father; he is the chief of battles and saw me.' "_" Myvyrian Archaiology," vol. the honour of Cornwall. The bardic i., page 175. synod chants in his praise-"Be Arthur blessed according to the rites of This discourse must have taken the assembled bards! Glory to the place before Arthur had the courage countenance which flashes in the fight to make her his queen. It would when all around is strife!" He re- be an interesting subject for one of ceives from his father the “Glaive of our debating societies :-“Did Robert the Mighty Enchanter." He under- Wace act judiciously in bringing betakes great expeditions, captures cities fore the evil-disposed wife of Henry innumerable, and subdues tracts of II., the example of wicked Queen country unknown to modern geogra- Gwenivar ?" She is certainly severely phers.

chastised, and dies penitent; but has In the bardic poems he is attended the reading of the sad catastrophe of by his steward, Kai the Tall, Beduyr the career of Jack Sheppard and his butler, and Gwalchmai (Sir Ga- Dick Turpin ever prevented an undevain), his herald of the golden tongue. veloped house-breaker or highway His queen, Guenivar, is called Gwen- robber from imitating their example, hwyvar, and the treacherous Modred, and gracing the gallows? Medrod. Taliesin, or the poet per

In the lays of the bards, as well as sonating him, gives the same char- in the French poems, Gwenivar proves acter of the queen as the French faithless, and elopes with Modred ; romancers. “She was,” he says, “of but, as Merlin said—“She was puna haughty disposition in her youth, ished ; she languished in a cloister, and still more haughty in her woman- and was subjected to ecclesiastical hood.” A bard of the tenth century authority.” (Myvyr. vol. i., page 153.) has left to posterity a dialogue, in The same prophet-bard, or one of his which she rails at her future husband, interpolators, mentions the punishand contradicts him at every turn. A ment of Modred, at the fight of fragment follows.

Camlan. Taliesin said that Arthur

disappeared in the throng of the " Arthur.—My steed is black; he bearsmelée; and another, that he was me nobly; be takes the water, and starts translated to the skies, and became at nothing.'

the constellation, called in Welsh Gwenirar.—My steed is dapple-gray. “ Arthur's Chariot" (Ursa Major.) Let the boaster be despised! His words

. At the fated time he will revisit the please none but himself

. Who caracoles earth, and restore the Cambrian emwhen it is his pleasure, and marches first to battle? A warrior

, whom none will pire, and the pleasant old institutions vanquish-Kai the Tall, son of Seuni.'

of cattle-raids, farmstead burnings, " Arthur.— * I ride when I please. I spur

clan-battles, and slave-huntings. my steed along the sea margin when the

The historic Arthur has been altide is rising. I should have small trouble ready quoted in the “ Death of Gheto conquer Kai.'

rent.” In the Triads of Caradoc, the Gwenivar.—' Hold, young man! It is learned monk of Llanearvan, who strange to hear you talk in this guise. died in the year 1100, Arthur again Unless you are better than you seem, you appears as a chief of the ordinary could not vanquish Kai, even helped by a hundred such as yourself.'

type ; and Gwenivar, Beduyr, Kai, " Arthur.-Gwenivar of the handsome

and Gwalchmai, are invested with face, gibe me not. Though low of stature, the same characters which they afI would, single-handed, conquer a hundred terwards exhibited in the French warriors.'

romances. Gvenivar.-'Young man, in examining Thus we find among the purely your features I think I have seen you Welsh legends of the king, a mythoelsewhere.'

logic and a quasi-historic phase. In ** Arthur.–Gwenivar, of the beauteous one, a stag, a blackbird, an owl, and eyes, tell me where you have seen me.' ** Gwenirar – I have seen, at Kelliwig, which has seen all, and knows all,

an eagle, which picks at the stars, in Dyfnaint (Devonshire), a man of middle size, sitting at table, and distributing wine are his companions, and reveal all to his companions.'

mysteries to his friends when sent to Arthur.-"Gwenivar, of the charming consult them. A salmon carries Kai speech, the woman's lips have let the truth and Beduyr across the seas. These shine through the raillery. There you first heroes know the language of animals.

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old days, or the benda July ipidurre ilo laught for

un and Rubemperre,

he was not the chivalrous king of the " Said Emamm-'With the aid of God, middle ages, nor the all-accomplished

The Lord blessed for evermore, knight, nor the seeker of adventures. I will find for thee water.' He was simply the patriotic and revengeful chief leading his faithful

" And with his strong staff

Thrice he smote the rock, people to take dire vengeance on their foes. At times he protected his land

The mossy rock on its summit; (Brittany)* from the ravages of wild “And from that summit rushed a spring beasts and sea monsters---resembling Of pure water, to refresh the hero, in this the rude heroes of the Greeks, And restore his strength and health. Hercules and Theseus. He is found doing duty in this fashion in the legend "Refreshed he then rushed on the beast, of St. Eflamm. This holy man, quit

And deep in his throat he buried his keen ting his Irish home and his Irish glaive. bride, Enora, on the very night of

A loud cry uttered the monster, their nuptials, sets out to dedicate

And plunged deep into the sea waves." + his whole life to solitude and penance. Coming to the sea-shore, he cannot to come with him to Court, but the

The grateful hero invited the saint espy boat or ship, nothing but a chest holy man knew better. He made a pierced with many holes. Stepping hermitage for himself near the spot, fearlessly into this

barge, he is wafted and there lived. At the conclusion of to the coast of Lannion, in Brittany. the legend, when the married saints “Then was Brittany desolated

receive their glorious rewards, the By wild animals and dragons fierce; composer makes these remarks :But no portion was in such ill plight As the coast of Lannion.

“In order that no one may forget these

things that have never yet been in any “But many of them were already slain

books, they are here put in verse, so that By the chief of Breton warriors, Arthur, – they may be sung in churches." Arthur, whose equal has not been found

On the front of the Church of Perros, Since his first appearance on earth.

by Lannion, where the combat was “When Saint Emlamm touched the strand, supposed to be fought, is still to be

He saw the king in dire struggle; seen a bas-relief representing the rough His choked steed lying on his back, patriot, crown on head and sword in Pouring the blood through his nostrils. hand, overcoming the dragon with the

saint's aid. Its date is clearly esta“ Before him raged a fierce monster ; In the centre of his front a large red eye; beginning of the twelfth century.

blished as the end of the eleventh or Green flinty scales round his shoulders,

The "Brut y Brenhined,” already His size that of a full-grown bull.

spoken of as having been brought " His tail twisted as a strong iron screw,

from Brittany in 1125, and translated His horrible mouth stretched from ear to into Welsh by Walter Calenius of ear,

Oxford, is not in existence, but Welsh And filled with fangs, white and sharp copies are extant. I It has never been As the tusks of a fierce boar.

cordially cherished by the scholars of

the principality, for the original com" Three long days they had struggled,

piler had more at heart the glory of Neither with power to crush his foe,

his own country than that of Cambria. But when the saint stepped on land, The king was sinking to his knee.

He sends Breton heroes to the mother

country, to succour her struggling "But when he caught sight of Eflamm, princes on the point of being defeated, Faintly he cried-Sir pilgrim,

and he objects to the Welsh that they Bring me water, or I perish!'

lost the early proud name of the race,

As the Irish colony settled in the sixth century in the West Highlands gave localities in their new country to the Fians of their ancestors, so the Bretons connect some of Arthur's exploits with their own heaths, valleys, and rocks. + " Barzaz Breiz,” par Villemarqué.

One of these has been preserved in the "Myvyrian Archaiology," vol. ii., under the title of Brut Tysilio (the Legend of Sulio). An account of this saint, so devoted to sacred music, may be seen in a former article in the DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE,

while those who sought refuge in only by treason.

Brave as the Armorica bravely and nobly retain it Charlemagne of story, he is no less plous for themselves and their new dwell- than that exterminator of the Saxon."-ing-place.

(Count de la Villemarqué.) It is curious that something ana- In the Breton chronicle he bas logous happened amongst ourselves. several of the chivalric attributes. The Scots of our country sent a He goes on making conquests, less colony in the sixth century to Alba or for power than glory. He holds high Caledonia, and this colony attached state in Paris and other continental the name of their parent country and cities ; but his greatest merit, in the that of their ancestors to their new eyes of the zealous Count from whom resting place, and there it has become we have quoted, is that, like Dante, permanent.

he had put himself under the tutelage No Irishman at this day thinks of the heavenly Patroness of Purity. anything about his island having lost Thus in the legend of the kings, we its former name, and he and his find the remark—" The ladies were countrymen their patronymic; while chaste at the court of King Arthur, Highlanders, who have some right to and through the love the knights be called Scots, and Lowlanders, who cherished for them, they were all have no right at all, enjoy the full valiant and virtuous." privilege and all the accruing advan- This purity of sentiment, investing tages of the title.

the Armorican Arthur, and his court, In the sketch of the life and ex- sadly deteriorated when the Normanploits of Arthur, tahen from the Latin French poets took the chronicling of chronicle of Geoffry, and which is the court affairs in hand. Even the substantially the same as the Welsh Cambrian chiefs and minstrels were version of the Breton romance, it not to be compared with their Armorwill be seen that the characters of ican brethren in what may be consiArthur and his Court, are essentially dered the finest properties of the different from those that appear in chivalric era. Caradoc, of Llancarvan, the Welsh triads, and poems, and assures us that—" The Prince Rhys tales, and from what the French and Ap Tudor returning in 1077 from a English poets, later in time, took the long sojourn in Gaul, brought back liberty to present in a form altered for with him the habits, the sentiments, the worse. Instead of the struggling and the manners of the court of petty chief of some legends, or the Arthur, which, having been lost in inythological undefined demi-god of (ambria, had been religiously prethe others

served among the Dukes of Brit

tany. t * We find Arthur with the particular ex. The reader may possibly wonder pression, animation, and relief which the that as yet no mention is made of popular paintings of Armorica have given the Round Table ; but, in reality, him. He retains httle of the king of the there is none made of it either in the Welsh stories acts as a knightly king le enters in full old Welsh poems, in the triads, in the panoply into the world of chivalry, the Welsh prose tales, or the Armorican dawn of which illumires his features. He manuscript, or its versions. Wace belangs less to the Cambrians than to all merely says that Arthur had a table civilized Eumpe. His keibts Kai and made for his knights, but says not a Reduyt, become French. One is of la word about its furt. However, the Manebe the other of Anjou. He has the French poets, who took Arthur ani! cross engraved on his sword, and on his his court for their subject, insistei forehead the sign of the Christian, as a that they had heard of the article crown He is young, be is hands me, he from the Welsh aloiy-tellers. is good. The Britons love and follow him ; the national sainta protect and bless him ; "Fist Arthur l. monde tahle the Pagan Saxnns fear him, and attack lama Dort Lintons dieat mainte table."!

• In the Book of Armagh" is an insertion made in the beginning of the eleventh century by the hand of the wertetary of Brian Boruimhe. Is it that manar ta is styled * Emperor of the Scots." Ayvyrian Aretusolncy," vol. ll., page 521; " lolo Mabus ripen," page 391.

e made the Round Table
"he Britoas tell many a tab

Referring to the enduring impres- bat, slew bim. Being wounded by sion which the old Arthurian legends the poisoned weapon of Morboult in have left on the public mind, Count the thigh, he proceeded to Ireland, Villemarqué gives the following infor- and was healed by the fair Iseult,

or mation.

Isoud.+ Returning home, he so ex“ The entertainments of the court of fair physician, that his uncle sent

tolled the beauty and virtues of his Arthur, have left in Armorica traces, very him back to bring the charming lady humble if you will, but very significant of their strong hold on the traditions of the to Cornwall to be his queen. Tristan land. Country children in Brittany know- faithfully performed his duty to a ing neither how to read nor write, and certain point. Iseult's mother inspeaking the language of their parents, trusted a wonderful love - potion to have often in their plays, revealed to me her favourite maid Brangwen, to be treasures of the old Celtic poetry. They delivered to the Equine King to be had, thirty years since, and probably they swallowed by himself and his bride. have still, in some places, a play which they A strong mutual love would be the called the play of King Arthur.

“ They sought a large isolated stone, and enduring result. Very unfortunately, sat on it one of the gravest and steadiest of Tristan was seized with thirst on the the troop. They crowned him with leaves, voyage, and coming at this liquor, and the rest_boys and girls taking hands drank some, and persuaded Iseult to formed a ring round him, singing this finish the rest. They were ignorant distich:

of the quality of the beverage till too • Roue Arzur, me ho salud,

late, and each found it afterwards Me ho salud, roue a Vrud."* impossible to overcome a violent af"After making three rounds they applied fection for the other. Some time their faces to the earth three times." after her marriage with King Marc'h

(ch guttural), the husband was inHaving, as in duty bound, given formed of his wife's infidelity and his reasonable attention and space to the nephew's disloyalty. The unfortuking, his knights claim our notice. nate and guilty pair were seized and Alas, if all were without fear, some led to execution, but Tristan escaped, were not without reproach. It will and in a short time effected her delibe more agreeable to writer and verance, and both fled to the woods. reader to get over the disagreeable Marc'h tired of his enforced single portion of our task first, and have life, recalled and pardoned his queen, the satisfaction of ending with the but ordered Tristan to keep his discareer of the heroes commendable at tance. He, however, assuming the all points. Our first election then character of a fool, once more became falls on Tristan, with whom is eter- a resident of the Court of Tintagel, nally remembered the ill-starred and a favourite with his uncle. A Irish princess, Iseult. They are bet- new accusation, a new awakening of ter known by the names of Marc'h's jealousy, and an appeal on

the part of the lady to the protection SIR TRISTREM AND THE PAIR ISOUD. of King Arthur and his knights. By

an ingenious ruse she established her The story of these ill-fated lovers innocence to the full satisfaction of suffers some variation in the hands Arthur and everybody, and a grand of the different relaters; but the fol- tournament took place. In it all the lowing facts agreed on, stand out in knights of the Round Table were the various versions.

forced, by an unknown warrior, to Tristan received his military educa- bite the dust, but when the jousting tion at the court of his uncle Mark was over he was not to be found. (Marc'h, Horse), King of Cornwall. Knight after knight went in pursuit Morhoult,

an Irish prince, appearing to induce him to return, and receive at the court, demanded tribute ; but honours and rewards at the hands of Tristan engaging him in single com- Arthur, but he would not be per

" King Arthur, I salute thee,

I salute thee, O king of renown." + Local antiquaries assert that this hapless princess has left her name to the village of Chapelizod. VOL. LXV.-NO. CCCLXXXVII.


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