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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

BOUNN AUG 11 1913

LONDON:
Printed by William CLOWES,

Duko-street, Lambeth.

INDEX AND SUMMARY.

LIFE OF GALILEO,

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COMPARISON of the methods of the an- Remarks on a new star in Cassiopæia, in cients and the moderns with respect to

1572

16 philosophical discoveries

1 Third appointment of Galileo to the proDefinition of the logic of the middle ages ib, fessorship at Padua in 1606; and imBacon and Galileo compared

mense number of auditors at his lecGalileo, his birth and parentage (1564)

tures

ib. was not illegitimate, as generally Sector, that instrument invented by Galileo ib. supposed

ib. Gunter's scale, and the proportional comhis father was a man of learning ib. pass, remarks on

17 exhibits proofs of early talent :

4 Galileo's observations on the loadstone, 17,18 constructs models of machinery ib.

account of his writings that are studies music and drawing ib.

now lost

18, 19 sent to the University of Pisa in Telescope, concerning the discovery of, by 1581

ib. Galileo was disgusted with the Aristote

Porta's claim to the invention of, 20,21 lian philosophy

5

Roger Bacon's claim to the inswinging of a lamp,

in
vention of

22 thedral of Pisa, first led him to the

claim by a Dutchman

23 consideration of the vibrations of pen- Spectacles, antiquity of

20 dulums

Microscopes constructed by Galileo 25 Forns of pendulums used by plıysicians Galileo discovers the satellites of Jupiter 26 in the time of Galileo

ib.

publishes the Nuncius Siderius, State of mathematical knowledge at that or, Intelligences of the Stars

26 period .

6 Kepler's astonishment on hearing that Galileo appointed professor of mathe- there were more than six planets; and

matics at Pisa, in 1589, when only 25 his demonstration that they could not years of age ib, exceed that number .

27 adopts the Copernican system of Comparison between theory and experiastronomy 7,8 ment

ib. Bruno burnt at Rome in the year 1600, Fantastical'hypotheses of Huygens, Sizzi,

for attacking the philosophy of his time 8 and others, concerning the probable Galileo, his experiments on the fall of number of planets and satellites bodies

9 Galileo's opinion respecting judicial astroappointed professor of mathema- logy

29 tics at Padua in 1592

10 Disputes to which the discovery of the rapid diffusion of his writings

ib.
satellites gave rise

30, 3: his re-invention of the thermo- Galileo was the first who conceived that

the longitude might be discovered by his thermometer described 11 means of the eclipses of Jupiter's satel. his thermometer improved by lites

32 Leopold de' Medici and others 11

his observations on the moon 33 State of astronomy in the time of Ga

on Saturn 34, 35 lileo

11-14

curious anagrams under which Astrological origin of the Saxon names he veiled his discoveries of the days of the week

Huygens discovers Saturn's ring in Diagram, explanatory of 12 1656

35 Delambre's mistaken preference of Kepler Herschel's subsequent discovery that, to Galileo

14 although apparently singlé, Saturn's Friendly correspondence between Galileo ring is composed of two concentrate and Kepler

15 rings, revolving round the planet 35 Re-election of Galileo to the professorship Galileo observes the crescent appearance of Padua ib, of Venus

ib, Remarks on the appearance of a new star

resigns his professorship, and rein Serpentarius, in 1604 . 16 turns to Florence

36

28, 29

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34, 35

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46, 47

T'ago
Galileo, his first appearance at Rome in
1611

36
Academia Lincea, account of its origin
and regulations

36-38
Cesi, an account of his life and writ-
ings

36-39
Galileo, his discovery of the spots on the

39
his remarks and experiments on
floating bodies

41-44
his letter to Christina, Grand
Duchess of Tuscany, on the astronomy

of scripture
Proceedings of the Inquisition at Rome 47
Galileo has an audience of Pope Paul V.
in 1616

49
ordered not to teach the doctrine
of Copernicus concerning the motion
of the earth

ib.
Application of the eclipses of Jupiter's
satellites to the discovery of the longi-
tude

50
Galileo's correspondence with the Spanish
minister on that subject

51
Controversy concerning the comets of
1618

51, 52
Galileo's metaphysical opinions nearly
allied to those of Locke and Berkeley 53

his third visit to Rome in 1624,
and honourable reception by Pope

Urban
Publication of Galileo's “ System of the

World," and consequent proceedings of
his enemies

58
Sentence of the Inquisition

59-61
Galileo's abjuration

62, 63
Account of the persecution of a Bavarian

bishop, in the 8th century, for asserting
the existence of antipodes

63
The books of Copernicus and Galileo are

still (in 1831) on the forbidden list at
Rome

64
Extracts from Galileo's “ Dialogues on

the System of the World," with com.
ments

65-74
The principle of gravity, or universal at-

traction, well known to Galileo and
others.

66, 67
Ancient opinions on the cause of the
tides

71-74
Galileo becomes blind at the

age

of 72 75
his previous observation of the
libration of the moon

76
State of mechanical science before the

time of Galileo, with comments 78-83
Galileo's theory of motion, with com-
ments

83-88
Extracts from his “ Dialogues on Mo-
tion;" with remarks

88.93
Correspondence respecting the longi-
tude

93-95
Inquiry whether or not Galileo was the
inventor of the pendulum clock

95-100
Drawings of wheelwork of clocks and

watches, before the application of the
pendulum

96
Private character and anecdotes of Ga-
lileo

100-102
Account of his death and burial in 1642 103
Dispersion of his books and manuscripts 104
Notices of various biographies of Ga-

lileo
List of his Works

106

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53, 54

104, 105

LIFE OF KEPLER.

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ib.
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Kepler, his character as a philosopher,
considered

1
his birth and parentage (1571) 2

was educated at the expense of the
Duke of Wirtemberg

ib.
appointed to the Astronomical
Lectureship at Gratz, in Styria ib.

imaginative nature of his studies 3
- was an early convert to the sys-
tem of Copernicus

ib,
his account of the progress of his
opinions in 1595

ib.
his theories and investigations,
founded on the bases of numbers and
geometrical relations, illustrated with
diagrams

4.9
his marriage in 1596

9
he joins Tycho Brahé at Prague
in 1600

9, 10
his quarrel with Tycho, and re-
conciliation

10,11
succeeds to the situation of prin-
cipal mathematician to the emperor, on
Tycho's death

11

Kepler gains a livelihood by casting na-
tivities

11
his absurd account of the appear-
ance of the new star in Cassiopæia
(1604):

12
publishes a disputation on astro-
logy in 1602

his theory of astrology
Anecdote of a salad supposed to be formed
from the atoms of Epicurus

ib.
publishes a Treatise on Comets,
and a Supplement to Vitellion, con-
taining the first rational theory of
optics

14
Extracts from his Optical Experiments 14-17
Publication of his work « On the Motions
of Mars"

18
Sketch of the astronomical theories before

the time of Kepler
Account of the Commentaries on the Mo-

tions of Mars
Kepler discovers the law of equal areas

being described, in elliptic orbits, in
equal times

18-22

23-28

28-30

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36, 37

His theory of the moving force, by which

the planets are carried forward in their
orbits

30-32
Kepler is appointed Professor at Linz

35
His second marriage, and curious account

of the dozen of candidates for the ho-

nour of his hand
Occasion of his writing his work on
Gauging

37
Appointed mathematical professor at
Bologna, in 1617

38
Publishes his Harmonics

. 39
Inscription of polygons in circles

39
Kepler's belief that the earth was an
animal

40
Extracts from his Astrological Absurdi-
ties

40-42
Parts supposed to be taken,' by the several

planets, in the music of the spheres 43
Kepler's account of the causes of regula-

rity in the law of motion of the planets 44

Page
Laws of motion according to New.
ton

45-48
Kepler's “ Epitome" prohibited at Rome
and at Florence

ib.
His theory of comets, that they move in
straight lines

48
Kepler, the first German who calculated
the tables of logarithms

48, 49
Trial of Kepler's mother, and her con-
demnation to the torture

49, 50
Invitation to Kepler to go to England 50
Rudolphine Tables finished and published
in 1627

50, 51
Death of Kepler in 1630, and situation
of his family

52
Kepler's“ Dream on Lunar Astronomy;"
a fanciful tale

53
monument in the Botanic Garden
at Ratisbon, described

53
List of his published works

54

LIFE OF NEWTON.

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4

Newton's birth and parentage (1642)

1
His early turn for mechanics

ib.
Constructs a model of a windmill, and

also draws a sun-dial at an early age 1, 2
Leaves school for Cambridge in 1660 2
His text books, on entering college, enu-
merated

ib.
Remarks on the geometry of Descartes ib.
Descartes unjustly treated by Newton ib.
Wallis's works much studied by Newton,

and led to many of his discoveries
Discovery of the binomial theorem 3

of the method of fluxions
Differential calculus of Leibnitz,—the

method of fluxions under a different
form

ib.
Newton leaves Cambridge, in 1665, to
avoid the plague

ib.
Discovery of the law of gravity and its ap-

plication to the heavenly bodies 4-6
Newton returns to Cambridge in 1666 . 6

is appointed lecturer on optics,
in room of Dr. Barrow, in 1669

7
is elected a Fellow of the Royal
Society in 1672

7
communicates to the society a
model and description of a reflecting
telescope

ib.
The model of this telescope is still pre-
served in the library of the society

ib.
His communications to the society on the
nature of light .

8
He meets with personal opposition from
Dr. Hooke

9
· He is also attacked by Pardies, Linus,
and Huygens

10
Remarks on Newron's hypothesis of an

imperceptible etherial Auid, pervading
space, and affecting bodies by its undu-
lations

11

How this fluid is supposed to differ from,

and affect light
Remarks on projectiles

and

falling bo-
dies

14, 15
Dr. Hooke's dissertation on the motion
of the earth

16
Borelli, the first who applied the principle

of gravitation to the planetary mo-
tions

21
Newton's absorption of ideas when pre-
paring his Principia

18
Curious anecdote on this subject
The first two books of the Principia
printed by the Royal Society

19
Additional disputes with Dr. Hooke on the
subject

19-22
The Principia completed and published
in 1687

22
Account of that work by Laplace

23, 24
Newton elected a member of the con-

vention parliament which called the
Prince of Orange to the throne 24

made warden of the mint in
1696

ib.
His studies in chemistry appreciated 25
Accidental burning of his papers by his
dog Diamond

ib.
His succeeding alienation of mind

25, 26
Elected an associate of the French Aca-
demy of Sciences, in 1699

27
Re-elected a member of parliament for
Cambridge, in 1701

ib.
Chosen president of the Royal Society,
in 1703

ib.
Knighted by Queen Anne, in 1705

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ib.
Published his Optics in 1704

ib.
Disquisition concerning the counterclaims

of Newton and Leibnitz to the priority
of the invention of the method of
fluxions

27-30

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State of the religion and government of

the Arabians, at the time of Mahomet's
appearance among them

1.10
Geographical and statistical account of
Arabia

1, 2
Manners and customs of the several tribes
at the time of Mahomet

2-10
Their laws and religion at that period 4,5
Their science and literature

7,8
Their manners and general character 8-10
Customs in regard to the female sex 10
Sources of our knowledge respecting Ma-
homet

11
The Somna, or collected traditions, of the
Mahometans

ib.
Reasons to prove that those traditions are
unworthy of belief

11, 12
Ignorance and worthlessness of the Chris.
tian opponents of Mahometanism when
first promulgated

12
Precise period of the birth of Mahomet
investigated

13
Lineage and tribe of the prophet ib.
His descent from Ismaél became a dogma
of his religion

ib.
The patrimony of Mahomet extremely small 14
Prodigies which appeared at his birth ib.
Fabulous accounts of his infancy, child-
hood, and youth

15
Who were the composers of the Koran ib.
Mahomet's knowledge of the Jewish and

Christian religion accounted for 16
Mahomet was a merchant and a soldier ib.

married at the age of 25, and
was the faithful husband of one wife, for

16
received frequent visits from the
angel Gabriel

17

Night when the Koran first descended

from heaven, and the miraculous circum-
stances attending its manifestation 17, 18
Mahomet's first annunciation of his mis-
sion

18
His denunciations of eternal torments pre-
pared for unbelievers

18, 19
His admission into the seven heavens, un-

der the guidance of the angel Gabriel,

and his description of what he saw 19
His flight from Mecca, and reception at
Medina

20
The Hegira, or epoch of the Mahometans,
dated from that flight

21
Mahomet builds a temple at Medina, be-

comes general of an army, a judge, and
a pastor of his people

21
His first battle, and his modest prayer to

Gabriel to send 3000 angels to his as-
sistance

22
His disastrous battle, which he ascribed to

the anger of the Lord on account of the
sins of the people

23
Assassination encouraged by Mahomet 24
Surrender of Mecca, and final establish-

ment of the Mahometan religion 24
The death of Mahomet in consequence of
poison

25
Ridiculous stories concerning his tomb ib.
Estimate of Mahomet's moral character

and apology for its faults
Critical examination of the Koran 27
Of the religion and morality of the Koran

28, 29
laws of the Koran

30
List of books which treat of Mahomet
and Mahometanism

32

26, 31

24 years

LIFE OF WOLSEY.

Birth and parentage of Wolsey (1471) 1
Was he the son of a butcher ?

1, 19
Nature of his early pursuits

1,2
Becomes a fellow of Magdalene College,

Oxford

Presented to the living of Lymington, by

the Marquis of Dorset, the father of three
of his pupils, in 1500

2
Accused of having unfairly appropriated

some of the funds of his college 3

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