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tery, and of the Presbytery on the Pa- a spirit of reform has been excited, tron, and of the inefficiency of any spe. which will not be repressed,-a spark cies of eating in procuring an encrease has been struck out by collision, of appetites. Then, too, the scarce, which may not be extinguished : ly less eloquent and erudite Burns “ Dumus ardet, nec tamen consumi. of Paisley may crown the work tur ;" and wo be unto him who shall with the authority of Scripture” endeavour to extinguish the flame ! and the “ statutes of the Church.” I remember a device upon a LuAnd the candid and amiable Mr theran Bible, which is, in some de. Smyth may acknowledge, without gree, figurative of the sentiment I any risk of injury to the Principal's wish to convey. A candle, newly cause, his disposition to support Dr lighted, is placed upon a table, at MacFarlane's presentation, together which the Devil, the Pope, and his with those conscientious scruples, Cardinals, are seated, each blowing which, put in the opposite , balance, with all his might in order to extinserve to outweigh this favourable guish it ; but, from the oblique and disposition. These, I say, together indirect manner in which their breath with the Taylors, and Lesslies, and is emitted, it is evident that it falls Gibbs, and Lockharts, and Rankins, reciprocally upon the blowers themof the other side, may, on such an selves rather than upon the luminaemergency, all unite, in one harmo. ted object of their antipathy. Over nious effort, in carrying into effect the whole device, a label is floated this most desirable object.

thus : I have already stated, that there are two things, after the dismissal of Principal MacFarlane's case, which will probably occupy the attention of, and occasion some discussion in, the next Assembly. To leave the law and the practice in a state of

Blow ? inconsistency with each other, as they seem hitherto to have been, is mani. festly inexpedient; and accordingly - The candle,” then, which our forethe debate will not unlikely turn fathers, in spite of the Devil, the upon the alternative of a partial, or Pope, and the Cardinals, contrived, of a total and unlimited abolition, in at the expence of burning their fin. future, of all clerical pluralities what- gers, and even of singeing their beards, ever. Against a partial abolition it to light, and which has been transmay be plausibly urged, that, so mitted to us, as “a lamp to our feet long as one single exception is made, and a light to our path!”--that candle the spirit of the Constitution has not let us preserve, unextinguished, from been carried into full operation. And age to age. And if, occasionally, it against an unlimited abolition, it may require a little trimming, let may likewise be stated, on the other us do the thing gracefully, and withhand, that, in some instances, the out throwing the snuff in any budy's Professorships are so poor, that with. eyes. Old and established law,_the out the addition of a church benefice, spirit and character of our nationor some such accession of income, no al church, together with that exindividual properly qualified will be pediency which originates in an found to undertake the duties and the undivided application of time, taresponsibility of the office. To this, lents, and acquirements, to the faithhowever, it may be answered, Let ful discharge of the most sacred and Government be applied to, and the important duties which were ever same liberal and enlightened policy, devolved upon man,-all these rea.. which has placed all the incumbents sons seem to concur in demanding of the Scottish Church upon a com- of our Church an immediate and paratively independent establish- unreserved abolition of all pluralities ment, will not, assuredly, hesitate in whatever. By following out the doing as much by our national and law of residence, and by insisting venerable Universities.

upon every parish, according to the My own decided opinion is, that Act of Parliament, being possessed

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of “its ain Minister," the General rit prevailed,--that questions which Assembly of the Church of Scot- coine before it were uniformly deland will do herself immortal cre- cided, not according to the previous dit, in the eyes both of rulers and arrangements of orators, however people, and will clearly evince, that distinguished, or of leaders, howno motives of selfishness, or indi. ever far-sighted and sound in their vidual interests, can have any in- political creeds—but, that Ministers fluence with her whatever, when the of the Church of Scotland, under paramount and vital interests of re- a recollection of her past celebrity, ligion and duty are under considera- and in reference to her future pro. tion.

sperity, uniformly and sternly.voted At a period too, when the State has in consistency with their own indi. set so honourable and so praiseworthy vidual apprehension of the merits of an example of every species of re. the case before them! I am far, trenchment, where offices purely, or Sir, even from insinuuting improper nearly sinecure, were conceruied,-at motives or conduct in the General a time when the number of expec- Assembly, or in any party or indi. tants for Church-preferment is in- vidual thereof; but the trammels of creased beyond all former precedent, habit are strong; and men, unac--and at a crisis when licentiousness customed to think, in matters of leand immorality, the natural conse- gislation, for themselves, are, from quence of peace, and of a reduction mere indolence, as well as from a of our military and naval establish- confidence in others, apt to give up inents, in particular, are felt to be all self-management. My wish and on the increase, it becomes the im- prayer is, that “ every member may perious duty of the Church of Scot, do his duty," and then pluralities land to bring, into full and unequi- shall soon become only a matter of vocal agency, all her wisdom, and all historical record. her zeal, and all her efficiency, not

FRATER. to diminish, by a single unit or degree, that amount of influence and exertion of which she is possessed, Song-To Mary. and which she is now so loudly called upon to put forti). This is not, in

AND canst thou then believe that I fact, a party measure, and God for

Could e'er prove false to thee, Mary? bid that it should ever become so !

Stars may desert the midnight sky, It will be taken up, it is to be hoped,

And birds the shady tree, Mary ;

But by the glance of that soft eye, and triumphantly carried into exe

And by that gentle bosom's sigh, cution, by that independent and in- Thou'lt ne'er know change in me, Mary! termediate body of men*, who scorn to belong to any party, and who think Oh! some may seek for wealth and pow'r, it neither inconsistent with their And some for fickle fame, Mary ; duty nor their character to occupy But I'd resign for one short hour either sides of the House, as their And he who likes may blame, Mary own consciences or convenience may For one short hour in yonder bower, dictate. Would to God, Sir, that, A monarch's throne, a kingdom's dower, in an Assembly convened together Or hero's glorious name, Mary. for the purpose of providing for the

Soft cradled in thy fond embrace, spiritual good and edification of a

Does not my soul beat high, Mary ? whole nation-in an Assembly which whole nation in an Assembly wmica

she

Show me on earth a fitter place meets, deliberates, and dissolves un- For raptur'd bliss to lie, Mary ;-der the most solemn and impressive Be't mine, when clos'd my mortal race, appeals to Almighty God, that, in To gaze on every nameless grace, a meeting, I say, of this character, To match the Eden of thy face, more moderation and less party-spi- And, heav'n before me, die, Mary!

• Verbum sat. Amicus mihi, Dr J.-amicus mihi, Dr T. sed magis amica veri. tas. A third party in the Assembly would render the other two more moderate !

SOUTH AMERICA.

Iy looking at the present state of civil war, and will have full leisure Europe, degraded as it is under the to complete all those great improvethraldom of the Holy Alliance, there ments which were begun even under is little to cheer or to comfort. We the pressure of severe domestic diffisee the principle of force completely culties. We understand that the triumphant, freedom every where Congress of Colombia, which has met by the sword, and its friends held regular sittings, during all the persecuted, as if they were the ene- late struggle, has already carried inmies, and not the friends of the hu to effect many important reforms. man race. Nor have they any asy, Schools have been every where establum to which they can fly from lished—the liberty of the press has their oppressors, except Great Bri- been secured-pewspapers have been tain or the United States ; so that multiplied-and every expedient for Continental Europe somewhat resem- disseminating knowledge has been bles the Roman Empire, under some eagerly adopted. In all the different of its ancient tyrants, when it was parts of this vast continent, Repredescribed by the historian as a large sentative Governments have been prison, in which there was no escape established ; and the leading men, no from the imperial frown. Naples, doubt, duly consider, that, to give as we saw, was the scene of a short effect to those free and popular insti. struggle for liberty. But its fall was tutions, it is necessary to have an ima nothing more than what was to be ex- proved people, and they are therepected, before the powerful attack of fore extremely anxious to train the Austria. It was in the poor and con- inhabitants to the new duties which temptible figure made by Spain that they are now called upon to practise. the friends of freedom were disap But the advantages of all these impointed. A highly defensible coun. provements will redound, not merely try, with a numerous population, and to the countries themselves, but to a popular Government, fell back the world at large. Growing in rewithout a struggle, under the do- sources both moral and physical, in minion of priests and monks, from wealth, population, and industry, whose yoke it had been emancipated, those countries will afford a great and and now lies like a log on the water, beneficial outlet to the commerce and helpless and degraded,-a victim in manufactures of Europe. To Britain, the toils of despotism, there to re- more especially, their intercourse will main until a new and brighter era be extremely beneficial. In the predawn upon Europe.

sent state of our industry, with sueh We turn, then, from those boasted an overflowing capital, with such regions of improvement, where Free- skill in every branch of ingenious dom is forced to hide her diminished industry, and with such amazing head, to the New World, where a powers of machinery, all that we new and interesting scene of improve want is a sufficient market for those ment begins to open. There we see productions which we cannot use at the cause of freedom flourishing and home ; and this is precisely what a making progress. The brave and free trade to South America will give patriotic inhabitants, after a severe us. In most of these countries, instruggle, have nearly triumphed over dustry has made but little progress ; the mercenary hordes that were sent there may be coarse manufactures of out to reduce them ander the yoke cotton, of wool, and of various other of Old Spain. In Colombia, a vast necessary articles ; but the traders of country, which includes the kingdom those comparatively infant countries of New Granada, the Caraccas, and could not, for a moment, withstand Quito, they have just been expelled the competition of British industry from Porto Cabello, their last strong and skill. There is great scope here, hold; so that this vast country, which therefore, for an extension of our has long been, de facto, independent, commerce, not only to our own great and has exercised all the powers of benefit, but fully as much to the besovereignty, is now at last freed from nefit of those South American coun

VOL. XIV.

tries, which are deficient in capital to 1,800,000. The country is diver. and industry, but abound in rude sified in its aspect, the coast along produce, namely, the precious metals, the Carribbean Sea, and the Pacific and all sorts of tropical produce, such Ocean, being level, and the ground as sugar, cocoa, coffee, indigo, cotton, rising gradually to the snowy heights &c. These being given in return for of the Andes. The great ridge of the cheap goods of Britain, the ex- those mountains, it is well known, change would of course be mutually runs through America in a direction advantageous. When the British north and south, and rises to its goods are cheap, that is, in other height at the distance of from 200 to words, to say, that the South Ame- 300 miles from the Pacific Ocean, the rican produce is dear. This trade, intervening country being a conti. then, while it afforded a market to nued descent to the sea. Here the the British trader for his superfluous firs: ridge of the Andes commences, goods, would benefit South America and there are two ridges to the eastby the high price which its produce ward : these mountains, when they would obtain, and would thus give a pass through New Granada, dividing new stimulus to her advancing in- into three parallel chains, with val. dustry.

lies intervening. These high vallies, As this country is at present the embosomed amid the snowy Andes, subject of so much discussion, as it possess an elevation which gives them, is so very interesting in every view, even under the Equator, a mild and whether we consider its physical delightful climate, and an everstructure, its vast ranges of moun- blooming vegetation. They are actains, its prodigious rivers, and the cordingly the seats of cultivation, and singular disposition of its population; contain many flourishing towns and or whether we consider the political villages. There are also several conchanges of which it has been the siderable towns on the plains on the scene,-and as it is, besides, but little sea-coast. In two of the vallies which known, we have thrown together lie between the parallel ridges of the some details respecting its population, Andes, the two great rivers Cauca productions, trade, the manners of and Magdalena take their rise. The its inhabitants, &c., which, as they Cauca joins the latter, which is an lie scattered in various publications, immense stream, having a course of it may be useful to bring together, 900 miles, and falling into the Carthat, when South America is men- ribbean Sea. It is on these rivers tioned, we may know what it is that that the Congress of Colombia are we are speaking about ; and that, in about to establish steam-boats. The place of some vague and obscure no chief towns are, tion of a vast and unexplored coun Carthagena, on the Carribbean Sea, try, ideas, precise and intelligible, the chief place of the province of may be presented to our minds. . Carthagena, situated on a sandy pe. This extensive Continent is divid- ninsula, joined to the continent by ed, 1st, Into the Viceroyalty of New two artificial necks of land. The bay Granada ; 2d, Into that of Buenos of Carthagena is one of the most caAyres ; 3d, Peru; 4th, Chili ; 5th, pacious and safe on the whole coast, The Caraccas. In North Ame- being completely land-locked, and rica, we have the Kingdom of perfectly smooth. It is estimated to Mexico.

contain 25,000 inhabitants, and is New Granada is the most northern the port through which goods find division of South America, and, with their way to Santa Fé de Bogota, the addition of the Government of Popayan, and Quito. Caraccas, constitutes the new Repub- Mompox, situated in lat. 9° 19' N. lic of Colombia. To the north, it has lon. 74° 11' W., on the great river the Carribbean Sea ; to the west, the Magdalena, 110 miles south-southPacific Ocean ; on the east, the Ca- east of Carthagena. It is a small raccas; and, on the south, Peru. It place. includes the kingdom of Quito, and Tolu, a small sea-port on the extends from lat. 3° 30' S., to 12° N., Spanish Main, in lat. 9° 32' N. ; being 930 miles in length, and 210 lon. 75° 30' W.; 50 miles south of in breadth. Its population amounts Carthagena.

• Barancas, a small sea-port near the distant. This is the most formidable estuary of the great river Magdalena, volcano of the Andes, and the inha25 miles from Carthagena.

bitants of Quito have frequently been Santa Martha, the chief town of alarmed by its eruptions, the noise the province of Santa Martha, 100 of which is so loud, that it has been miles north-east of Carthagena, situ- heard at Guayaquil, on the coast, 150 ated in lat. 11° 19' N. lon. 74° 4' W. miles distant. The climate at Quito,

Merida, situated in a valley sur- though temperate, is liable, from the rounded with lofty mountains, con vicinity of the mountains, to the most taining 11,000 inhabitants. Lat. 80 dreadful torrents of rain. The whole 10 N. lon. 73° 45' W.

morning, and, generally, till two Pampeluna, 170 miles north-east in the afternoon, the weather is exof Santa Fé de Bogota.

tremely delightful. A bright sun, These towns are chiefly in the with a serene and clear sky, are comnorthern provinces of New Granada. monly seen but afterwards the vaWhen we ascend the Andes, and pe pours begin to thicken, the whole netrate into the vallies, we have, atmosphere is filled with thick clouds,

Santa Fé de Bogota, containing which bring on such shocking tem40,000 inhabitants, and situated on a pests of thunder and lightning, that spacious and luxuriant plain, on the all the neighbouring mountains trem. eastern ridge of the Andes. It is only ble, and the city too often feels their four degrees north from the Equator; dreadful effects. Lastly, the clouds but being elevated 8694 feet, or a discharge themselves in such impebout a mile and three-quarters above tuous torrents of rain, that, in a very the level of the sea, the climate is short time, the streets appear like temperate, and even cold. Its plains rivers, and the squares, though siare covered with luxuriant crops of tuated on a slope, like lakes. This wheat, and all the fruits of Europe; dreadful scene generally continues while, at a little distance in the lower till near sun-set, when the weather vallies, is seen all the brilliant vege- clears up, and Nature again appears tation, and the finest fruits of the as beautiful as in the morning: sometropical regions.

times, indeed, the rains continue all Popayan, 195 miles south-south- night, and they have been known to west from Santa Fé, containing last three or four days successively: 25,000 inhabitants, and elevated and, on the contrary, three or four 5905 feet above the level of the sea. days of fine weather sometimes sucThere are many other smaller towns ceed one another. and villages in its district. The great Fifty miles south of Quito is the river Cauca is about a league from town of Lacatunga, with 12,000 inPopayán, and, from the sudden melt- habitants ; farther south is Rio ing of the snows in the Andes, is Bamba, almost ruined, in 1698 and subject to the most dreadful inunda- 1746, by the eruptions of the volcano tions. To the south is the king of Cotapaxi; utterly destroyed, in dom of Quito, stretching 600 miles 1797, by an earthquake, when the along the Pacific Ocean, while it is peak of a mountain falling on the 1800 miles in breadth. It contains plain, not a vestige of the town reQuito, the capital, on the eastern mained, and of 9000 inhabitants, onslope of the western branch of the ly 100 survived. In the same conEquatorial Andes, 35 leagues distant vulsion, about 30,000 or 40,000 Infrom the Pacific Ocean. It is im- dians are supposed to have perished mediately under the Equator; but, in the neighbouring districts. The being 9510 feet above the level of town has been since rebuilt, and the sea, it enjoys a mild temperature. contains 20,000 inhabitants. HamIt contains 70,000 inhabitants. Qui- bato, situated in an extensive plain, to rests on the volcanic mountain of has 6000. All these towns are siPinchincha for its basis, and is sure tuated on the heights of the Andes, rounded with all the highest peaks in the interior, from 150 to 300 of the Andes, many of them volcanic, miles from the Pacific Ocean. Near and still burning: that of Cotopaxi, the coast of Quito, 150 miles south18,980 feet, or about 3 miles, above west of that city, we have the importhe level of the sea, is only 36 miles tant sea-port of Guayaquil, which

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