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nius achieved a terrific combat. tion a youth who could boast of no Cæsar's venomous sword Crocca Mors earthly father. Trusty messengers (Yellow Death) glancing from his foe- sent in quest of this very rare article, man's helmet, cut so deep into his returned with it in the person of a buckler that he could not withdraw youth named Merlin or Ambrose, it. The champions being separated, whose mother declared him to be the Nennius drew out the poisoned blade, son of a spirit of the air-one of the and did powerful execution with it class of the Incubi. Merlin acquainted on the Romans. He died of a gash the king with the real cause of the received by it, and was buried at the failure, and set men to work, who north gate of Trinobantum with clearing away the earth found a pool Crocca Mors by his side.
underneath. The pool being removed, Cymbeline, grandson of Lud, and a white dragon and a red one were great nephew of Cassibellanus and found, each lying in a hollow stone. the valiant Nennius, ruled the isle in The outer air being introduced they his turn, and the sceptre was after- shook off their lethargy, and both wards held by Shakespeare's Guider- flying up they mutually engaged in ius and Arviragus ; but of the gentle mortal combat, the red monster idenImogen and the brave Posthumus we tifying his cause with that of the find no mention in the grave chroni- natives, the white combating for the cle. About this time Roderic, King Saxons. of the Picts, landed on the northern While Vortigern looked on in amaze coasts, and ravaged the country; but Merlin burst forth into a prophecy Marius, the Briton (not the Roman in which wise men discover the fuof that name), defeated and killed ture fortunes of the island. If any him. He gave the conquered people reader slow of belief, should fail to leave to settle in the wild and barren see the applicability of the portions Caithness ; but as he would not quoted below, his case is not encourallow them wives from among the aging. British young women, they rejected his offer, and sailed to Ireland. There "Woe to the red dragon, for his lurking they succeeded; but Geoffry cuts holes shall be seized by the white one, and the account short, observing that he the rivers of the valley shall run with blood. did not propose to himself to write But the oppressed shall at last prevail, for their history nor that of the Scots of eign necks under his feet
. Six of his pas
a Boar of Cornwall shall trample the for. Ireland. We must pass over many facts in shall arise a German worm. He shall be
terity shall sway the sceptre, but after thern the history, our concern being only advanced by a she-wolf whom the woods with its fictional side, and come of Africa shall accompany. A preacher of direct to Vortigern, who after forming Ireland shall be dumb on account of an inan alliance with the foreigners, was fant growing in the womb. The restorer deprived of his territories, and obliged of the batives shall put on the brazen man, to fly to Wales. There, endeavour and upon a brazen horse shall a long time ing to raise a strong castle for his guard the gates of London... After defence, he found that the walls con- and the brazen prince baried. But a pro
that shall the German worm be crowned, tinued to sink into the ground so soon ple in wood and in iron coats shall come as they were raised to some small and revenge upon him his wickedness height. His wise men informed him in those days gold shall be squeezed from that the only mode of securing the the lily and the nettle, and silver shall flow work was to immolate on the founda- from the hoofs of bellowing cattle."
In our baridic annals this is the account. Cathluan, leader of the Picta first from Greece and then frown Poictiers, landed on the Slaney bank when the chief of the place was defending his lort against the woodmen (Tuatha Fiodoha) from Cambria. These last used poisoned arrows, and the Leinster men were perishing fast, when a Druid among the Picto prepared a bath of the milk of thirty white cows, and every man when wounded, ran to it, and was instantly cured Reinforced by the new-comers, and shooting back the envenomed darts on the Welsh, they defeated and slew the whole tribe of the invaders. Cathluan and his Picts easily obtained wives among the grateful Lagenians; but were obliged again t) migrate by King Heremos. Sailing northwants, they made a settlement in Alta which afterwards took the name of Caledonia from Cathluan. Thir origin of the long friendship and alliance bet
ta and Picta
So far we were nearly on the point Saxons to death, and then effected of seizing the allusions, but difficul- his escape. It was to raise a fitting ties began to gather, which we saw monument to these too-trusting Brifrom the first to be insurmountable. tons that a descent was made on IreThese consisted of “lions' whelps land, and the huge "giant's dance" being converted to sea-fishes ; an carried away by Merlin's contrivance eagle gilding a bridle ; a goat of the from the mountain Killaraus (site not castle of Venus invested with golden ascertained), and pitched on Salisbury horns and a silver beard, breathing plain (see a former article for details out a cloud of such dimensions as to of this nefarious exploit). cover the whole island ; two kings After performing many worthy fightinga duel at Stafford for a lioness; deeds, Aurelius was poisoned at Winthe river Usk burning seven months, chester by an agent of the wicked and serpents issuing from the remains Pascentius, son of the still more of the murdered fishes."
wicked Vortigern ; and as his brother Vortigern finding the youth's gifts Uther was proceeding to fight this in prophecy to be so respectable, Pascentius and the young Gillomaasked to know his own future for- nius of Ireland, justly enraged at the tunes. He had not reason to expect robbery of the mighty stones, he saw anything good, for he had contrived a wonderful meteor in the air, the the murder of Constans the royal chief figure in it representing a golmonk, son of Constantine the Great, den dragon. Merlin who was in the and would have done the same for train, immediately on beholding the Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pen- phenomenon, cried aloud, “Alas! the dragon (Dragon's Head) his brothers, star of Britain, Aurelius, is dead. had they not made their escape in And thou, O Uther, henceforth to be good time.* So Merlin being a rea- called Pendragon, art summoned to sonably honest man as well as a pro- continue his noble work. But before phet, informed him that the surviv- you celebrate the noble Aurelius's ing brothers who had taken refuge obsequies, proceed to crush those in Little Britain (Armorica) were on Angles and Gaels.” The advice was the seas at that moment, and ad- taken, and of course the Germans vised him not to give himself any and Irish were defeated and their trouble as they would certainly burn kings slain." him up in his own tower soon after Next we find Uther Pendragon their landing.
holding high festival at Alcluyd, and All this occurred as foretold. Vor- falling irrecoverably in love with tigern was burned, and Hengist
and Igerna, wife of Gorlois, Duke of Cornhis Saxons all killed or driven from wall. This ill-fated husband and the country (other historians notwith- chief did the best thing under the standing), and the Christian faith circumstances. He withdrew from restored, and magnificent churches court, and finding Dragon Head bent built by the pious and valiant bro- on enacting. Tarquin the younger, thers. While Hengist bore sway, he placed his wife in the isolated Castle had treacherously murdered many of Tintagel, and shut himself up in Briton nobles enticed to a great feast Dimilioc. This last-named fortress given by him, a few only escaping. Uther thoroughly invested, and called One of these the brave Eidol, consul Merlin to counsel in forwarding his (Count) of Gloucester, catching up a villanous views. This sage, who is stake, put seventy of the treacherous henceforward to be looked on as own
* The good Geoffry as well as the good Homer sometimes nodded. After introducing the two exiled princes as the brothers of Constans, he mentions them here as his sons. Even his learned editor, Dr. Giles, indulges in an occasional mistake. He confounds the Walter Calenius who secured the “ Brut y Brenbined" with the wise and witty Walter Mapes, and having made Robert of Gloucester the natural son of Henry Beauclerc, he makes him afterwards half-brother of King John.
+ Students of Welsh and Irish archæology are aware of the unfriendly feeling of the writers of both divisions of the same race to each other from the earliest times. The early and long continued ill-will probably arose from the Cymry dislodging the Gaels from different parts of Britain, and gradually urging them westward till they forced them across the Irish sea.
brother to “Sir Pandarus of Troy," with his lance named Ron,t which was by charms and medicaments, con- hard, broad, and fit for slaughter." vertod him into a perfect double ganger of poor Gorlois, and of course
The Saxons, concluding from their the innocent-minded wife entertained
late treachery that they should reno misgivings when he crossed over ceive no quarter, fought like fiends. to the sea-beaten fortress of Tintagel. But the Britons at last gaining the While tarrying there, intelligence eminence, cut them down, Caliburu reached Igerna that Dimilioc was sending four hundred and seventy to captured, and her husband slain. Hades as its own contingent. She laughed, and the messenger, as
Peace being established in the may be supposed, knew not what to south, Arthur proceeded against the think, when the false Gorlois entered Picts and Scots, who were powerful the hall the moment after. Infa- on the banks of Loch Lumond (sic). mously as Uther had behaved through
At the time of the composition of this out the whole transaction, his con- history, sixty rivers flowed into Loch science gave him some trouble after. Lumond, and sixty islands rose from wards, and he made the widowed its surface. “There is also an equal Igerna all the reparation in his power, also of eagles
' nests in these rocks, Verulam, the Germans poisoned the which flocked together there every spring that supplied the castle, and year."
These curious properties of the lake his courtiers perished. He
was buried being told to Arthur by his nephew beside his brother Aurelius, within Hoel, whose residence was at Aleluyd, the Giant's Dance, and Arthur his he expressed no surprise, but menson became King of Britain when by himself, in the four corners of
tioned aquadrangular pond discovered only fifteen years of age. On hearing of the late King's death, fishes
. There was also, to his know.
which lived four different kinds of the Germans returned in great numbers, broke faith with the young ledge, a pool near the bank of the King after he had defeated them, and Severn, into which, when the tido allowed them to depart; and now flows, the level of the pond is never the young hero, aided by Hoel, King raised an inch, but the moment it of Armorica, his brother-in-law, met
withdraws, the received flood is flung them, and cheered by an oration made out of the pond with great violence. to his army by St. Lubricius, fell on face to the pond, during the eruption,
Moreover, if a person stands with his the faithieas foes somewhere in domer. setshire. Thus was Arthur armed, so as that he may be reached by the and thus did he appear about to rush spray, be is immediately drawn into into the fight.
it, and drowned. There is not the
slightest danger of him, however, "Arthur himself having put on a coat of even were he standing much closer, if mail suitable to the grandeur of power- he keeps his back to it. fal a kinx. pared a selen belmet up in his head, on which was en zraven the ture of Ireland, and obliged King Guillam,
The next summer Arthur invaded a dragon, and on his shoulders his slield, ürius and his people to submit and called Primer, upon which the purtraiture of the Blessed Mary, Mother of God, was pay him tribute, "the naked and unpainted, in order frequently to pat him in armed people," as the historian remind of her. I ben giding on his falubura.t marks, being miserably routed on which was an excellent sword, made in the every side. He then reduced Iceland, isle of Avallon, he graced his right hand and so frightened Doldurtus, King of
Prie, prime, excellent ; or proiei, heavy.
Copted from the original. The reader must endeavour to axertain for himself whether tbere were merely axty me, and sixty eagles' nests within the compan of the lake, or if every Island mental de saty rocks, and every rock sixty eagles' nests. The context give no help in the matter. Giolin De Gilden, Ged's servant; Giolla Ckrioet, Gilchrist, Christ's servant ; Giolla
Gilmore, Mary's servant, &c.
Gothland, and Gunfasius, King of * At that time Britain had arrived at the Orkneys, that they could not such a pitch of grandeur, that in abundance muster courage to strike a blow. of riches, luxury of ornaments and polite
Returning to Britain, and ruling ness of inhabitants, it far surpassed all other his kingdoms for twelve years in of chivalry, wore their clothes and arms all peace, he began to entertain the design of the same colour and fashion. The women, of conquering all Europe, inviting in also, no less celebrated for their wit, wore the interim the youth of Christendom all the same kind of apparel, and esteemed to his court, and impressing on them none worthy of their love but such as had that if they did not imitate the fashion given proofs of their valour in three several of the arms and the other usages of battles. Thus was the valour of the men Caerleon, the world would look on an encourager of the women's chastity, and them as nobodies. He then set forth the love of the women a spur to the soldiers on his conquests, beginning with bravery. ** Norway and the neighbouring country, Lucius Tiberius, Roman consul Dacia. Establishing his brother-in- (what has become of the Emperor law, Lot, on the Norse throne, he Leo ?) not relishing, the encroachinvaded 'Gaul, then governed by ments made on the Holy Roman emFlollo for the Emperor Leo. This pire, summoned Arthur to yield alleprefect being blockaded in Paris, and giance to the Senate and the Roman nearly deserted by all his forces, people, or meet him in conflict; and, challenged Arthur to a single combat. on the refusal of our British king, The challenge was accepted, and a sent for help to several tributary tough fight ensued, ending as usual. kings in the east and south, whose Gaul being overrun, he held high names will scarcely be found in Gibfestival in Paris, bestowed Neustria bon or Merivale. A few are given (Normandy) on Bedver his butler, and for the sake of the curious--EpistroAudigavia, wherever that may be, on phius, king of the Grecians; MustenCaius (Kay) his sewer.
sar, king of the Africans ; AlifanBut he was nowhere so much at tinam, king of Spain; Polytetes, Duke home as in the City of the Legions- of Bithynia, &c. Caerleon on the Usk. There on high Arthur proceeding to meet the festival days would assemble four mighty forces coming against him, tributary kings and their queens, and delayed a little to punish a villanous nobles innumerable. After the grand Spanish giant, who had forcibly carmusical Mass, the king dined in one ried away the Lady Helena, niece of palace with his knights, the queen in Duke Hoel of Brittany, and taken another with her ladies. “For the refuge on the top of St. Michael's Britons still observed the ancient Mount. Having scaled the stoep, he custom of Troy, by which the men slaughtered the monster, and was and women used to celebrate their soon facing the multitudinous Roman festivals apart.” Kay, assisted by a legions and their auxiliaries, on a thousand young noblemen dressed in wide plain in Gaul. Of all his conermine, served up the meats; Bedver, tests, the ensuing one was the most similarly attired and attended, looked severe, but his arms were in the end after the drinks. The queens in their triumphant. Conquering the Allohalls were not neglected. People of broges to keep his hand in practice, later times can scarcely realize to while meditating a descent on Italy, themselves the style and magnificence he heard of the disloyalty of his of the court of Arthur, whom they nephew, Modred, and the falsehood regard as a petty King of South Wales of his queen, here called Guanhumara. in the sixth century, hard put-to to Returning with only a moderate force, defend his few hundred acres of moss, he had to oppose a body of 80,000 mountain, and valley, against the warriors-Germans, Picts, and Gaels. Saxons. Hear Geoffry, who lived At the fatal fight of Camlan, the peronly six hundred years (a mere trifle), fidious Modred met his well-deserved later :
fate; but the noble Arthur being
* The ballad of the "IIl-Cut-Mantle” gives a different aspect to the moral picture of the court. The virtuous mantle would not fit a lady at any time disloyal to her lord. The only lady that found herself properly draped was the wife of Crack Caradoc.
mortally wounded, appointed Con- signed him, and that he fought with stantine, son of Cador of Cornwall, more or less success against the inhis successor, and then repaired to truders. Avallon to be cured of his wounds. His historian does not mention the THE ARTUUR OF THE CELTIC BANDS Fairy Morgana, who was to perform that office; and, as from this point
Following the Latin version of the he seems anxious to infuse some little Chronicles of the Kings, by Geoffry truth into his mass of fiction, we take of Monmouth, there appeared, as menleave of him, premising that, except tioned already, the French metrical Kay and Bedver, he mentious by version by Wace, a fortunate poet, name none of the knights so famous for he obtained a canonry from Henry in the Arthurian cycle of tales.
II. for his Roman de Rou, a poetical
chronicle, beginning with the deeds THE ARTHUR OF HISTORY.
of Rollo. To this succeeded the prose
version of the same subject by Elie The earliest allusions to Arthur in de Borron, and in 1470, Edward IV. history or historical poem occur in being king, was issued from the press the poems of the barris who were of William Caxton, the “Mort d'Arcontemporary with him - Llywarch thur,” giving full details not only of Hen and Taliesin. In the “ Death of Arthur's own deeds, but also those of Gherent," quoted in the UNIVERSITY his famous knights. Omitting those MAGAZINE for December, occurs this poems and prose-fictions, which treat verse :
of the separate fortunes of this or that
knight of his court, we shall in this "Valiant warriors who amote with the steel, piace only mention the existence of a
Were slain at Longpist by Arthur,
pem with the same title as that of The conductor of the works of war."
Mallory's work in the Harleian MSS
at Oxford. These are the principal All that relates to Arthur either in fictions concerning Arthur and his Llywarch Hea's poems, or those of court to be found in old French and Taliesin, refers to him merely as a English. Of the ('ymric and Breton petty prince, contending valiantly sources from which they took their azainst the foreigners in the south, beginning we will now speak. while l'rien and his son, the vanit In vol. i., p. 72, of the remains of Owen, were einproyed in the sume the (anbrian barula, from the sixth patriotic work at either side of the to the tenth century, preserved in Scottish borders
the "Myvyrian Archatology, Taliesin The monk Nennius, or some writer is quoted as author of a poem in assuming that naine, who dates his wbuh Arthur is represented as the narrative A.D. rk, mys of Arthur, Bon of l'ther Pendragon, King of the that though there were many more Shales, the Mysterious and Veiled noble among the British chiefs, yet Being, the Appointer of Battles. His he was twelve times their commander, burnier is the rainbow, he has de and always with sucres He ds. btroyed a hundred forta, he has plain tinctly naines the twelve battle-fieds, a hundred commanders, he has rut but we will not insist on the implicit off a humuired heads. When paying credit of the narrative, as nine hun- his addresses to Arthur's mother he dred and forty are said to have fallen Awumed the form of a cloud G-71181 by his hand in the figlit at Bath. The French bard, in giving this was From the circumstaner of his narra- thy human proportions, makes him tive containing a senes of events true assume the shape of Gurlous, Duke of in the main, and written bund mir, Cornwall. it is highly probable that such a chief In the same poem Arthur paverses as Arthur existed at the period as the ninth part of the power of his
• The fisti-ins that entertained our innan kings and chords from William I to Richard I. were in Frro di perse. Als uut that time commenced the fourmances. Besila the metrical - Reunan de Brut" at Ware, franded con (peutin Latin vere83, and detais the tsets given aber in vtl.se, there was a poem aarrative empua! bril de Borrou and
hem de Pise, after the appearance of Wace's pued. The Roman de Brut"
"Thed in Paria in 1538