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old being considered worth his maintenance and education, and th* wages of a boy of twelve or fourteen years of age being higher thai: those of a stout and skilful ploughman in most parts of Great Britain generally from three to four dollars a month, with bed, board, and washing besides. At home they talk of " a poor man with a 1arlre family ;" but such a phrase in Canada would be a contradiction of terms; for a man here who has a large family must, undtr ord na -y circumstances, soon cease to be a poor man.
'Mechanics and artizans of almost all descriptions,—millwrights, blacksmiths, carpenters, masons, bricklayers, tailors, shoemakers, tanners, millers, and all the ordinary trades that are required in an agricultural and partially ship owning and commercial country, will do well to come to Canada. Weavers have but little to expect in the way ".t their trade, though such of them as are employed in customer-work can make from ten to twelve shillings a day; hut they soon make gond farmers. A friend of mine asserts, that they make (teller fanners fur this country than agricultural labourers; alleging as a cause, that a* they have no prejudices to overcome, they get at once into the customs of the country as copied from their neighbours, and being in the habit of thinking, improve on thorn. But my friend is from Paislev, and. consequently, prejudiced in favour of weavers. However, there is no denying that the weavers from Renfrew and Lanark shires in tbiBathurst district, are very good and very prosperous settlers, and thit the linen weavers from the north of Ireland make the best choppers, native or imported, in the province, as they, to a man, can chop with either hand forward, and by changing their hand they relieve themselves and obtain a rest. This ambi-dexterousness is ascribed by their countrymen, how justly I know not, to their habit of using both hands equally in throwing the shuttle.
'Of these trades, the blacksmith, tailor, shoemaker, and tanner, arc the beat. If there were in nature (which is doubtful) such a being u a sober blacksmith, he might make a fortune.
'One exception there is, however, in the case of mechanics. Firstrate London workmen will not receive such high wages, either positively or relatively, as they would at home,—for this reason, that thenare few on this continent who either require or can afford work of the very first order, and those that do, send to London for it.
'Farmers and tradesmen of small capital will find in Canada a good investment. A fanner who commences with some money, say 250/.. onght, in the course of five or six years, to have all his capital in'moner, and a good well-cleared and well-stocked farm into the bargain, with the requisite dwelling-house and out-buildings on it, besides having supported his family in the meantime.
'Unless a man of large capital, by which term in this country I mean about 5000/., has a large family, he had better lend the surplus on mortgage at six per cent., than invest it in business, except he means to become a wholesale storekeeper in one of the towns. If ht attempts to set up a mill, a distillery, a tannerv, a fulling and saw mill, and a store, as is often found to be profitable from the one trade plaving into the hands of the other, and if he has not sons capable of looking after the different branches, he must entrust the care of them to clerks and servants. But these are not to be had ready-made:—he xnust, therefore, take a set'of unlicked cubs, and teach them their business; and when that is fairly done, it is ten to one but, having become acquainted with his business and his customers, they find means to set up an opposition, and take effectually the wind out of their former patron's sails. Where, however, a man has a large family of sons, he can wield a large capital in business, and to very good purpose too.' pp. 6-9.
Supposing a man to have made up his mind to emigrate to America, the question will arise, whether to go to Canada or the United States. Mr. Dunlop thinks Canada preferable, for the following reasons.
'It is to many who happen to have consciences, no light matter, to forswear their allegiance to their king, and declare that they are willing to take up arms against their native country at the call of the country of their adoption; and unless they do so, they must remain aliens for ever; nay, even if they do manage to swallow such an oath, it is seven years before their apostacy is rewarded by the right of citizenship. In landing in his Majesty s dominions, they carry with them their rights of subjects, and immediately on becoming 40s. freeholders, have the right of voting for a representative.
'The markets of Canada for farm produce are and must be better than those of the United States; for Canadian corn is admitted into both British and West Indian ports on much more advantageous terms than foreign grain, and the taxes on articles required for the consumpt of the inhabitants are not one-twelfth so great in Canada as in the United States. Thus, all British goods pay at Quebec only 2£ per cent. ad valorem, whilst at any American port they pay from 33| to 60 per cent.
'Very erroneous notions are current in England, with regard to the taxation of the United States. The truth is, that though America is lightly taxed in comparison with England, it is by no means to be considered so when compared to most of the continental nations. The account usually rendered of American taxation is fallacious. It is stated, that something under six millions sterling, or about 10*. per head on an average, pays the whole army, navy, civil list, and interest of debt of the United States, while we require fifty millions, or nearly 21. 10*. each, for the same purpose. But the fact is, that that sum is only about half what the Americans pay in reality; for each individual state has its own civil list,'and all the machinery of a government to support; and insignificant as the expenses of that government appear in detail, yet the aggregate is of very serious importance. For instance, there are five times as many judges in the state of New York alone as in Great Britain and Ireland; and though each individual of these were to receive no more than we would pay a macer of the court, yet when there comes to be two or three hundred of them, it becomes a serious matter; nor does it make any difference, in fact, whether they are paid out of the exchequer of the state, or by the fees of the suitors in their courts; they are equally paid by a tax on the people in either case.
'Although the necessaries of life are cheap in America, and equally cheap in Canada, the luxuries of life are higher by several hundred per cent. in the one country than the other. Thus, wine in the United States is so highly taxed, that in a tavern at New York you pay more for a bottle of Madeira than in one at London, viz. five dollars,—and fifteen shillings for port.
'In Canada, we have stumbled by accident, or had thrust upon u= by some means or other, what may be considered the great desideratum in financial science, viz. the means of creating a large revenue with i light taxation. This arises from three causes: first, that we derive a very large sum annually from lands the property of the crown, which are sold to the Canada company, and from timber cut on crown lands, &c.; second, that we derive a revenue from public works, which have been constructed at the expense of the province, and which are in s fair way of yielding a much greater return than the interest of the money expended on them, and from .shares in the bank of Upper Canada, of which the government took a fourth of the stock; and, thirdly, because we make our neighbours, the good people of the United States, pay a little of our taxes, and shall, with the blessing of God, if they keep on their tariff, make them pay a pretty penny more.' pp. 113—115.
Mr. Dunlop's little Tract will be found highly amusing as well as full of information. His remarks upon the Lumber Trade, (» subject which we cannot here enter upon,) will, we hope, obtain due attention in influential quarters. We have been so much delighted with his strong sense and bonhommie, that we regret to be obliged to reprobate some of his remarks in the chapter * on religious sects,' as alike injurious and uncalled for. Of Mr. Ryerson, whom he has dragged before the British public as a preacher of sedition, a hypocrite, and a knave, we personally know nothing; but, judging from the uncandid and ungentlemanly manner in which Peter Jones is spoken of, we should not be led to attach much credit or weight to the representation given of the former individual; and the spirit of the whole attack upon the Methodists, savours too much of cither personal resentment or party hostility. The fact is, we believe, that Peter Jones came to this country charged with some political mission from the Indian tribe to which, through his mother, he belongs; and that he had communication with his Majesty's Government in this capacity. His personal respectability is, therefore, as unquestionable as his piety. To the British and Foreign Bible Society, he rendered important service, by assisting in the revision of a version of pert of the Scriptures into the Algonquin or Chippewa language During his stay in this country, he preached repeatedly, and attended many of the meetings of our religious societies, where, possibly, by the vulgar, he might be regarded as a mere raree-shew, like the Emperors, or Riho Riho, or any other lion of the day. But this was not the light in which he would be regarded by any ir.telligent man who has heard him speak or conversed with him. No man could be more free from pretence, and for deception there was no room. Mr. Dunlop has been imposed upon by misinformation of, we suspect, a malignant character.
'The Canadas as they are,' is a less amusing or readable book, but contains a very careful digest of that minute matter of fact information, topographical and statistical, of which an emigrant stands in more especial need; distinctly arranged, and apparently without any colouring. We transcribe the following cautionary hint from the Advertisement.
'Not that it is intended to deny to the Canada Land Company or tlieir servants their due meed of praise;—and they are entitled to a considerable share;—but if a personal friend, with 2001. or 3007. or more, were to ask the Author, if he would advise him to settle at Onclph or Goderich, he would reply: Certainly not at the latter, nor at the former, unless you are too indolent to look for a more eligible spot, plenty of which are to be found with a little trouble and the exercise of discrimination.'
Mr. Fergusson's Practical Notes comprise the narrative of a Tour through part of the State of New York, and the Canadas, together with a Statistical Report addressed to the Directors of the Highland Society. In an Appendix is given, with other miscellaneous matter, an American puff of the Michigan territory, which is at present' quite the rage' among the land speculators of Yankee-land, having, in a great degree, supplanted Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana. Michigan, which is better watered than any other part of the United States, resembles in its general character the peninsular portion of Upper Canada, upon which it borders. The influx of emigrants to this territory from the western part of New York, New England, and even Ohio, is said to be remarkable. Seven steam-vessels ply from Buffalo to Detroit, the decks of which swarm every day with volunteer settlers and speculators. 'With all their love of country,' Mr. Fergusson remarks, 'it appears somewhat anomalous, that wheresoever the * bump of adhesiveness may be found, in vain will the disciples 'of Spurzheim search for it upon the cranium of an American.'
'However valuable, however beautiful may be his estate, however endeared as the scene of youthful enjoyment, or of the more sober avocations of maturer years, let but a tempting offer present itself, and he yields it without a sigh.' p. 225.
Mr. Fergusson finds it difficult to analyze this peculiarity, and is disposed to think it may in some measure be ascribed to the absence of the rights of primogeniture, which bind us to our paternal acres! What is it that binds the hardy mountaineer to his bleak homestead, who knows nothing of any such rights? It
Yol. ix.—N.s. u u
would be more reasonable to look for its source in the spirit of commercial enterprise, the wide range of mercantile adventurethe constant familiarity with the map, the national passion for geographical extension, and, perhaps, a dash of the Indian blood, or an Indian spirit caught from the natural features of the country. The American delights in locomotion, and the steam-boat is adapted to gratify this propensity to the utmost perfection. But where every thing is in motion and in transition, the home-feeling cannot take root. All is diffusion, and nothing is concentrated.
Mr. Colton's Manual may be recommended as containing much sound advice to those for whom the valley of the Mississippi ha> sufficiently strong attractions to induce them to plunge so far into the ttlte of the future.
Art. VIII. The Sin fulness of Colonial Slavery. A Lecture delivered at the Monthly Meeting of Congrcrjational Ministers and Churches, Feb. 7, 1833. By Robert Halley. 8vo. pp. 28. London, 1833.
VVTE rejoice to believe that the time is very near at hand, when England, in purifying herself from the national crime, shall deliver her colonies from the political evil,—the cost, and burdenand moral blight, and judicial curse of slavery. The impolicy of the present system may be proved, and has been proved again and again, by facts and figures, by calculations of profit and loss, by the past and present state of the colonies, and by the eternal complaints of the ever-injured planters. But there is one short way of proving the same thing, which, if not the most convincing line of argument to merchants and politicians, comes most directly home to the bosoms of all who acknowledge the paramount obligations of Christian morality. If it be criminal, it must be impolitic. Under the moral government of the Itighteous Judge, it cannot be, that what is sinfu! should ultimately be advantageous or even profitable to communities. The laws of national morality are guarded by penal sanctions consisting in temporal consequences. Nations are punished as nations in this world, for to them there is no future state. The recognition of this momentous practical truth, we deem not less important than the acknowledgment that slavery is a national crime. We are anxious, not merely that slavery should be abolished, through the slowly fonned conviction that it is fraught with political danger, or that it bus ceased to be profitable, but that it should be abolished in the character of a crime and a wrong. We could almost have wished that it might have had the merit of a national sacrifice, instead of being the riddance of a national burden. To no tax or