is,-how yielding to wrong as well as right impressions, and, consequently, how fearful is the task of unfolding its supple faculties, so as to bring them into action in their balanced proportions, your committee are ready to ask, " who is sufficient for these things?” But while they are impelled to lament this manifest deficiency, they would also rejoice in the generally increasing demand for higher qualifications, and a corresponding effort, on the part of candidates for the teacher's office, to meet this demand. And your committee, in this convection, would respectfully suggest to those, whose duty it is to employ teachers, to employ them conditionally. Give them distinctly to understand, that

, before the contract is closed, they must pass successfully through a searching and faithful ordeal; and they trust, that whoever is hereafter placed on the board of examining committee, will heartily coöperate with them in any efforts they may make to secure to their children the services of well qualified and faithful teachers.

In their last report, your committee pointed out several defects which they perceived to exist in the schools, and made several suggestions for their correction. They were happy to find, that these detects had not escaped the notice of a large majority of their fellow-citizens, and were no less gratified by their prompt adoption of the measures suggested for their correction. And did they need any thing more to confirm their conviction of the wisdom of the steps then taken, they have ample materials in the Abstract of Reports, recently published by the Board of Education. The defects which your committee pointed out, and the remedies suggested, have been echoed and reëchoed, by hundreds of voices, from every part of the Commonwealth. Similar evils were found every where to exist, and similar remedies were prescribed for their removal. But still the work of reform is not completed. There is much, yet, that may be done, by a cordial coöperation of all concerned, for the improvement of our schools. Your committee, however, at the present time, would but barely advert to one or two particulars. They conceive that the success of the schools depends, in a high degree, upon a felt and expressed interest in them, by the parents of the children there taught. But is this interest often manifested ? ' If the observation of the committee does not deceive them, many parents seem to regard the teacher, at the commencement of his school, especially, if he be a stranger, with a sort of jealousy, and are, apparently, more disposed to discover his blemishes than his virtues. They stand aloof from him, and perhaps, during a whole term, never exchange a word with him, concerning what, we should suppose, would most occupy their mind, viz , how their children behaved and improved. And how can a teacher be expected to feel a greater interest in the welfare of the fifty, committed to his charge, than the parent manifests for the welfare of his one child? The teacher, in his arduous duties, needs sympathy and encouragement, and if parents would have him faithful to the best interests of their children, they must cordially offer them. They must, at the commencement of his duties, make advances towards him,—cultivate his acquaintance and friendship,-elicit from him his views of instruction and government, and cheerfully cooperate with him, in his efforts to sustain a salutary discipline and to promote the improvement of his pupils. In illustration of the extensive benefits of this procedure, your committee might appeal to numerous facts exhibited in the Abstract of Reports, to which they have already alluded.

But should we remove every obstacle, and afford the teacher every facility, your committee could not anticipate, from the present modes of instruction, and from the entire development of those elements of the mind, upon which it is exclusively brought to bear, the noble results, which should ever be borne in mind, in training the young. They cannot, therefore, before closing, forbear to direct your attention to a few considerations, which every one must deem of vast importance, in relation to the great interests of education Your committee would not undervalue the system of education, as devised by our forefathers. Its conception was a novel and a noble one. Previously, no nation had, by law, made provision for the universal diffusion of knowledge among the people. Despotism had, indeed, as an act of self-defence, locked up the fountain of knowledge and cast away the key, lest its grovelling and submissive subjects should awake from their degradation, and arouse themselves to tear off


their galling chains. But, the arrival of the pilgrims to the shores of this New World, was the commencement of a new era in the history of mental and moral cultivation. Leaving behind them the stagnant pools of knowledge, they saw that every rock in the wilderness, when smitten by the genius of universal improvement, might be made to send forth streams that would diffuse through all the walks of life, the elements of knowledge and virtue. The school system, which is so marked a feature in the institutions of this Commonwealth, had its origin in this conviction. They saw, that to fit man for self-government, he must be rendered not only intelligent, but virtuous. And the system, as devised by them, looked directly to this twofold result. They, therefore, made the training of the moral and religious nature, the corner stone of the superstructure which they reared; regarding intellectual cultivation simply as a means in the attainment of this sublime result. But through the untoward circumstances of later times, the most essential feature of the system, as left by them, has died out, leaving little else than its dry bones. Almost the only instrumentality it exerts at the present day, is in the cultivation of the intellectual powers, while the moral virtues, so essential to the well-being of the community, are left to take care of themselves, as they best may. And wbile your committee heartily rejoice in the means, with which the rising generation are favored, for the improvement of the head, they would still more rejoice in any provisions which may be devised, for the cultivation of the heart. A system of education, in order to be perfect, should contemplate the balanced development and cultivation of the entire nature of man. And, to promote his excellence and happiness—to render him a valuable member of society—to accustom him to aspire, by the regular and conscientious discharge of all his duties, to the happiness which is the result of moral rectitude, are the great ends which should be kept in view, in the education of all. Indeed, every faculty of the soul must be duly cultivated, in order to produce a character, that, considered with reference to its temporal and spiritual interests, shall be entire, wanting nothing." But if this be true, our system is destitute of one feature indispensably necessary to the production of this result; and, of course, such a result cannot be expected from it. This might be shown by various analogies, but it will be deemed sufficient for the present purpose, to ask, if we should expect that the plant growing in the shade, where not a single ray of light was allowed to convey to it the genial influence of heaven, would unfold its excellent and inherent properties? Should we expect that the child, whose chest was swathed almost to suffocation, would develop its physical properties, in all their beauty, harmony and strength ? As little might we expect that a community of rational beings would attain to the highest perfection of their nature, one part of which was designedly deprived of its appropriate nourishment; or like a precious jewel, locked up forever in its material casket.

But, with regard to the restoration of this last feature of the school system, many may have doubts of its practicability. It may be thought that existing sectarian differences present an insuperable obstacle. Your committee, however, representing three of the sects, think otherwise. They know it has been done, and they think it may be done again. They know that in Prussia, a nation which is outstripping all other nations, in the perfectness of its system of common education, it is most successfully accomplished ; and this too, without the least interference with any one's peculiar religious views. There, all sects, new lights and old lights, and sects that have no light at all, exist and are alike tolerated by the government; and there, every child that enters the Common School, while he pursues one course of training for the head, is subjected to another for the improvement of the heart. The same may be done in this country, and while every parent and child is left free to form his own religious faith, your committee trust that the time is not far distant, when suitable books will be prepared and introduced into our schools, which shall impress on the minds of our children a sense of their moral and social obligations, and which shall contribute to make them, not only intelligent, but virtuous citizens.




S (1) Population, 1,789. Valuation, $367,714 00.

Number of Public Schools, 12. (2) No. of Scholars of all ages in all the Schools—In Summer, 356-In Winter, 527. (3) Average attendance in the Schools—In Summer, 287—In Winter, 414. (4) No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age in the town, 485.—No. of persons under 4

years of age who attend School, :-No. over 16 years of age who attend School, (5) Aggregate length of the Schools, 65 mths. 7 days --In Summer, 35--In Winter, 30 7. (6) No. of Teachers in Summer-M.-F. 12.--No. of Teachers in Winter—M. 9—F. 5. (7) Average wages paid per month including board—To Males, $26 87--To Females, $11 61. (8) Average value of board per month Of Males, $8 00–Of Females, $6 06. (9) Average wages per month exclusive of board-Of Males, $18 87–Of Females, $5 56. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of

Teachers, board and fuel, $1,000. (11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $ (12) No. of incorporated Academies, - Aggregate of months kept, --Average No. of

Scholars, .-Aggregate paid for tuition, $ (13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common

Schools, 5.-Aggregate of months kept, 9.-Average No. of Scholars, 45.-Aggre

gate paid for tuition, $135. (14) Amount of Local Funds, $3,400 00.-Income from same, $204 00.

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BOOKS USED.- -Spelling-Webster's. Reading-New York and Franklin Primers, Child's Guide, Intelligent Reader, American First Class Book Grammar-Pond's Murray's. Geography_Olney's, Malte-Brun’s. Arithmetic-Emerson's and Adams'.

REMARK.—Some items, as to four Private Schools, not given.

Your committee are happy to say, that they have been allowed to perform their duties, as prescribed by statute, without any obstructions being intentionally thrown in their way.

The committee think, and are happy to say, that, in their opinion, an uncommon degree of harınony has prevailed, during the year, between teachers and scholars, and between different portions of districts, which has had a very favorable influence upon the interests of the schools. The services of the most skilful and faithful teacher may be, and frequently are, rendered nearly useless, by the quarrels and jealousies of different factions in a neighborhood. It is unavoidable, but that dissensions among the parents, should extend to their children. And, when neighborhoods are distracted by divisions, it is hardly possible, but that the school teacher should be the favorite of one party, and be opposed by another.

Several of the district agents have manifested a very commendable degree of interest in procuring suitable teachers, showing, that it was not their great object to get through the year, by expending the least possible amount of time and labor for the schools. They have not been ready at once to employ every strolling youth, who seeks the office of a school teacher; but have taken the liberty and trouble, to examine the applicant themselves, in regard, at least, to his general appearance, and common sense. And, if all agents would do this we should be burdened with fewer unprofitable teachers. The committee are sometimes called upon to examine those, who have the requisite book-knowledge, but whose general appearance is inferior, and decidedly unfavorable. But, when the examination in books is satisfactory, it is a delicate thing for the committee to tell one, whom the agent has employed, that they cannot approbate him, because he carries his head too high, or too low, is ioo rustic and awkward, or has too much affected refinement; circumstances, nevertheless, which do much in affecting the qualifications of a teacher. But this can easily be managed by the agent. He may refuse to employ one, whose appearance is unfavorable, and assign reasons, or not, as he pleases. *

The manner, in which portions of the town are districted, is decidedly unfavorable to the interests of education in those sections. It makes great inequality in the advantages enjoyed from public instruction. Some of the schools are in operation seven or eight months in a year, and others not more than

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three or four months, and one or two not so long even as this. Whether this can be remedied or not, it cannot be denied, that it is a serious evil. The more uniform the means of education can be made, the better will be promoted the interests of a popular government, as well as the interests of the individuals, who compose it. The committee would suggest, that this inequality in receiving the benefits of the public money, be a matter of careful inquiry, by those who distribute it. Some of the districts have met the evil of small appropriations, by employing female teachers, in winter as well as in summer,-and the committee highly approve of this course. The services of our female teachers, with but few exceptions, are more valuable, than those of our male teachers. It is a mistaken idea, that females should be employed to instruct only in the first rudiments of education. We have female teachers, every year, who are amply qualified to instruct the larger boys, who attend any of our schools; and, if they could submit to be taught by a female, they would receive very profitable instruction.

There is a section of the school laws, which reads thus ; "any two or more contiguous school districts, in this Commonwealth may associate together, and form a union district, for the purpose of maintaining a union school, to be kept for the benefit of the older children of such associated districts, if the inhabitants of each of such districts shall, at legal meetings, called for that purpose, agree to form such union, by a vote of two thirds of the legal voters thereof." The committee are interested in this provision, and would recommend, that experiments be tried. By a union of two or more such districts, as could conveniently be brought together, schools, taught exclusively by females for the smaller children, might be kept in operation as large a portion of each year, as they now are, in each district, and a high school might be kept in some central place, at least three or four months of the year, for the older scholars, where should be taught, exclusively, the higher branches; thus furnishing all the advantages of a high school, without any private expense for tuition.

Among the school laws of this State is the following ;

“From and after the first day of April, in the year eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, no child, under the age of fifteen years, shall be employed to labor in any manufacturing establishment, unless such child shall have attended some public or private day school, where instruction is given, by a teacher, qualified according to the first section of the twenty-third chapter of the Revised Statutes, at least three months of the twelve months, next preceding any and every year, in which such child shall be so employed. The owner, agent, or superintendent of any manufacturing establishment, who shall employ any child in such establishment, contrary to the provisions of this act, shall forfeit the sum of fifty dollars for each offence, to be recovered, by indictment, to the use of Common Schools, in the towns, respectively, where such establishments may be situated.”

Your committee are of opinion, that this wholesome law has not, in all cases, been observed, in this town, during the last year. And they are also seriously of the opinion, that the welfare of children, families, and of the town, imperiously demands, that it should be regarded. It has been the object of your committee, to make elementary instruction, such as reading, spelling, writing, and arithmetic, hold a very prominent place in the schools. Scholars and parents often underrate the importance of these branches of education, and exhibit an iinpatience to go on to something higher; which is like attempting to raise the roof of a building, before the body of it is put up, or like using the smoothing plane before the fore plane or drawing knife is applied. There are cases like this.—Two persons are associates of about the same age. One, from circumstances peculiarly propitious, enjoys great advantages for acquiring knowledge, and makes rapid improvement; the other, on account of poorer advantages, and, perhaps, smaller abilities, makes slower progress. The first becomes a good reader and speller; the second is quite deficient in these important branches. The first is prepared for the higher branches of education ; and the second, unwilling to be behind in appearance, if he is in reality, wishes to study the same branches. The committee and teacher advise to a different course. But the scholar prefers his own way, and enlists the sympathy of his

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parent in his behalf; and there is great complaint of partiality. It is not seen, why those, who associate together, may not read and study together. Now, what can be more ruinous to the education of the child, than to have him crowded along in this way? No education can be valuable, except it be thoroughly elementary.

Parents should coöperate vigorously with teachers, in watching over the morals of the scholars, lest, while their intellectual faculties are cultivated, their moral principles become corrupted. Unless there is careful and untiring watchfulness, our schools will exert a vitiating influence upon the rising generation. In some instances, there has been serious interruption, from irregular attend

The scholar, who is kept from school a day or two in a week, or who goes at a late hour, suffers very serious inconvenience. He must either leave his class, or omit a portion of the studies, which inevitably creates confusion, and consequent discouragement. If a scholar can be spared to attend only three fourths of the time the school keeps, he had much better have this time unbroken, either at the first, or middle, or close of the school, than to continue through all of it, by attending three days in four.

The committee have noticed, in a few instances, that manual labor, such as sewing, braiding straw, and the like, has been introduced into schools. But, supposing this to be entirely foreign from the design of Common Schools, they have decidedly disapproved of it, and directed teachers not to allow it.

In conclusion, your committee would urge, upon the citizens of this town, who are bearing a great burden of expense in sustaining our schools, to watch over their interests with great care. The education, which the mass of their children will obtain, will be acquired in our Common Schools. And such are the facilities, which these schools may be made to furnish, that a person, who has not the means of affording other instruction, may here give his children a very reputable education. Aud education, connected with virtue, will prepare the rising generation for respectability and usefulness. But ignorance, connected, as it too often is, with vice, debases a man beneath a brute, and renders him miserable and burdensome.





HUBBARDSTON, {ru) Population, 1,780: Valuation, $314,467 00. (2) No. of Scholars of all ages in all the Schools—In Summer, 488—In Winter, 635. (3) Average attendance in the Schools—In Summer, 378—In Winter, 479. (4) No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age in the town, 570.-No. of persons under 4

years of age who attend School, 42.-No. over 16 years of age who attend School, 80. (5) Aggregate length of the Schools, 68 mths. 8 days.-In Summer, 32 14-In Winter, 35 22. (6) No. of Teachers in Summer—M. –F. 12.No. of Teachers in Winter-M. 7-F. 8. (7) Average wages paid per month, including board_To Males, $28 42—To Females, $ 12 58. (8) Average value of board per month-of Males, $7 78—Of Females, $5 79. (9) Average wages per month, exclusive of board-Of Males, $20 64—of Females, $6 79. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of

Teachers, board and fuel, $1,128. (11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $50. (12) No. of incorporated Academies, .-Aggregate of months kept, :-Average number of

Scholars, -Aggregate paid for tuition, $ (13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common

Schools, 3.-Aggregate of months kepi, 108.- Average No. of Scholars, 91.- Aggre.

gate paid for tuition, $181 67. (14) Amount of Local Funds, $1,200 00.-Income from same, $72 00.

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