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(7) Average wages paid per month, including board-To Males, $28 26-To Females, $13 09. (8) Average value of board per month-Of Males, $8 26—Of Females, $5 38. (9) Average wages per month, exclusive of board-Of Males, $20 00-Of Females, $7 71. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of Teachers, board and fuel, $400.
(11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $
(12) No. of incorporated Academies, .-Aggregate of months kept, —Average number of Scholars, Aggregate paid for tuition, $
(13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common Schools, 4.-Aggregate of months kept, 9.-Average No. of Scholars, 114.-Aggregate paid for tuition, $218.
(14) Amount of Local Funds, $
.-Income from same, $
BOOKS USED.- -Spelling-Elementary. Reading-New Testament, Worcester's Primer and Second Book, Intelligent Reader. Grammar-Smith's. Geography-Hall's and Olney's. Arithmetic-Colburn's and Adams'. All others-Walker's Dictionary, Child's Assistant, Parley's History.
NO REPORT from School Committee.
SCHOOL COMMITTEE.-LEONARD TRACY, LEVI PIERCE.
(2) No. of Scholars of all ages in all the Schools-In Summer, 403—In Winter, 501. (3) Average attendance in the Schools-In Summer, 302-In Winter, 361.
(4) No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age in the town, 466.-No. of persons under 4
(1) Population, 1,640. Valuation, $339,206 00. Number of Public Schools, 12.
years of age who attend School, 32.-No. over 16 years of age who attend School, 46. (5) Aggregate length of the Schools, 55 mths. 21 days.—In Summer, 27 7-In Winter, 28 14. (6) No. of Teachers in Summer-M. -F. 11.-No. of Teachers in Winter-M. 9—F. 2. (7) Average wages paid per month, including board-To Males, $23 96-To Females, $10 32. (8) Average value of board per month-of Males, $5 85.-Of Females, $4 66.
(9) Average wages per month, exclusive of board-Of Males, $18 11—Of Females, $5 66. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of Teachers, board and fuel, $1,000.
(11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $45.
(12) No. of incorporated Academies, 1.-Aggregate of months kept, 9.-Average No. of Scholars, 25.-Aggregate paid for tuition, $285.
(13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common Schools, Aggregate of months kept, 4.-Average No. of Scholars, 25.-Aggregate paid for tuition, $36.
(14) Amount of Local Funds, $ .-Income from same, $
BOOKS USED.-Spelling-National. Reading General and American First Class Books, Easy Lessons and Sequel. Grammar-Pond's Murray's. Geography-Olney's, Smith's, Malte-Brun's and Parley's. Arithmetic-Colburn's, Smith's, Adams' and Emerson's. All others-Bible, Blake's Astronomy, Watts on the Mind and Blake's Philosophy.
REMARK.-The number of Private Schools is not given.
SELECTIONS FROM REPORT. * Your committee find occasion for congratulation and encouragement, as well as continued effort in behalf of our Common Schools. * * *
Much higher qualifications are now required of teachers than formerly, and it has, in some instances, been the painful duty of the committee, to reject those whom we would gladly recommend. We have felt our situation, in this respect, to be delicate and highly responsible, and while we would regard with
tenderness, the feelings of the candidate, we are bound to regard, as of paramount importance, the good of a whole district. It is extremely desirable, that no teacher should, on any account, commence his school until examined; and that the teacher should be presented for examination long enough beforehand, to afford time for securing another, in case the first should fail of obtaining a recommendation.
The committee have been uniformly impressed with the absolute necessity of good order in schools, and we fear that the present tendency is downward, in this respect, to a very great extent; not that we think schools are more imperfectly governed now than formerly, but that the government has become more difficult. When we consider that the foundation of social order and subordination, and even of civil government, is laid in the communities where our children meet to form their habits and views, too much attention cannot be paid to the best regulation of the schools. Parents and others, who are immediately interested, should often visit them, and countenance and aid the teacher in the support of good government. It will be of baneful and destructive tendency, to have children and youth understand, that they will be sustained in disorderly conduct. The whole influence of the district should be thrown into the scale of good order and salutary restraints.
We are happy to state, that attention has been paid to some extent, to the improvement of the schoolhouses. The one in district No. 5 has undergone a thorough repair, and been furnished with a ventilator. A new and commodious house has been erected in district No. 1, for the small scholars, and it is with no small satisfaction, that we have witnessed their better accommodation, and consequent proficiency and delight in attending school. We believe that the children of some other districts would not complain, were their houses rendered more comfortable.
Your committee would again invite your attention to the subject of school apparatus. There are studies which cannot well be pursued without some appropriate apparatus, to explain and illustrate. A few articles, such as a small, cheap globe, cubic blocks, a black-board, and perhaps a small orrery, should be found in every school. The cost of them would be trifling, and the benefit would more than compensate for the expense, in one year. For want of them, the young scholar must labor days and weeks, in painful obscurity and darkness of apprehension, when the whole might be cleared up in a few hours or minutes, by the help of a suitable apparatus, and the bright eye and smiling face would show how much satisfaction had been felt by the child, while the darkness was passing away from his mind.
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In conclusion, we cannot forbear inviting your attention to the vital importance of having a good moral and religious influence exerted, in all our schools. This is the great secret of the noble and successful system of education, adopted in Prussia. The Bible sheds its benign radiance over all their schools. We desire not the inculcation of any sectarian views, nor any labored instruction in a system of theology. But the influence of christianity should be felt in every school-room. It should be seen and known, that we are not a nation of heathOur religion is, above all other things, adapted to the development of the human faculties, to elevate and strengthen the powers of mind, and give it the wisest and best possible direction. It is favorable to all good ornament, to science, the arts of invention, to liberty, public economy, patriotic feeling, and whatever concerns the well being of men and nations.
SCHOOL COMMITTEE.-CYRUS MANN, CHARLES HUDSON, FLAVEL CUTTING.
S (1) Population, 1,802. Valuation, $329,335 75.
(2) No. of Scholars of all ages in all the Schools-In Summer, 419-In Winter, 538. (3) Average attendance in the Schools-In Summer, 296-In Winter, 411.
(4) No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age in the town, 422.-No. of persons under 4
years of age who attend School, 89.-No. over 16 years of age who attend School, 169.
(5) Aggregate length of the Schools, 47 mths. 12 days.-In Summer, 26-In Winter, 21 12. (6) No. of Teachers in Summer-M. -F. 10.-No. of Teachers in Winter-M. 9-F. 2. (7) Average wages paid per month, including board-To Males, $26 69-To Females, $11 66. (8) Average value of board per month-Of Males, $6 48-Of Females, $5 63. (9) Average wages per month, exclusive of board-Of Males, $20 22—Of Females, $6 03. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of Teachers, board and fuel, $900.
(11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $
(12) No. of incorporated Academies, .-Aggregate of months kept,
Scholars, Aggregate paid for tuition, $
(13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common Schools, 3.-Aggregate of months kept, 7.-Average No. of Scholars, 95.-Aggregate paid for tuition, $392.
(14) Amount of Local Funds, $
-Average number of
-Income from same, $
BOOKS USED-Spelling-Lee's. Reading-Porter's Rhetorical Reader, American First Class Book, Sullivan's Political Class Book, Mount Vernon Reader, Juvenile Lessons. Grammar-Smith's. Geography-Smith's and Peter Parley's. Arithmetic-Colburn's, Adams' New. All others-Goodrich's History of the U. S., Watts on the Mind.
REMARK.-The number, over 16 years of age, returned as attending the schools, seems improbably large, but the face of the return allows no room for doubt.
SELECTIONS FROM REPORT. * * While we are happy in being able to make so favorable a report, there are very considerable hindrances in the way of the attainable success of our Common Schools. The time of school-keeping is quite too short. In one district, the winter school was but little more than a month, and generally, but about two months. The summer schools are about as long. Now, instead of wondering that our schools accomplish no more, we have reason to wonder that they accomplish so much. It is exceedingly desirable, that the summer and winter schools should continue one half the year.
* * *
The seats, in some of the schoolhouses, are inconvenient and uncomfortable, especially for small children. They are required to sit, and to sit still, on seats where they have no place to rest their feet. Any one, by trying it, would find such a seat very uncomfortable. Some further attention to the internal construction and comfortableness of the schoolhouses, is deemed quite important. The new houses, recently built in the west part of the town, are well constructed, and the seats very easy and convenient. Every thing, in and about the schoolhouse, should be neat and pleasant. It is very important to please the eye of children, and that all the associations of the school-room should be agreeable. Everything uncomfortable, slovenly, gloomy, or prison-like, in the schoolhouse, will have a disastrous influence upon the improvement of the child.
The committee would suggest to the town, the importance of establishing a school of a higher character than our district schools, and equal to what is required of towns containing five hundred families, to be sustained at least one fourth part of the year. One important object of such a school would be, to give the older and more advanced scholars, in the several schools, an opportunity of pursuing their studies somewhat further than they can now, without the expense and trouble of going abroad. The expense of such a school, namely, the wages of the teacher, fuel, &c., might easily be borne by the town, giving each district an equal privilege of sending a number of scholars, in proportion to the number of scholars in the district. Thus fifty of the older scholars might, one quarter of the year, have the means of improvement in their education, gratis.
A school of this kind, well sustained, would be very creditable to the town, might aid in furnishing an adequate number of teachers for the schools, and be in other respects of great and permanent utility to it.
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The committee would recommend to the several districts, to provide their schools with maps and globes, if no other apparatus can be afforded. For example, a good map of the United States, and a map of the world, hung up in
the school-room, would greatly aid the scholars in the study of geography, and be very useful to the whole school. A small globe would also be of great use, in giving the school a correct idea of the figure and motion of the earth. Some schools are furnished with miniature representations of the solar system. Ten dollars would procure a valuable school apparatus. Probably a school thus furnished would, in one term, with a competent teacher, obtain more correct knowledge of geography, and some other branches of useful knowledge, than they would in twice the time, without such aids. It is found the truest economy, by those who have tried it, thus to furnish our schools.
SCHOOL COMMITTEE.-ELISHA MURDOCK, LUTHER RICHARDSON.
(2) No. of Scholars of all ages in all the Schools-In Summer, 1,294-In Winter, 1,488. (3) Average attendance in the Schools-In Summer, 1,071-In Winter, 1,159.
(4) No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age in the town, 1,900.-No. of persons under 4
years of age who attend School, 113.-No. 6ver 16 years of age who attend School, 87. (5) Aggregate length of the Schools, 249 mths. 21 days.—In Summer, 125 6—In Winter, 124 15. (6) No. of Teachers in Summer-M. 4—F. 25.—No. of Teachers in Winter-M. 16-—F. 17. (7) Average wages paid per month, including board-To Males, $38 55-To Females, $14 03. (8) Average value of board per month-Of Males, $10 66—Of Females, $7 15.
(9) Average wages per month, exclusive of board-Of Males, $27 89-Of Females, $6 88. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of Teachers, board and fuel, $7,600.
(11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $93 50.
(12) No. of incorporated Academies, 1.-Aggregate of months kept, 11-Average number of Scholars, 70.-Aggregate paid for tuition, $1,473.
S (1) Population, 7,117. Valuation, $2,357,896 30.
(13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common Schools, 7.-Aggregate of months kept, 83.-Average No. of Scholars, 128.-Aggregate paid for tuition, $1,899.
(14) Amount of Local Funds, $
.-Income from same, $
BOOKS USED.- -Spelling-Franklin Primer, Gallaudet's Picture and Defining Book, Lee's Spelling Book, Emerson's National do. Reading-Bible, Testament, Young Lady's Class Book, Porter's Analysis, Porter's Rhetorical Reader, Mount Vernon Reader for Middle Classes, Pierpont's Introduction to the National Reader, Improved Reader, Leavitt's Easy Lessons, Gallaudet's Book on the Soul-Parts 1 and 2. Grammar-Alger's and Murray's large and small and Exercises. Geography-Worcester's, Smiley's, Field's, Peter Parley's. Arithmetic-Colburn's First Lessons, Adams', Smith's, Colburn's Algebra, Grund's Geometry. All others-Parker's Progressive Exercises in English Composition, Gay's Astronomy and Keith on the Globes (abridged), Comstock's Natural Philosophy, Conversations on Chemistry, Blair's Rhetoric, Wayland's Moral Science, Swift's Philosophy," and a variety of others."
SELECTIONS FROM REPORT. * * The school contains many good scholars and a fair proportion of talent; but, as a whole, it is backward, and of a character inferior to many of our other schools. The causes of this are obvious, and ought to be remedied without delay. One cause is, the too limited time for which it is continued, each year. The district is small;-the amount of money, received from the town, is sufficient for only one half, or two thirds of the usual time of keeping schools; and the district, so far from adding to this small sum, by subscription, as some other districts do, applied six dollars of it, the last season, to the purchase of fuel. A school for six or eight weeks only, in the winter, is hardly worth the trouble of opening. But another cause, of most decisive influence, is the miserable state of the schoolhouse. It is about thirty years old; much too small; ventilated only by cracks in the windows and doors, and badly warmed, and the desks most uncomfortably arranged. All literary improvement, in such a place, is utterly hopeless. * ** A principal cause of the superiority of these schools is found in the accommodations, pro
vided for both teachers and scholars. There is a comfortable and tolerably well arranged schoolhouse ;-though, even here, the desks are objectionable, being made to contain three or four individuals.
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* * In this schoolhouse, as in that of No. 6, the children are placed on stools, without backs, or any resting parts, and required to sit up, for more than an hour at a time, by a mere exertion of muscular power. In the forcible language of one of the visiting committee, "these are stools of torture, and the uneasiness, which the position creates, is so great, that nothing, but the fear of greater bodily suffering, will keep small scholars still, upon them." Your committee fully concur in the remark of the same gentleman, "that these districts ought never to open these houses again for another school, until they are refitted in a proper manner." It would be gratifying to the committee, to make each school, in every district, a subject of more extended remark; but this would enlarge the report so far as to weary the patience of the town. The branches, generally taught in these schools, are orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, composition; in some of them, the elements of history, and natural philosophy. The utility of introducing these two last into our Common Schools, may well be doubted; at least, while these schools are prolonged but ten or eleven weeks; it is but little more than a show of knowledge, which can be here imparted, in addition to the other numerous and more useful branches, to which the attention of youth is first directed.
In district No. 5, a class of ten or twelve children, between the ages of eight and twelve years, appeared at an examination, who recited, before they sat down, in grammar, arithmetic, geography, mental philosophy, natural philosophy, history and chemistry. Their daily exercises embraced also reading, writing and spelling. The absurdity of crowding so many studies, at once, upon such minds, or upon any minds, and, in a school of fifty scholars, from four years old to twenty-one, which is kept only ten weeks, is too obvious to need comment. It was done, as the master said, against his own judgment, in compliance with the wishes of parents.
Your committee are informed, that there are, in the hands of the present and former boards of selectmen, more than five hundred dollars, received from the State school fund, which, by law, it is the duty of the town to appropriate for the benefit of schools. Though not, perhaps, strictly within their province, they venture to suggest the expediency of taking immediate measures for making a judicious application of this money, and all sums, hereafter to be realized, to their legitimate objects. They may enable the several districts to procure, in a few years, a valuable library for the elder members of their schools, and for those, whose school education has been finished, comprising, if approved of, all the publications of the Board of Education, and such other books, or such different books, as may be desirable.
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In conclusion, your committee have pleasure in being able to congratulate the town, and their fellow citizens throughout the community, upon the present condition of our system of popular education. If the town will continue its fostering care, and shall place over it, committees of able, impartial, devoted working men, selected with exclusive regard to their fitness, and not in reference to their political relations, your committee believe it will soon attain a degree of perfection, honorable to the town, and gratifying to our common country.
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SCHOOL COMMITTEE.-SAMUEL M. BURNSIDE, THOMAS KINNICUTT, ELAM SMALLEY, SETH SWEETSER, MATURIN L. FISHER, EDWIN CONANT, JOHN WRIGHT, A. D. FOSTER, ALBERT TOLMAN.