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Near the palace stood the cathedral, admiring sovereign and lover, Casimir where they paid a visit to the tombs the Great Like her namesake in of the kings of Poland froin Sigismund history, she was the means of obtainI., of the line of Jagellon, down to ing for her people privileges and Augustus II., King of Poland, Elector exemptions, which they have ever of Saxony, and father of more children since continued to enjoy. than were ever claimed by Grand Being invited to the seat of a Turk or Persian Shah. Readers in- country gentleman or noble--for all terested in this tour of ours have been whom they met in their progress introduced to him already, both at outside towns were either nobles or Berlin and Dresden. The bones of serfs--they were struck with the unthe noble John Sobieski were laid tidiness of court-yards, of lawns, and there, but no monument had been approaches; but nothing could exceed sculptured in his honour. In speaking the warmth of their welcome, and on the subject of this brave prince to the agreeable manners and unaffected Polish noblemen during their stay in politeness of their hosts. French the country, they were surprised to was the vehicle of thought and comfind but little enthusiasm. They pliment, and the master of the looked on what he had done for Austria Chateau discovering the extent of in 1863 from a selfish point of view. his guest's classic acquirements, “Ila the Turk even taken Vienna, varied the conversation with wellhe would never have been able to constructed Latin. A true Pole, the retain it,” said they.. " His power tall fur bonnet covered his well-shorn w.us declining at the time. Sobieski head; a hussar jacket with loose merely precipitated his downfall, and sleeves "clipped" him round; a sword, strengthened the hands of the house broad and Tong, depended from his of Ilapsburg against us. Moreover side, and embroidered boots adorned he obtained the band of the Emperor's and defended his limbs. Our guests sister for his son James, a proceeding observed that hospitable as were which so displeased the nobles that their noble entertainers, all the guests on his death they would not select were not on an equal footing, Above one of his line to succeed him.” the salt-cellar, as in the Waverley Besides all these objections, they novels, rich wines flowed, and choice reproached his memory with undue meats were eaten, while food and complaisance to a violent-tempered drink of inferior quality were found and selfish wife, and with his avarice below that useful ornament. The pot exceeded by that of Vespasian. descendants of any person originally They overlooked the saving of his noble continued noble while they land by the terrible victory gained did not engage in commerce or follow over the Turks at Choczim; they a profession; and as the estates were forgot his valour, his clemency, his in most cases subdivided among the piety, and his other great qualities, children, some nobles were seated and left to the rest of Europe the beside the Englishmen whose lands task of forming a juster estimation of varied in extent from three to seven his noble nature. But for the many acres. These and their larger-estated obstacles that intervened, Charles relations and neighbours had, thereXII. would have prosecuted his fore, no choice in the social arrangeplan of raising one of his sons to the ment. One should sit at his fellow throne of Poland. That inan of iron noble's table, the other should extend nerves shed tears over the tomb of ungrudging hospitality; but unless Sobieski at Cracow, exclaiming, there was a certain measure attending "Such a king should never have this display, the large estate would died !"
shortly find itself in the mortgage In the gardens of another palace book of Levi or Moses, in his squnlid (now in ruins) on the north side of back parlour in Cracow* or Warsaw. the city, they saw a mound raised So the rich Hungarian wines, Tokay four hundred years since to the or other, waited on the stranger or memory of a Jewish Esther by hor the large-landed piast above the
The Jews were not allowed to dwell within the city of Cracow proper. The suburb called Casimir formed their quarter.
salt-cellar, and the noble of the few land which he miglit call lis own, acres made himself as comfortable as and till on certain days of the week, circumstances permitted lower down; giving his time and attention during and if he was a wise and reasonable the other days to the fields of his in in, he acquired in the justice of master. The lord of the soil pokecthe arrangement.
ins aloht knowleden of agricultural Rirely find the strangers seen more che zuistry, and the nerf newlatever, natural puliteness and a reability of the cultivation was conduted in a manuer than with the ladies of the cards and haphazard fussion. Rofamily, constil.s of the mather and tation of crupos, not having been hear three daughters, and two or three of in thirme simple days, especially neighbouring charelaines. Of that in Sarmatia, thiy pocarded as di coldness perceptible at first an oldin our own farmers and philants sonic the high and comparatively iii in forty, or fituyente since they forined daines of Vienna there was posted mi fu w fili, upplied not a vestige from the first bow and it with whatever maput they could courtesy that took place; and the provide, and will ap tato or sine Enginlimen found them vea as if sier cringe Vest year wheat was in a circle of long known fuels or cirunitted to the maine mail, and the relatives. Being aware of the that me in the land renainefallos, plete establishment of Herflein, The qenity of lulul 1. uel tu familiar an institution antico tlou sit varme i from ten to foity or Sarmatian peoplov, tl. y experti Itu tin: 11 It he worked for his loral Bte the di muretics d ing tai ir d fy (0, 'plut duty days he was puid un krthe influen r of aw or territ. fr .ti.zep to sirine per day witty Tiry were murh, an. I, indel, il mod 7. f Wala 3 at tint time in that bly, dinapos vint-il. Without pitiled dtry, then wilt of a large oH fram ment tl. appurance of food join in kind wat veriut. af tiny papat, they wont ab 1! Ne budi tipolog tlies chaty Fair. As thirir kilipoma with a frien and may be alsmil, time was no din
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Before quitting their friendly enter- Descending by means of the primitainers they were taken to witness tive rope and basket for about 200 the marriage of a young couple of the feet, they were conducted through serf class, and certainly it presented lofty and airy passages leading to two some novel features. The bride wore, chapels. Statues, altars, candlesticks, a gold-laced jacket, fitting tightly to pillars, and all the appurtenances of her figure and completely covering a house of worship, were carved out breast and neck. On her parted hair of the solid salt, which sparkled and she wore a cap of gold thread and a glittered as if formed of finely-cut nosegay. Her hair fell down her diamond, as the light fell on them back in profusion, and was orna- from the lamps held by the guides. mented with rose-coloured ribbons. Descending lower by means of ladders, Our visiters found the room well they entered a vast white hall, the filled with company, all more or less sides and floor cut with surprising tipsy, and the bride, sitting with her regularity, and extending, as well as back to the wall, determined to main- the height, to some hundreds of feet. tain her sobriety ; while the gallant This mine seems inexhaustible ; it bridegroom, sustaining his natural has been worked upwards of 600 bashfulness by sundry cups, paid years. The lowest depth attained court to his partner very earnestly, last century was about 1,200 feet. and prevailed on her from time to About 500 men were daily employed time to "sip the rosy,” as Dick in two drafts, each working twelve Swiveller was wont to say: She hours. They never slept below, nor accepted the beer; but when he insi- were women ever permitted to inake diously attempted kiss or caress, she a descent. used her fists in a very effective way In their progress to Warsaw the to teach him discretion before com- varieties of scenery that occupied pany. Six young peasants supported their attention were grassy plains, him in this trying hour ; and the marshes, and forests. Occasionally bride was kept in countenance by a in the depths of these forests they like number of bridesmaids, in dresses discovered a cultivated patch of land, similar to hers-flowers on their which, with its leafy border, afforded heads, coral beads round their necks. pleasure to the eyes and the mind. The bridle's mother, in the maudlin Sometimes, instead of the circular stage of beery inspiration, surveyed piece of cultivation, a lake presented her daughter with lazy satisfaction; itself. The Carpathian mountains, and dancing was kept up in the next left behind, and sinking to the horizon room by light-heeled damsels and with every mile they advanced, were young men with heavy iron-heeled the only eminences that cheered their boots. These, clashing against each eyes from their entrance into Poland. other, produced agreeable sounds in Having received timely warning, they the ears of the unsophisticated brought along with them a few of the company.
conveniences needful to travellers, Determined as Peregrine was, not for in the wretched wooden postto face the dangers of matrimony till houses shelter was all that could be his return to his native island, and obtained. The country seats of the cunningly and stoutly as he had re- nobles were unhappily very rare, or sisted the fair assailants of the Low out of the line of route; otherwise the Countries, of Saxony, and Vienna, he journey might have been a very had nearly succumbed to one of the agreeable one. beautiful and witching daughters of Their compassion was often moved the chateau. Finding himself" beaten by the spectacle of a poor serf sufferbehind his shield,” he drove Mentoring from the terrible plica polonica, out of the castle, and followed him every hair on his head injected with with desperate resolution, having diseased blood, and all forming one first taken an affecting farewell of inextricable mass. Cutting off the old and young. Then tutor and pupil hair or shaving the head even in an prepared for their northern journey, early stage of the disease did not first making a descent into the salt mend matters
. These operations, mine of Vielicza, which is to be found on the contrary, brought on blind a couple of leagues south of the ness or some other grievous malady. Vistula.
It has to be borne in mind that the country is a vast plain, very slightly a forcible abduction. The sovereign, inclining towards the north, and that seated at his palace-window, for the the water is of a bad quality. To benefit of the fresh air, would find his the water or the air the physicians royal nostrils visited by odours from then ascribed the disease ; but as the open sewers in the neighbourhood. victims were almost exclusively fur- But much of all these disagreenished by the very neediest and the ables, including the wretched apvery dirtiest portion of the populace, pearance of the poor, and others of it may be supposed that the foul air which we shall have occasion tospeak, of the houses, the filthy state of the were for the moment forgotten by clothing and of the dwellings, joined the English gentlemen, when sharing to the innutritious quality of the food, the brspitality of the British Ambashad much to do in producing and ag- sador, or made welcome in the noble gravating the malady.
mansions of the Czartoriskis or tie The approarlı to the capital pre- Zamoyskis. These reunions possessed sented no variety of scenery ; a wide all the charms which wait on the plain, interspersed with clusters of noble bearing and courtesy of educated birch and fir, extended to the gates. bigh-born men, and the loveliness A bridge, resting on beatx, connected and vivarity and grace of their wives, the city itself, which lies on the west and sisters, and darxhtera. If a Inx bank of the Vistula, to Praga the tone of morals under any this glowing eastern suburb. Warsaw coull no and delightful phine, it was not puermore boast of paved strects than ceptible at first. Tuere was no juconCracow. After a heavy shower they venience por awkwardness wining were totally impa sable by paded from translating their thoughta from trians, and those who ventured one language to another before exthrough them on horsebark or in prening them. There were present coaclics were inen of course. Juch individuals proficient in the French later than the time of our friends' tongue, from England, France, and visit, Prince Radzivil, proceedling in Germany; and the interchange of his coach to the palace, found cattle sentiments and sallies of wit went on and coach bronsht to a compete without effort or patise. The freedom stand-still within a hundred yu'ils of of #pesh on European questions and the royal linilding, the wheel, being on the State euncerns of the country firmly imbedded in the tenacious W.is remarkable. Proud and inde. mal. Is trusty foliers came to perdent as were the native noble, the rescue. They carefully extra ted there wax no diloyalty to the crown him froin the inside of the versies, expressed or implied in their converani bure bim on their shoulder sale, nation. Every one was an alwolute but rather a 'amed of the mole of priuce on his own wide plains and in envey.ee, tiil he was niey de los exten-ive forests; and Augustus puril on the paine sid.
III. late y el elevuld not effect the As in Cracow, the buklines were mohtest pitical or governmental citier palmei, prin rly to ide nos of cluasne with ut the fullet concurthe D-bility, or hover, with many frixe of the innates then in p**** bohes in the lire of it, and (u'r, and the others of their onler mans an ur-ghtly innes to pan an watered over the wile kingdom. edustele. A zen! (inmis. Farh feeling that in bunlt
' and his sjuger of Wide Streets of vurdy, funds will vespre tlie dreir'on of all emig alri, tip (1) aidh a sp. emelurer po porucil ly trhuns, and as awaited our visiters on tiveir entry that Augustus was tie there or stor into the Polish capital on a rany of what his comparts and he might day, would probably die va the apy at any time determine, experienes a * or at least be excredingiy s k” for lovely interest in the well-being and A time. The lighting its sluenco comfort of the Buveirign, and ex rather - corresponded to the clium hivted an unft ned loyalty and in Cracow; so that even as late as goud-will. So if any discussion arose, the year 1771, folk interested in the the elements of loyalty and disloyalty matter succeeded in seizing on the to the povereign weio not brought then sovereigu Stanisas, beated in into collision. Of all extern power the his carriage, and surrounded by his only one that was treated with hard guards and attendants, and effecting words was the House of Hapsburg.
It must not be inferred that grave of the country, and a brisk succession political questions absorbed the at- of questions and answers ensued. tention of the gay, and chivalrous, These, if given in detail, would preand beautiful, and graceful person- vent the subject of Poland being ages in these social gatherings. The concluded in this paper; so the precis presence of witty and fascinating only of the answers will be quoted. women brought round the discourse "One institution distinguishes the to those topics in which they felt an Slavonian people from the Celts and interest. Poetry, the drama, the Teutons, namely, the necessity of national meetings for the election of perfect unanimity among the conkings, music, dancing, dress-all were stituents for the passing of a public discussed. In one respect men and measure. A single dissentient voice women stontly resisted foreign in- will prevent the passing of the best fluence. However these or those measure ever devised. From the might prefer a king from one German time that Jagellon married King house or another, or royal scion of Louis's daughter, and added his Sweden or Denmark (they scarcely Duchy of Lithuania to our then small ever selected a king from among kingdom (about A.D. 1370), to the exthemselves), they would adopt no tinction of the Jagellon dynasty in foreign fashion in dress. The gentle- 1572, the accession to kingly power men would continue to use the cut was nominally by election; and from and style of garments already men- that to the present time this election tioned, the ladies would persist in has been neither pretence nor sham. the close-fitting gown, the fur-trim- It is the result of a genuine struggle; med outer robe, worn by their great- and if one person only choose to withgrandmother, the boots and the hold his vote from the man of general square-crowned cap of ancient days. choice, the labour is in vain. On the
What the strangers felt as the plain of Szopa, half a mile north of bitter something that always is sure the city, 100,000 persons have been to spring up in the sweetest combin- seen engaged with the important ation of human enjoyments, was the question of a successor to the throne; evident eagerness that inspired the the agents of the neighbouring counfeatures of every gentleman, when tries busily employed in promoting the card tables became the order of the interests of their respective soverthe evening. They found in their eigns; the rich nobles superbly dressed further experience, that of all causes and attended by their numerous fol. cards and dice were the most effective lowers, the poorer with their estates in reducing the size of estates from on their persons. For, while the some thousands of acres to the little poor man can trace his descent from field containing only seven or eight. one who was at any time noble, and
During a quiet evening spent with can show that he has never exercised the English ambassador and two or trade or profession, he enjoys the three really patriotic nobles, they Stolnik's vote.* You may iniagine learned the particulars attending the what anxiety, what maneuvres, and late election, which would not have sometimes what bribery is requisite occurred so soon had Augustus II., to bring the kingly electors or the that Saxon imitator of the great members attending a mere diet to a Hebrew pluralist, led the chaste life unanimous decision. There is one becoming a Christian man.
memorable instance of a restive in
dividual who set more value on his HOW POLAND WAS GOVERNED,
own wisdom than on that of all his Our visiters were naturally inquisi. brother senators. tive as to the national housekeeping “In 1652, the diet being in solemn
* N. W. Wraxall, writing forty-five years after our travellers had visited Warsaw, says:--"Mr. Wraughton, the English minister, was struck with surprise at seeing his butler put on a sabre, and without asking his permission, walk out to the Szopa. "Sir,' said the man to him by way of apology for his conduct; 'I am noble, and though I act in the capacity of your domestic, I am not less competent to be raised to the throne than the first nobleman in the republic.'" Was domestic service considered more noble in itself than trade or profession, or had the law altered in the intervening period, or did N, W. Wraxall invent, or was he mystified by his informant ?