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arts

9, 10

Birth and parentage of, 1474

2
Discovered an early bent to the fine arts ib.
Becomes the pupil of a celebrated painter ib.
Surprises his master by his rapid pro-
ficiency in the art

3
Patronized by Lorenzo de' Medici ib.
Anecdote of ihe first essay as a sculptor,

in carving the mask of a satyr ib.
He studies anatomy as necessary for the
perfecting of his art

4
Dissertation ou the origin and progress
of ancient sculpture

4.13
Remarks on the remaining specimens of

Egyptian sculpture
The four periods in the history of the
sculpture of the Greek

5, 6
Whether the knowledge of anatomy was

one of the chief causes of the perfection

of Greek sculpture
Other causes enumerated

7
Account of the gigantic statue of Minerva,

(39 feet high) the work of Phidias 8
Of the Etruscan and Sicilian sculpture ib.
Explanation of certain terms in the fine
On the different styles of beauty in Greek
sculpture

11
Of the three species of relief in sculpture 11,12
Remarks on their use as shown in the
Egyptian marbles

12
Curious conceit in the formation of two
statues,—Venus and Mars

ib.
Dissertation on the painting of the an-

cients
The merits of the Greek painters are

known only from the description of
authors

ib.
Of the pictures found in Herculaneum
and Pompeii

ih.
Dissertation on the sculpture of the

Romans
Dissertation on the revival of the art of
sculpture

15-18
Cicero said to have had little real taste
for painting and sculpture

16
Anecdote of Michael Angelo, on viewing,
a marble statue by Donatello

17
Description of the sculpture of the cathe-
dral of Wells

17, 18
Michael Angelo spends some time at Bo-
logna and Venice

19
His sleeping Cupid mistaken for an an-
tique

ib.
Anecdote concerning his celebrated statue
of David with the sling

ib.

Anecdote respecting the price of one of his
paintings

20
Description and outline sketch of the car-
toon of the battle of Pisa

20, 21
Monument, intended by Henry the Eighth
for himself and queen, described

22
Michael Angelo is invited to Rome-quar-
rels with the Pope-means used to com-
his &

22-25
Sketch of one of the compartments of a
painting in fresco

26
Michael Angelo undertakes the office of

military architect for the defence of Flo-
rence, his native city

27
Great skill and patriotism displayed by him
during the siege

28
The painting of the Last Judgment finished,
in 1541

29
Merit of Michael Angelo as an architect 30
Sketch of a bas-relief, cut by him in mar-

ble, now in the possession of the Royal
Academy

31
Portraits of Leonardo da Vinci and Ra-
phael

33
On the revival of painting in Italy, from

the time of Cimabue and Giotto to that
of Leonardo da Vinci, M. Angelo, and
Raphael

33-36
Taste for magnificent edifices in Italy 34
Introduction of painting in oil

34
Scientific pursuits and discoveries of Da
Vinci

ib,
Account and anecdotes of his celebrated
“ Last Supper

35
Rivalry between Da Vinci and M. Angelo ib.
Raphael and his works—comparison with
Da Vinci

ib.
The Transfiguration--costly engravings of
it

ib.
Giorgione, Titian, and the Venetian School 37
Opinions of Fuseli on Correggio, the Ca-
racci, &c

ib.
Character of M. Angelo as a sculptor and
painter

37
Extracts from English writers and critics ib.,

38, 39
Censurers of M. Angelo's style; Mengs
and the Abbé Milizia

40
Criticisms on the Christ,” the “ Moses,"
&c.

40,41
of
Mr. Payne Knight and Falconet the
French sculptor

ib.
Monuments of Lorenzo and Julian de'
Medici-remarks of Mr. Bell

42
Statues of Day, Night, and Twilight ib.

13, 14

14, 15

.

verance

.

The Pietà of M. Angelo
Picture of the “ Last Judgment

ib.
Opinions of Flaxman, Baron Stendhall,
and others

43
Impartial estimate of M. Angelo from these
conflicting opinions

Page
His appeal to the Pope-dismissal of his
rival

48
His singular piety-patience and perse-

ib.
Rapid progress of St. Peter's 49-51
He plans the church of San Giovanni 50
New intrigues against him; wishes to

leave Rome-dismission of his rival 52
Death of M. Augelo

ib,
Honours paid to his remains

53
Conclusion of the character of M. Angelo 54
His vigour and versatility of genius 55
Anecdote of his industry

56
Character of M. Angelo as an architect ib.
Opinions of Mr. Duppa considered 57
His own letter on the subject

ib.
Excelleuce as a military architect ib.
On the poetry of Michael Angelo 57-59
Specimens translated by Southey and
Wordsworth, with remarks on

ib.
His admiration of Dante; his atiachment
to Vittoria Colonna

58
Letters of M. Angelo to different persons,
Notes, &c.

60 to 70
Anecdotes and good sayings attributed to
M. Angelo

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ib.
Continuation of the Life of M. Angelo 44
Magnanimity in confessing his declining
powers as a painter

ib.
Is appointed architect of St. Peter's ib.
Refuses to accept any remuneration ib.
Characteristics of his old age

ib,
Enthusiasm in his great task

45
Improvement and progress the edifice ib.
Union of grandeur and economy

ib.
His detractors and enemies
Anecdotes of his opponents-rivalry and
capriciousness of the Popes

46
M. Angelo survives throughout seven Pon-
tificates

ib.
Difficulties he had to contend with 47
Intention of quitting Rome

ib.
Retires to the mountains of Spoleto 48
A colleague appointed—intrigues set on
foot against him

ib.

70 to 72

ib.

LIFE OF GALILEO:

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE ADVANCEMENT

OF EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY,

Big & Trinkwas) Kethune.

CHAPTER I.

to be noticed, often inaccurately ob

served and always too hastily generalIntroduction,

ized, were found sufficient to excite the The knowledge which we at present naturalist's lively imagination; and havpossess of the phenomena of nature and ing once pleased his fancy with the supof their connection has not by any posed fitness of his artificial scheme, means been regularly progressive, as we his perverted ingenuity was thenceformighỉ have expected, from the time ward employed in forcing the observed when they first drew the attention of phenomena into an imaginary agreement mankind. Without entering into the with the result of his theory; instead of question touching the scientific acquire- taking the more rational, and it should ments of eastern nations at a remote seem, the more obvious, method of corperiod, it is certain that some among recting the theory by the result of his the early Greeks were in possession of observations, and considering the one several truths, however acquired, con- merely as the general and abbreviated nected with the economy of the universe, expression of the other. But natural which were afterwards suffered to fall phenomena were not then valued on into neglect and oblivion. But the phi- their own account, and for the proofs losophers of the old school appear in which they afford of a vast and benefigeneral to have confined themselves at cent design in the structure of the unithe best to observations ; very few traces verse, so much as for the fertile topics remain of their having instituted experi- which the favourite mode of viewing the ments, properly so called. This putting subject supplied to the spirit of scholasof nature to the torture, as Bacon calls tic disputation: and it is a humiliating it, has occasioned the principal part of reflection that mankind never reasoned modern philosophical discoveries. The so ill as when they most professed to experimentalist may so order his exami- cultivate the art of reasoning. Hownation of nature as to vary at pleasure ever specious the objects, and alluring the circumstances in which it is made, the announcements of this art, the then often to discard accidents which com- prevailing manner of studying it curbed plicate the general appearances, and and corrupted all that is free and noble at once to bring any theory which he in the human mind. Innumerable fallamay form to a decisive test. The pro- cies lurked every where among the vince of the mere observer is necessarily most generally received opinions, and limited : the power of selection among crowds of dogmatic and self-sufficient the phenomena to be presented is in pedants fully justified the lively definigreat measure denied to him, and he tion, that “ logic is the art of talking unmay consider himself fortunate if they intelligibly on things of which we are are such as to lead him readily to a ignorant." knowledge of the laws which they fol- The error which lay at the root of the low.

philosophy of the middle ages was this: Perhaps to this imperfection of me- --from the belief that general laws and thod it may be attributed that natural universal principles might be discovered, philosophy continued to be stationary, of which the natural phenomena were or even to decline, during a long series effects, it was thought that the proper of ages, until little more than two cen- order of study was, first to detect the turies ago. Within this comparatively general cause, and then to pursue it into short period it has rapidly reached a its consequences; it was considered abdegree of perfection so different from its surd to begin with the effect instead of former degraded state, that we the cause; whereas the real choice lay hardly institute any comparison between between proceeding from particular facts the two. Before that epoch, a few insulated facts, such as might first happen

can

• Ménage.

B

senses.

to general facts, or from general facts ignorant of geometry: the Florentine to particular facts; and it was under revived that science, 'excelled in it, and this misrepresentation of the real ques- was the first that applied it, together tion that all the sophistry lurked. As with experiment, to natural philosophy. soon as it is well understood that the The former rejected with the most posigeneral cause is no other than a single tive disdain the system of Copernicus: fact, common to a great number. of phe- the latter fortified it with new proofs nomena, it is necessarily perceived that derived both from reason and the an accurate scrutiny of these latter must precede any safe reasoning with respect If we compare them from another to the former. But at the time of which point of view, not so much in respect of we are speaking, those who adopted this their intrinsic merit, as of the influence order of reasoning, and who began their which each exercised on the philosophy inquiries by a minute and sedulous in- of his age, Galileo's superior talent or vestigation of facts, were treated with better fortune, in arresting the attention disdain, as men who degraded the of his contemporaries, seems indislofty name of philosophy by bestowing putahle. The fate of the two writers is it upon mere mechanical operations. directly opposed the one to the other; Among the earliest and noblest of these Bacon's works seem to be most studied was Galileo.

and appreciated when his readers have It is common, especially in this coun- come to their perusal, imbued with try, to name Bacon as the founder of knowledge and a philosophical spirit, the present school of experimental phi- which, however, they have attained indelosophy; we speak of the Baconian or pendently of his assistance. The proud inductive method of reasoning as syno- appeal to posterity which he uttered in nimous and convertible terms, and we his will, “ For my name and memory, I are apt to overlook what Galileo had leave it to men's charitable speeches, already done before Bacon's writings and to foreign nations, and the next appeared. Certainly the Italian did not ages," of itself indicates a consciousness range over the circle of the sciences with of the fact that his contemporary counthe supreme and searching glance of trymen were but slightly affected by his the English philosopher, but we find in philosophical precepts. But Galileo's every part of his writings philosophical personal exertions changed the general maxims which do not lose by com- character of philosophy in Italy: at the parison with those of Bacon ; and time of his death, his immediate pupils Galileo deserves the additional praise, had obtained possession of the most cethat he himself gave to the world á lebrated universities, and were busily ensplendid practical illustration of the gaged in practising and enforcing the value of the principles which he con- lessons which he had taught them; nor stantly recommended. In support of was it then easy to find there a single this view of the comparative deserts of student of natural philosophy who did these two celebrated men, we are able not readily ascribe the formation of his to adduce the authority of Hume, who principles to the direct or remote influwill be readily admitted as a competentence of Galileo's example. Unlike Bajudge of philosophical merit, where his con's, his reputation, and the value of prejudices cannot bias his decision. Dis- his writings, were higher among his cussing the character of Bacon, he says, contemporaries than they have since be“ If we consider the variety of talents This judgment perhaps awards displayed by this man, as a public the highest intellectual prize to him speaker, a man of business, a wit, a whose disregarded services rise in esticourtier, a companion, an author, a mation with the advance of knowledge; philosopher, he is justly the object of but the praise due to superior usefulness great admiration. If we consider him belongs to him who succeeded in trainmerely as an author and philosopher, ing round him a school of imitators, the light in which we view him at pre- and thereby enabled his imitators to sent, though very estimable, he was yet surpass himself. inferior to his contemporary Galileo, The biography of men who have deperhaps even to Kepler. Bacon pointed voted themselves to philosophical purout at a distance the road to true phi

suits seldom affords so various and strilosophy: Galileo both pointed it out to king a succession of incidents as that others, and made himself considerable advances in it. The Englishman was

* Hume's England, James I.

come.

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