conceive no possibility of its becoming for centuries to come a fitting stage for the heroes or heroines of the fashionable novels of Mr. BuTwer or young D'Israeli.' Ib. p. 10.
Not persons addicted to the romantic. The most romantic thing in the new-cleared wilderness is the fire-fly; but who, except a fire-fly, can feel romantic in the midst of moskitoes? To a person leaving the old country, it might be tendered as a wholesome piece of advice, to be sure to leave one thing behind him,— imagination. To all emigrants tinctured with romance, Mr. Colton addresses the following wholesome admonition, intended primarily for those who contemplate settling in the United States, but applicable as well to those who wish to prosper any where.
'And, first, he would earnestly advise all persons, who think of going to America, to eject thoroughly from their minds and hearts all romantic expectations. The motives which induce emigration to America, are various with different individuals; but in all, there are strong tendencies to the indulgence of extravagant hopes. Some, who have felt oppressed with the unequal conditions of .European society, and who, perhaps, have been dissatisfied with the Government of their native country, go to the United States, under the impression, that what is called Republican liberty and equality will elevate them at once to rank and importance— or to a common level and fellowship with the best men in the community. And some, perhaps, imagine, that Republican liberty is—that every man may do as he pleases; in other words, that it in licentiousness. It is due to all Buch persons, and to American society, that they should be informed—that law is as necessary in the United States, as in any other country, and that it is emphatically the guardian of right;—and that every citizen must be contented with that place in society, which his personal merits and qualifications naturally award to him. If a man is not willing to bean honest and sober member of community on these terms, and if he is not resolved to consecrate his energies to some useful and honourable pursuit, such as he is (it for, he can neither be welcomed in the United States, nor can he have any warrant, that his condition there will be comfortable to himself. All such characters may better conceal themselves in the dark retreats of a dense and crowded population of an European city. Let them by all means stay where their unlawful desires nave been begotten. Tftiey will only throw themselves into the light of day, and the sooner meet with their deserved doom, by going to America.
'Some expect, by going to America, to live without care and without labour,—that riches will come pouring into their lap and be forced upon them, without any pains of their own. But the primitive infliction for human apostacy:—" In the sweat of thy brow shall thou eat thy bread "—is not so easily avoided. Until the garden of Eden, with all its innocence and virtue, can be recovered, exemption from this curse must not be expected. America is a good country—good enough to satisfy any reasonable expectations—but it is not a Paradise. American society has a good degree of simplicity and purity. But it wants no importation of worse materials. Patient industry is the source of all its prosperity, and virtue the crowning glory of the community. And he who is not willing to be sober and industrious, must not expect to rise, —he is doomed to sink in the United States.
* Many are the worthy and respectable meiT, says Mr. Fergusson, 'who may certainly better their condition by a removal to 'Canada.'
'At the same time, it is a serious step, not to be lightly adopted' and which, above all, they should remember, cannot, with safety, consistency, or credit, be retraced. In Canada, the settler will become proprietor in fee simple of lands, at a rate per acre which would scarcely pay half of his yearly rent at home: but this is only to be effected at a sacrifice of early ties and connexions, and by a cheerful submission to many privations and hotheral'wns, which will require a steady and cheerful temper to surmount.' Ferguston, p. 1(50.
Who then are to go to Canada?' In the first place ', says Mr. Dunlop, ' all who cannot comfortably support themselves by 'their labour at home.
'Because, let a man be ever so poor in this country, his wages as a labourer will more than support his family;—and if he be prudent and sober, he may in a short time save money enough to purchase for himself a farm ;—and if he has a family, so much the better, as children are the best slock a farmer can possess, the labour of a child seven years'