visible hand of an avenging Provi- are beset with dangers on all sides, dence, and with a heart oppressed by now in the shape of bands of strong a despairing presentiment of evil, re- armed men, who press sorely upon us solves on meeting his fate.

when weak and weary, and now in “ Arm, arm, and out! the form of fair sirens who allure us If this which he avouches does appear,

with their seductive invitations to the There is no flying hence, nor tarrying here. very brink of destruction ; at every I'gin to be aweary of the sun,

moment and in every quarter there is And wish the estate o' the world were now evil to be watched for, boldly met, undone.

and bravely resisted. Not only is Ring the alarum bell. Blow wind! come this a necessary, but a wise arrange

wrack! At least we'll die with harness on our back.” world as an anomalous admixture of

ment. The sceptic looks upon the The tidings of the messenger prove good and evil, continually warring correct. Young Siward advances against each other, and the whole prewith Macdufo and Malcolm at the sided over by a Providence whose head of an army; they challenge the only wisdom seems to be to continually castle which soon falls into their strive to harmonize this eternal dishands, and Macbeth, after slaying cord by visiting the evil with punishSiward, is met by Macduff who en- ment, the good with reward, and gages him in that well-known combat, having quelled the disturbance in one and, after a fierce struggle, plunging quarter to turn again to some new his sword into the side of his enemy, outbreak; but the existence of evil avenges at one stroke the murder of in a moral constitution may not only Duncan, the assassination of Banquo, be consistent with the revealed charthe cruel massacre of his own wife acter of the Deity, but admitting the and children--the tragedy is ended. truth of a future state, it becomes Scotland is rid of a tyrant, justice has absolutely necessary to the fitting of asserted her rights, Malcolm receives beings morally imperfect for a state of his crown, and the curtain falls upon perfection, that both good and evil the avenger, the avenged, and the should surround them and form the victim.

elements of their discipline, the one In conclusion, this glorious drama attracting by the present and future should be read not only as an intel- happiness it confers, the other inlectual treat, with a critic's eye and a creasing their vigilance by augmentscholar's pencil, but as a great moral ing their danger. Then, instead of lesson, with an endeavour to elimin- being an anomaly it is a wise arrangeate from its poetic embellishments ment and a symmetrical balance, that and dramatic contingencies, the fun- in this world there should not be so damental truth which it contains. much good as to make us negligent The want of Macbeth and, in fact, the about striving against evil, nor so much general want of humanity is, power evil as to cause us to despair of posto resist evil. Our way through life sessing the good. lies through an enemy's country-we

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1 od 11. ?:po** West **.. in to be "ted as a model of metal, po*** rved, and ui. i*7*** k pun ints of rrap pink, and of taste; and sunce tot fe that one', in the left of t. it apparri, i lovers of truth, lowtn **** to the frichellfis, pulp. ever ditirult to live convinced, hare lesa in his eyes, but in Vlll. Hr, a but berlated to adopt his conclufast f.eant, aut format of the botime? inflørting of the learned and 21:19 The chief pieces in the publicatica Futward Lhuyd, yet he Liuyd bins were the partie al remains of Aneurin, lift thaimpianti preured. “Tie of Lywarch Hen, of Taliesin, and of owner profundine aktar than Merlin; and after the appearance of ohre, but terg diented by the Turner's way, the (niy remaining more in'n j .'!! than learnedd, he controversy was concerned with the revoked his post ne,"

greater or less accuracy of the texta. In our days the rich and noble After a careful Armutiny there preowners of archaeological treasures are, vailed a general understanding that with few excep10114, only lower happy the jwens of Llywarch Hen and to see their old who yellow, rd, Aneurin had suffered lut little by or blark, handia by a genuine bank interpolations or changes. Of Tahunter, but suh was not the ruir a lusiti's remains the greater portan century since. Our prazant of the Wils adjudged to have been retouched noble heart coming to the ope}41•pe 11 and altered before the twelfth cen. that inoney alone would forge a krytury. With regard to Merlin, or to open these dungeons of his loved Myrdhin, the archaeologista could not liternture, travelled up to London, print out a single stanza on which

in shop boy a furrier's in ihr Dronounce absolutely as having escaped all alteration. A suf- This introduction cannot be more ficient temptation was at work to appropriately closed than by quoting induce the adulteration of these a few lines from Count de la Villeportions of Taliesin's, and all of marqué, on the subject of the unselMyrdhin's poems: they were occu- fish and patriotic Cambrian, Owen pied with prophecy.

Jones = Count de la Villemarqué, in pre- * In a cemetery by the Thames, may be paring his “Bardes Bretonnes du seen a stone blackened by time, the wind, Sixième Siècle," made use of the and the fog, standing up against the wall. Myvyrian collection ; but as it was There is nothing remarkable about it, while intentionally printed without correc around, on every side, many a costly monu. tion of errors however manifest, he ment seems endeavouring, as Bossuet has compared the text with several MSS. admirably expressed it, to raise to the heato which he readily found access in thingness." It alone stands upright, and

vens the magnificent testimony of our nohis visits to England and Wales. We looks towards the east. The attitude of may dwell on some future occasion at his granite head-stone in the church-yard greater length on these scattered of All Hallows, was his own during his life. treasures. Here we shall only men- Inflexible in purpose even when he was tion their names, and the localities poor, and most violently assailed by the where they are religiously preserved. wind of adversity, he ever kept his eyes

The principal collections are those turned towards the beacon of light and of of Castle Hengurt, belonging to the progress, which the sacred love of country Vaughan family, and at present

pre- enkindled for him at the horizon.” served at Rug, Merionethshire; that Having introduced the authorities of the College of Jesus, at Oxford; to which there will he occasion to that of the Count of Macclesfield, refer, we proceed to the subject matformerly belonging to Sir William ters of this paper. Jones's father, that of the Mostyns of Gloddaith ; that of the Pantons of TEUTON LEGENDS NEGLECTED BY THE TROUVERES. Glas Gwyn, in Anglesey ; that of Sir Watkins William Wynne; and, final- The emigration from Britain to ly, that of the British Museum. Armorica, first in time, occurred about

Of these we shall mention a few the year 383, during the reign of of the more important manuscripts, Maximus. Several bodies of their beginning with the “ Black-book of countrymen followed these first adKerverzin or Caermarthen.” It ori- venturers, under pressure from the ginally belonged to the Church of Saxon intruders, tisl at last the Saxon St. David, and is now in the Castle monarch Ina considering the scarcity Hengurt collection. It contains many of people under his sway, sent, as it is of Llywarch Hen's genuine poems, said, deputies to these Armorican and several of the apocryphal ones Celts urging them to return, and of Taliesin and Merlin. No part of making them liberal promises. We it is more modern than the twelfth find no mention made of the return century. There is also in the Hen- of any considerable body, but it is gurt collection, a book of the time of certain that a feeling of intense Charles II., copied from older MSS. bitterness prevailed amongst them by the learned Robert Vaughan. It against the West-German possessors contains the poems of the celebrated of their parent country. triad of the sixth century.

At the period of the Norman invaThe fine Llyfr Coch (Red Book) of sion by William, there were among Herghest, a MS. of the fourteenth his forces a large number of Breton century, made from other more an- auxiliaries, urged by hatred of the cient ones, is preserved in Jesus' Saxons as much as the desire of acCollege, Oxford. It contains, along quiring glory and possession of ferwith several pieces in prose and verse, tile lands. all the poems of Llywarch Hen and After the Normans had firmly some of Taliesin's. From it, Lady established themselves in England, Guest selected and translated the it might be expected that their poets tales which she published under the would treat Teutonic subjects in their title of the "Mabinogion" (Children's lays, as it was little more than a cenStories), about a quarter of a century tury since their great chief, Rollo the since.

Ganger, had got footing in Northern France, changing his name for that ly of paganism, anda corrupt morality, of his gettinluer Rubeit. Yet such but still feeling the necessity of win: was not the case. We find none ning their bread by their poetical of the trouvères or their successors, faculty, adopted what was found at the Anglo-Surmans, singing the deeds hand." The Celtic races had been of the Aesir in their struggles with easily and early ennverted to the pure the giants, or the terrible wolf Fenris, doctrines of Christianity; and, in the or the equally terrible serpeut, or the days of William the Conqueror, had exploits of Siegtrid, and the unhapp a poetic fictional literature in fuil feud of Chrumlid and Brunhild blow. The early fear of allowing it No; we find them employing their to be leavened by papan images or talents on the fortunes of a provincial sentiments had passed away, and con. king in the west of England, or those sequently it had recovered some of of the knights of his court, of Charles the early attractive and mysterious Martel,* an Armorican magnate and charin possessed by the poetry of the his chief Thexe suljets were Pagan era. Seizing on the newly disvaried by some of a graver cast, such covered treasures with both hands. as the voyage of the Irish St. Bren- the Anglo orman minstrels Burn dain, written for the entertainment issued in an elaburate, and, as they of Adelair, wife of Henry Beaucrrc. supposed, a more perfect form, the Even as we tin the popular mytho- lays of Arthur's Court, and these lody of the Irish Gael received and stirring fictions where Christian adopted by their Anglo-Norman in- knights waged fierce war on the fola valers, and scare a trace left of what lowers of Jabound and Tennagant, thent

: last imported, bo the Norman and killed all whom they could not and Anglo-Norman harus of the tenth convert. and eleventh centuries are found From the year 1153, the Anglototally ignoring Vosse or German Norman minstrels were in prisotnaden sudjects, and those of the Welsh and of a mine of materials so necessary to Breton harus occupying their tongues their profession. In 1 Walter and pens. The presence of so many Calenius, & monk of Oxford, being in Bretons at the Ancie Norman Court, Brittany, borrowed (probably withmay in part account for this apurint out any defined purpme of returning aromalv; to wisich might be alded it a Breton manumeript entitled “Bruit the habitual resort of Cambrian and Brenhined" (Legend of the Kilis). Armoriran in not to the courts of He brought this boxne, and had it F anse and England. It is aim to be rendered into its cognate dialect the taken into account that Rodio and his Weish, and so it remained till the Northern chinta had received Chris learned Gentry of Monmouth made a tan bapti-un intele more than a on- Latin version of this betond hand tury to tie the battle of Hartinis, production, at the instance of Rulest and that the greatest care was bo Duke of Gloucester, an illegitimate tuweud by kinandalergy in cod.t1113 Bon of Henry I. laient content to constanty, that Fancy the delight of a hard with a.) audinion to man lagre bound be this Latin history in hand, or a a keviddel, and millones borsepe ms, Dew Frinch verrice of it, male liy and fiction Bathild be immuntes Robert Wace in 1155 for that unedia 11***], and let tand out of the pollicfying woman Eleanor of Provenie, mrinry is laas bet low, and reading therrirom a delightiul the Wurttien trousers beinz pre- series of romantic and make stories, Ventui frm empting their foring any of which, vertical and eme). tavourite the Me, alia bathing abroad. lished with some additional touches

The histry of the Archbishop Tarpin, relative to the explosite of Charle. mun, K'ani, d, datr frin alat il.. It was a resume of eplints attritated try Brombands to (hine Martel, hi kranilather, who was an Armenian lord. (hari masne was later in ditran tekirate i top wider cuburete, le dual fill inta the inheritanie of his 'dlathars deeds by the cunnivance of the baris of the twelfth exotury.

laugh there bew, it has set met with ever te Bucal Wehnow that Pagan muncratitions, the uriminal purpurt of wlucha ia au luthies selenlered, exist 4tlong


of- fancy, would be sure to delight father of the renowned King Bladud, the most fastidious assembly that was the architect, and his son excould be collected in court or castle. ceeded him in skill and deeds of fame.

It will not be amiss to furnish a He it was that established Caërbadus few glimpses of the subject matter of (Bath), and regulated its hot-baths, the old Breton romance, with which and, like St. Bridget in Kildare, kept some liberties were taken by the up a perpetual fire. Our common Welsh translator, by Geoffry, by proverb "Pride goes before a fall” Wace, and, subsequently, by Laya- --was probably not current in King mon, a Worcester priest, as it passed Bladud's youth, or he might not have successively into the Welsh, the perished by a too rapid

descent in one Latin, the French of the period, and of his aerial voyages. A lofty tumble the later Anglo-Saxon.

on the towers of Trinobantum ended

his career and introduced his illTHE BRITISH HISTORY OF GEOFFRY OF MONMOUTH. starred son, Lear, to the cares of a

crown, and his other well-known Brutus, great-grandson of Eneas, troubles.* unwittingly killed his father and In course of time the “Ferrex and mother, was banished to Greece, and Porrex” of the old dramatist ruled there performed deeds worthy of his Britain, the conscientious historian future fame. He afterwards moved being careful at intervals to mention westward, gained victories in France what judge or king governed in the and Britain, and divided the island Holy Land at the same time with between himself and Corinæus, built one or other of the British potentates. Trinobantum, New Troy, whose name After the death of Morvidus, a man was afterwards changed successively of most unedifying life, and justly to Caër Lud, Lud-ton, London. put to death by a monster which swam

Brutus was ably seconded by Co- over for the purpose from the coast rinæus, who gave his name to Oorn- of Wicklow, came a few kings, and wall

. A conquered giant, Goëmagot, then thirty-three others, of whose being set to wrestle with him, broke actions there is no record. One of two ribs on his right side and one on the sovereigns rejoicing in the rugged his left. Corinæus, somewhat enraged name of Gurgiunt Brabtruc, returnat this injury, tossed the giant on his ing from an expedition to the Orkney shoulder, ran with his burden to the Islands, met with our own misty top of a rock and launched him into hero, Partholoim (Partholan), with the foam. The place was anciently thirty ships full of men and women, called Leim-Goëmagot (G.'s Leap). seeking for a settlement, Gurgiunt It is now known as Haw (near Ply- not desiring closer acquaintance with mouth).

these rovers, directed them to Erinn. From the three sons of Brutus, Geoffry places this event in the time Locrin, Albanacht, and Kamber, of Brennus the Gaul; the Irish bards, Britain proper (Loegria), Scotland three hundred years after the deluge. (Albania), and Wales (Cambria), re- At the period of the invasion by ceived their names. The good his. Julius Cæsar, Cassibellanus, brother torian, after relating how the Severn to Lud and Nennius, ruled the kingacquired its name from a virgin named dom. Cæsar knowing the relationSabré who was drowned therein, men- ship of the Romans and Britons tions the building of Shaftesbury, and through their common ancestor Bruhow he would have reported what an tus, would not rashly shed the blood eagle standing on its wall, once said, of the poorest islander till all his perbut for his doubts respecting the suasions to submission proved useless. veracity of the report. Hudibras, In the first battle Julius and Nen

Colley Cibber is blamed (perhaps justly) for altering the catastrophe in the tragedy of " King Lear." His arrangement, however

, corresponds better with the original narrative. Lear ruled three years after recovering his kingdom, and was then buried by his loving daughter in a vault under the river Sore in Leicestershire. Cordelia (Cordeilla in the original) held rule for five years after his death, but was finally deposed and imprisoned by the sons of Gonorilla and Regau (sic). Practising a pagan virtue, she put an end to her life in prison.

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