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tendent of State and alien poor may apprentice males under 21 and females under 18 years, committed to any State almshouse, until they become of age. The managers of State reform schools may apprentice inmates during the term for which they have been committed.

The master must agree in the indenture, that he will teach the apprentice, or cause him to be taught, every branch of the business to which the apprentice is indentured, and that at the expiration of the term he will give him a certificate in writing, that such apprentice has served the full term at such trade or craft. If the minor is indentured by the poor officers of a county, city, or town or by the authorities of an orphan asylum, penal, or charitable institution, the indenture must contain an agreement that the master will cause such child to be instructed in reading, writing, and the general rules of arithmetic, and that at the expiration of the term he will give him a new Bible. The indenture must in all cases contain a statement of every sum of money agreed to be paid in relation to the service and an agreement that suitable and proper board, lodging, and medical attendance shall be provided either by the master or by the parent or guardian. The master may use reasonable and moderate force or violence to restrain or correct an apprentice.

It is unlawful for a master to accept from an apprentice any agreement or to cause him to be bound by oath that, after his term of service expires, he will not exercise his trade, profession, or employment in any particular place, or to exact from him, after his term of service expires, any money or other thing, for exercising his trade, profession, or employment in any place. It is unlawful to take a person as an apprentice without having obtained the consent of his legal guardian or unless a written agreement has been entered into as prescribed by law. On the death of a master to whom a person is indentured by the poor officers of a municipal corporation, the personal representatives of the master may, with the written consent of such person, assign such indenture; or if such consent is refused, the assignment may be made by the county judge of the county after fourteen days notice to the person indentured.

Source: Revised Statutes of 1901, page 150, section 7; page 982, section 18; page 1055, sections 70 to 77; page 2694, section 98; page 2773, section 250; page 3274, section 126.

NORTH CAROLINA.

A minor above the age of 14 and under 21 years being a male, and under 18 being a female, whether indigent or not, may be apprenticed to learn any trade or craft by the father, or, if he is dead, incompetent, has willfully abandoned his family for six months without making suitable provisions for their support, or has become an habitual drunkard, by the mother or legal guardian. If illegitimate, such child may be bound by the mother. If said minor has no parents competent to act and no guardian, he may bind himself, with the approbation of a superior court clerk of the county where he resides. The consent of such minor is necessary and must be expressed in the indenture and testified to by signing the same. A minor over 14 may also be apprenticed to learn a trade or craft by orphan asylums or charitable institutions organized and incorporated for the purpose of taking care of indigent children. Indigent children, among which are included all orphans whose estates are of so small value that no person will educate and maintain them for the benefits thereof, all infants whose fathers have deserted their families and been absent six months, leaving them without sufficient support, poor children who are or may be chargeable to the county or shall beg alms, any child who has no father and the mother is of bad character or suffers her children to grow up in habits of idleness without visible means of obtaining an honest livelihood, and all children whose parents do not habitually employ their time in some honest, industrious occupation, may be bound out by the superior court clerk of the county where they reside.

Apprentices may be bound for a period of not less than three nor more than five years, except in the case of indigent children bound out by the clerks of the superior courts, whose terms continue until majority, which in the case of males is 21 years and in the case of females, 18 years of age.

Masters are required to teach apprentices their trade or calling, and in the case of indigent children, the masters must cause them to be taught reading, writing, and the rules of arithmetic to the double rule of three. Apprentices must be furnished with medical attendance, lodging, and clothing. At the end of the term of apprenticeship the master is required to give the apprentice a certificate in writing, stating that he has served a full term at the specified trade or calling.

It is unlawful for any person to entice or persuade an apprentice to leave the service of his master, or knowingly to harbor, conceal, or employ an apprentice who has run away from his master.

Source: Acts of 1889, chapter 169, sections 1 to 26.

NORTH DAKOTA.

A minor may bind himself out. The consent is necessary of both the father and mother; if the father is dead, of the testamentary guardian or executor, or, if no such guardian or executor has been appointed, then of the mother; if the father lacks capacity to consent or has abandoned or neglected to provide for his family, of the mother; if the mother is dead or lacks capacity to consent, of the father; if there is no parent of capacity to consent and no executor, of the guardian; if there is no such parent, executor, or guardian, then of the officers of the poor of the town or county, of any two justices of the peace of the county, or of the probate judge. A child who is, or whose parents are, chargeable to a county or city poorhouse, or who is in such poorhouse, may be bound out by the proper officers of the poor with the written consent of a justice of the peace. No child of an Indian woman can be bound except in the presence of and with the consent of a justice of the peace.

Male apprentices may be bound until 21 years and female apprentices until 18 years of age, or for a shorter time. A minor capable of becoming a citizen of the State and coming from any other country, State, or Territory, and binding himself out for the purpose of paying his passage, may be bound for a term not exceeding one year, although such term extends beyond his majority.

An apprentice must be taught reading, writing, and the general rules of arithmetic, or must be sent to school three months in each year for the period of the indenture. At the expiration of his term the master must give him a new Bible.

It is unlawful to accept from an apprentice any contract or agreement, or to cause him to be bound by oath or otherwise that, after his term of service expires, he shall not set up his trade, profession, or employment, in any particular place, shop, house, or cellar, or to exact from an apprentice, after his term of service expired, any money or other thing, for using and exercising his trade, profession, or employment in any place.

In case of the death of the master the executors or administrators may assign the indenture with the written consent of the apprentice, acknowledged before a justice of the peace. If the apprentice refuses such consent, the probate or district court may authorize such assignment without his consent.

Source: Revised Codes of 1899, sections 2837 to 2849.

OHIO.

A minor may be bound out by the father, or, in case of his death or inability, by the mother or guardian. An orphan or destitute child may be bound out by the trustees of a township or by the officers of an orphan asylum wherein he is placed.

Males within the age of 21 years and females within the age of 18 years may be bound out as apprentices until they arrive at these ages respectively.

The master is required to send the minor to a common school for at least twelve weeks in each year during the apprenticeship, and at the expiration of the term of service he must furnish the apprentice with a new Bible, and two good suits of clothes. All money or property stipulated to be paid by the master must be secured to and for the sole use and benefit of the apprentice.

It is unlawful for any person to counsel, persuade, entice, aid, or assist an apprentice to run away or absent himself from the service of his master, or to harbor or conceal any such apprentice knowing him to have run away.

Source: Annotated Statutes of 1900, sections 757, 781-11, 950–2, 3118 to 3135.

OKLAHOMA.

Minors committed to any reform school may, with their own consent, be bound out as apprentices during minority, or for a shorter period by the management of such school to learn such trade or employment as may tend to their future benefit.

Source: Acts of 1895, chapter 28, section 5.

OREGON. A minor may be bound out by the father, or, if he is dead or incompetent, by the legal guardian; if illegitimate, by the mother; and if there is no parent competent to act and no guardian, he may bind himself out with the approbation of the county court of the county where he resides. The consent of the minor who is above 14 years of age, bound out by a parent or guardian, is necessary and must be expressed in the indentures and testified by his signing the same. The county court may bind out a child who is, or whose parents are, chargeable to the county. The superintendent of the Reform School may, with the consent of the minor, bind out any minor committed to said institution.

Apprentices may not be bound for a longer term than until majority, which in the case of males is 21 and of females 18 years of age. Children under 14 years of age may be bound out until that age, without their consent.

A pauper minor bound out by the county court must be taught to read, write, and
cipher, and must be given such other instruction as the court may deem reasonable.
The death of the master discharges the apprentice.
Source: Annotated Codes and Statutes of 1902, sections 5291 to 5315.

PENNSYLVANIA.

Minors may be bound out with the assent of a parent, guardian, or next friend. The justices of the orphans' court in the respective counties shall have full power, at the instance and request of executors, administrators, guardians, or tutors, to order and direct the binding out of minors. The overseers of the poor may, with the approbation and consent of two or more magistrates of the same county, bind out any poor child whose parents are dead or are found by said magistrates to be unable to maintain it. All corporations organized for the purpose of proyiding homes for friendless or destitute children may bind out a child committed to their charge, whose maintenance is unprovided for by its parents or guardians. The directors of almshouses may bind out any child in their charge. The managers of the House of Refuge of Philadelphia and of the House of Refuge of Western Pennsylvania may bind out, with his consent, any minor committed to their care. The courts of common pleas and the orphans' court of any county may decree, to officers of any benevolent or charitable institution that may have cared for and maintained a minor child for a period of one year either wholly or partly at its expense, power to bind out the same, provided that due notice must first be given to the parent, guardian, or next friend.

Males may be bound out until 21 and females until 18 years of age.

It is unlawful for any person knowingly to harbor and conceal for more than twenty-four hours an apprentice who has run away from the service of his master.

Sources: Brightly's Purdon's Digest, 1895, page 95, section 6; page 117, sections 1 to 15; page 998, sections 8, 25; page 1704, section 45; Brightly's Digest, 1903, page 55, sections 1, 2.

RHODE ISLAND.

A minor may be bound out by the father, or, if he is dead, by the mother when sole; or, being under the age of 14, by the legal guardian. A minor, if he is 14 years of age and has no parent, may bind himself out with the approbation of his guardian, or, if he has no guardian, by and with the approbation of the town council of the town where he resides. The overseers of the poor of a town, with the advice and consent of the town council, may bind out children of parents who are lawfully settled in and have become chargeable to the town; children of parents so settled, whose parents, whether they receive alms or are chargeable or not, shall be deemed by said overseers unable to maintain them; children of parents residing in the town who are there supported at the charge of the State; children of parents or a parent, residing in a town, who have no legal settlement in the State and are adjudged by the town council to be unable to maintain them, and children in a town without estate sufficient for their maintenance, who have no parents residing therein, and who have no legal settlement in the State. Such children may be bound out to any citizen or to any incorporated institution for the care of children, within the State or within the States of Massachusetts or Connecticut, to the Providence Children's Friend Society, to the Home for Friendless Children in Newport, or to the Providence Shelter for Colored Children.

Minors may be apprenticed until 21 years of age in the case of males and 18 years in the case of females, or until married within that age.

The master must obligate himself to cause the apprentice to receive instruction in reading, writing, and ciphering, and such other instruction as may be fit and reasonable. All considerations of money, clothes, etc., must be given to or secured to the sole use of the apprentice.

The death of the master discharges the apprenticeship:
Source: General Laws of 1896, chapter 79, section 14; chapter 198, sections 1 to 20.

SOUTH CAROLINA.

A minor may be bound out with the approbation of the father, mother, or guardian, or, if the minor has neither father, mother, nor guardian, of the grandfather, grandmother, or brother, sister, uncle, or aunt of mature age, in the order as above, or, if the minor has none of the above relatives, of the trial justice. Said approbation must be certified on the indentures by a trial justice under his hand and seal. A poor child chargeable to a county, and an illegitimate child likely to become chargeable to a county or to become demoralized by the vicious conduct and evil example of its mother or other person having charge of it, may be bound out by the county commissioners.

Males may be bound as apprentices until the age of 21 and females until 18 years of age or until married within that age. Poor children bound out by the county commissioners may be apprenticed until the age of 16 years in the case of males and 14 years or until married within that time in the case of females.

Source: Civil Cole of 1902, sections 788, 2705 to 2714.

SOUTH DAKOTA. A minor may bind himself out. The consent is necessary of both the father and mother; if the father is dead, of the testamentary guardian or executor, or, if no such guardian or executor has been appointed, then of the mother; if the father lacks capacity to consent or has abandoned or neglected to provide for his family, of the mother; if the mother is dead or lacks capacity to consent, of the father; if there is no parent of capacity to consent and no executor, of the guardian; if there is no such parent, executor, or guardian, then of the officers of the poor of the town or county, of any two justices of the peace of the county, or of the probate judge. A child who is, or whose parents are, chargeable to a county or city poorhouse, or who is in such poorhouse, may be bound out by the proper officers of the poor with the written consent of a justice of the peace. The State board of charities and corrections may hind out inmates of the State Reform School for Juvenile Offenders.

Male apprentices may be bound until 21 and female apprentices until 18 years of age, or for a shorter time. A minor capable of becoming a citizen of the State and coming from any other country, State, or Territory, and binding himself out for the purpose of paying his passage, may be bound for a term not exceeding one year, although such term extends beyond his majority.

An apprentice must be taught reading, writing, and the general rules of arithmetic, or must be sent to school three months in each year for the period of the indenture. At the expiration of his term the master must give him a new Bible.

It is unlawful to accept from an apprentice any contract or agreement, or to cause him to be bound by oath or otherwise that, after his term of service has expired, he shall not set up his trade, profession, or employment, in any particular place, shop, house, or cellar, or to exact from an apprentice, after his term of service has expired, any money or other thing, for using and exercising his trade, profession, or employment in any place. Upon the death of the master, the executors or administrators may assign the indenture with the written consent of the apprentice, acknowledged before a justice of the peace. If the apprentice refuses such consent, the probate or district court may authorize such assignment without his consent.

Source: Revised Codes of 1903, Civil Code, sections 163 to 181; Code of Criminal Procedure, section 705.

TENNESSEE. The county court may bind out, in the name of the State, an orphan whose estates are of such small value that no person will educate or maintain him for the profits thereof, a base-born child, and any child totally abandoned by the father and for whom he fails to provide support and maintenance. In the last case above, the consent of the mother must be given in open court unless she is unable to provide for the maintenance of the child.

Orphan children may be bound out until the age of 21 years if males and 18 years if females. In the case of base-born children the age limit is 21 years for either sex.

Masters are required to teach orphan apprentices, or cause them to be taught, to read and write and cipher as far as the rule of three, and to make fit and necessary provision for their diet, clothes, lodging, and accommodations. Upon the completion of the apprenticeship the master is required to pay his apprentice $20 in addition to the stipulations in the contract, and to furnish him with one good suit of clothes.

A master is not permitted to remove an apprentice out of the State without the assent of the court.

Source: Code of 1884, sections 2129, 3422 to 3437.

TEXAS.

The county court may bind out an orphan who is without sufficient estate for his maintenance and education, a child whose parents have suffered him to become a charge upon the county, and a child whose parents, not being a charge on the county, shall consent in writing to his apprenticeship, which consent shall be signed by them and filed and entered of record in such court.

Males may be bound out until 21 and females until 18 years of age or until married within that age.

An apprentice must, if practicable, be sent to school at least three months in each year during the continuance of the apprenticeship and while he is within the scholastic age. Sufficient food and clothing, and the necessary medicine and medical attention must be furnished. Moderate chastisement, as may be necessary and proper, may be inflicted upon the apprentice by the master.

It is unlawful for a master to take an apprentice out of the county without the order of the county judge.

Source: Revised Civil Statutes of 1895, articles 23 to 46.

UTAH.

A minor may be bound out by a parent or guardian, and if the minor is over 12 years of age the indentures must also be signed by him. The probate court or selectinen may bind out an idle, vicious, or vagrant minor child without its consent and without the consent of its parents or guardian, if said parents or guardian neglect, refuse, or otherwise fail in properly controlling the actions and education of such child, and do not train it up in some useful avocation; also a child whose parents, from habitual drunkenness and vicious and brutal conduct, etc., are not deemed suitable persons to retain the guardianship or control the education of it. The board of trustees of the State Industrial School may bind out children as apprentices with their consent or the consent of their parents or guardians.

Apprentices may be bound until the attainment of the age of legal majority, which is 21 years in the case of males and 18 years in the case of females.

The master is required to send the apprentice to school while between the ages of 8 and 14 years, at least twenty weeks in each year, and to clothe him in a comfortable and becoming manner.

The removal of the master from the State discharges the apprenticeship.
Source: Revised Statutes of 1898, sections 74 to 83.

VERMONT. A minor may be bound out by the father, or, if he is dead or incompetent, by the mother or legal guardian; or, if there is no parent competent to act and no guardian, he may bind himself with the approbation of the selectmen of the town where he resides. If illegitimate he may be bound by his mother, but the power of a mother to bind out her children, whether legitimate or illegitimate, shall cease upon her subsequent marriage. The overseers of the poor may bind out the minor children of a poor person who has become chargeable to a town, or who is supported in whole or in part at the charge of such town, and minor children who are themselves chargeable to the town. The trustees of the reform school may bind out children committed to said school.

Children under 14 years of age may be bound out until that age. A minor over 14 years of age, whose consent is expressed in writing in the indenture, may be bound during minority, or if a girl, until married before becoming of age. The age of majority is 21 years for males and 18 years for females. Inmates of reform schools may be bound only for the terms for which they were committed.

Considerations of money or other things paid or allowed by the master upon a con. tract of apprenticeship must be paid or secured to the sole use of the apprentice. Parents, guardians, selectmen, and overseers are required to inquire into the treatment of apprentices bound by them respectively, and defend them from cruelty, neglect and breach of contract on the part of the master.

No indenture of apprenticeship is binding upon the minor after the death of the master.

Source: Statutes of 1894, sections 2829 to 2854, 3187 to 3189, 5189.

VIRGINIA. A minor may be bound out by the guardian, or, if there is no guardian, by the father, or, if there is neither guardian nor father, by the mother. The consent, entered

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