suaded : he dreaded his uncle's re- localities mentioned in the “Mort sentment. At this time, owing to d'Arthur," belong to the border. the philtre's having lost its power,* Bamborough Castle was the Castle and to the counsels of a holy

hermit, Orgeillous Berwick, the Joyeuse he repaired to the Court of Brittany, Garde-Sir Launcelot's fortress. In and became the husband of the the thirteenth century there must daughter of King Hoel, an Iseult still have remained in some force, also. The memory of his former the British speech and a considerable love somewhat troubled his new life, portion of the old literature; and we and he sought in dangerous adven- find in the romance of Thomas, the tures a distraction for his ennui. Re- localities, and most of the personages,

ceiving a dangerous wound he des- undeniably Celtic. The action passes patched a messenger to the Cornish in Cornwall, Brittany, Wales, and queen, entreating her aid ; but his Ireland ; and the names Tristan, wife having discovered his former Morgan, Riis, Urgan (l'rien), Brangmisdeeds, bribed the messenger to wen, Ganharden, Marc'h, and Isoude, say, on his return, that she would or Iseult, have Celtic roots. not contribute in the slightest degree Thomas was living after the date to his recovery. , He died, rather 12-4, and the existing MS. copy of from chagrin at Iseult's alienation, his poem is supposed by Sir Walter than the effect of the wound. Scott to have been written about

The story of " Tristan and Iseult," 1330, in the reign of Edward III. It was in the repertory of the Northern is called the Auchinleck MS., and Trouvères and the Troubadours of was presented to the Advocates' LibProvence, in the early part of the rary by Alexander Boswell, of Auchintwelfth century. No specimens of leck, lord of session, and father of Dr. the southern lays on the suuret are Johnson's Boswell. There is nothing extant. One of the earliest northern known of the early history of the versions known was composed by a precious manuscript. This verse will certain bard named Berox, about 1960. give an idea of the orthography of The next in order of time was versi- the English spoken at the Scottish fied by Thomas of Ercindoune, in the court when Ellward IIIreigned in sort of English spoken at the court of England, 1327 to 1357. For though Scotland in the first half of the thir. Thomas wrote his poem in the reign teenth century. Concerning Thomas of Henry III., we may suppose the and his works and his times, ample spelling in the MS. to be that in use information is given in the * Sir in the time of the copyist. Tristrem," edited by Sir Walter Scott.

* Thus hath Tristrom the Swete, As the Trouvères had been exercising

Y-slawe the Douke Morgan ; their wits on the subject nearly half

No wold he never lete, a century before the time of Thomas,

Till mo castles were tan.
who was born in 1919, he must Tounes thai yold him skete,
have laid the French poets under And cities stithe of stan,
contribution, or have studied the The folk fel to his fet;
"Legends of the Cymry of Went- Ayaines him stod ther nad
moreland, Cumberland, and the

In land;
South-west of Scotland "- Se l'NI. He slouzh his fader Ban,
VERSITY MAGAZINE for January last).

Al bowed to his hand." The latter supposition is the more This in the current hand of the proballe,

nineteenth century will read Long after the first denynt of the West Germans, there were threr (el

Thus hath Tristrom the Sweet lain tie print paties in the west bez.des the Duke Morgan, por would he erer stop Wales There in indied: -1, ('orn.

till more castks were taken. Towns they wall and part of Devonshire; 21., stari) of tope: the folk fell at he feet,

yulded him quickly, and cities stout (or Lancashire and Camiriand; Hidh against his sewnd there none in (the } land the district lwtween the way Fuit he slew bus lathus lian, all bowed to his and the Frith of Clyde. Se of the hand"

This love-potion was warrarted to retain its virtur fur three years. In some Irinde

find a medicament in full vigour for twenty-one.

Raoul de Beauvais, a Norman poet, Der aventure meistr was (war?); contemporary with Thomas, is sup- Und an Britunschin buechen las posed to have rendered his Tristrem Aller der lautherent leben, into French verse, of such ortho

Und es uns ze chunde hat geben."I graphy and construction as would

Six ancient copies of Godfrey's furnish a good exercise to a feuilleton writer of our day to discover its sense.

poem have been preserved. This copier mentioned that different stances, which we have not space to

A combination of happy circumbards took different methods of tellparticularize, rendered the cultivation ing the story, but that he followed of such poetry as Thomas delighted Breri.

in, a favourite exercise at the Scottish “Nel dient pas sulun Breri,

court in his time. But it was only at Ki solt les gestes et les cuntes that period that the English of the De tus les reis, de tus les cuntes, south, treated so discourteously by Ki orent ésté en Bretagne,

the Anglo-Norman nobility, was asE sur que tut de cest ouraingne."*

suming the form adapted for poetic This would be as much of a puzzle purposes. The transition state from to a modern French scholar as the Anglo-Saxon to Chaucer's English Thomas's verses to an English one. did not encourage--indeed was unfit In a portion of this poem he quotes for poetic composition. The French Thomas's authority, and a couple of prose romances, which were merely fragments extant, in Mr. Dyce's pos- the old metrical lays reduced to that session, at the time when Scott was easy form of composition, began about preparing “Sir Tristrem” for the press, 1190. tell the story in conformity with the The first productions in that form plot of the English poem.

were put forward by the good easy Gottfried von Strasburg, who wrote folk in cloisters and other retreats of a poem on the loves of Tristan and lettered repose, as so many histories Iseult in the thirteenth century, also which they, the editors, pretended to quotes Thomas of Britannia with great have translated from some Latin or respect and honour, and follows his Greek or British original. “The minplot closely, but generally requires strels, forsooth, who had sung on the seven verses to render the sense of same subjects, were not trustworthy one. Death interrupting his work, they had been guilty of leasingsinit was completed, but in a very in- numerable.” It was only in the prose ferior style, by Heinrik von Vribert narrative now issued that the genuine

A few lines are quoted of Gott- deeds of such and such heroes were fried's version, which will be found narrated. Thus the author of "La much more to resemble modern Ger- Vraye Histoire de Troy" concludes man than the language of Beauvais his egregious narrative in these words modern French.

_“I have thus brought to end the “Aber als ich gesprochen han,

true history of Troy, in the manner Daz si niht rehte haben gelesen,

as it was found written in the hand Daz ist als ich uch sage gewesen,

of St. Peter, in the Greek language, Sin sprachen in der rihte niht, and from Greek put into Latin. And Als Tomas von Britanie giht,

I have translated it into French, not

“ They do not tell it as Breri does,
Who knew the gestes and the tales
Of all the kings, of all the counts,
Who had been in Brittany,

And about the whole of this story (work)."
+ Lantheren, as quoted by Sir Walter Scott; evidently erroneous.

" But as I have said

That they have not truthfully recited, -
That is, as I to you have told,
Because they have not said truth
As Thomas of Britain gives it,
Who was master of adventure (romance),
And in British books read
All the lives of the nobles,
And has made them known to us."

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errund, and the wind wahan Tristan. -Gwalhmal, for the love panin him for the strange land have will reticet, I say to you in truth, I love her beloved chill Ho is one of all who love me

tion of the visit, and has the puler "Gwala mari, — Tristan, of the stubborn on the watch. But the partious disposition, the rain softens a hundred oak fellow, when he not the two Come to thy kinsman.' " Tristan. - Gwalhmal, of the perverse

proaching, mention that the moment answers, let the rain moisten a huntiwal ser only in coming The heart of the furrows. I will follow you everywhere. anxious expectant sinks, le papie, (They approach Arthur)

and the unfortunate Woman an "Gwalmai (to Arthur), Arthur of too late. the mild words, the rains moisten a hundred "The laty make of the perple when the heads. Behold Tristan, and rejoice! met, 'What has happened that all ****

" Arthur.-Gwalhmal, of irreproachable belle are toging answers, the rain moistensa hundred henda, ** An old man Anawerait Ayun Welcome, Tristan, chief of the army! Woundert warrior, a prisoner, hae dot this Tristan, king of battlos, receive the highest evening.'

"He had scarcely finished when the lady will result from a combination of the ran towards the dungeon.

two theories. The passage to be quoted " The lady ran, all in tears, her gray did not come under our attention till hair loose and flowing, so that the people the earlier portion of this article had wondered, seeing a lady in such grief, has been written. tening through the streets.

** So much that they asked of each other * Who is this poor lady, and whence does she " Invaders have, in every country, adopecome ?' And the lady ran, and said to the ed, sooner or later, the traditions, sometimes porter when she came to the foot of the even the genealogies, of the original inhatower

bitants, while they have forgotten, after a ** Open to me quickly. Open the door. few generations, those of the country of My son, my son!" I must see him!' their forefathers.

A race of ** When the great door was opened, she strangers, when the lapse of years has in. threw herself on her son's body, she locked duced them no longer to account themselves him in her arms, and never rose again."* such, welcome any fiction by which they

can associate their ancestors with the scenes Having thus endeavoured to show in which themselves live, as transplanted how much the Norman Trouvères and trees push forth every fibre that may conThomas of Erceldoune were indebted nect them with the soil to which they are to the Celtic bards for the entertain transferred. Thus, every tradition failed ment they afforded to court and among the Saxons which related to their camp, and having given such reasons former habitations on the Elbe. The Noras occurred to us for their neglect of mans for got not merely their ancient dwelthe old Teutonic sagas, we will con lings in Scandinavia, but even their Neusclude with a quotation from Sir Waltrian (Norman) possessions; and both ter Scott's “ Tristrem,” wherein he history of Arthur and his chivalry in pre

adopted with greedy ardour the fabulous accounts for their preference of the ference to the better authenticated and Celtic productions through other mo- more splendid achievements of Hengist, or tives. Perhaps the complete truth of Roll Gangr, the conqueror of Normandy."



THE MAGICIAN DRAWS A DLAGRAM, "Guy DEVERELL left no issue," said "Guy Strangrays, you know," Dives.

said Sir Jekyl. "No; none in the world ; neither "Well, what of Strangways ! I chick nor child. I need not care a don't see." brass farthing about any that can't "Why, Strangways, you remember, inherit, if there were any; but there or don't remetuber, was the name of isn't one ; there's no real danger, you the fellow that was always withsee. In fact, there can't be any-with-that ctors grained mufl." eh? I don't see it. Do you! You “With Guy Deverell, you mean.". were a sharp fellow always, Dives. “Ay, with him that night, and Can you see anything threatening constantly, and abroad I think at in it

those German gaming places where "lt! What?" said the Rev. Dives he played so much." Marlowe. "I ne nothing whatever- "I forgot the name. I remember absolutely nothing. Surely you can't hearing there was a person in your fancy that a mere resemblance, how. company that unlucky night; but ever strong,

where there can't possibly you never heard more of bun !! be identity, and the fact that the young ** No, of coure; for be owed me a man's name is Guy, will make a case precious lot of money ;" and from for aların "

habit he chuckled, but with some

za Breis" (Breton Bands) of Le Vicamte Th. Her.irt del a Villemar tzé, to ties and to whose deal for old Celtic literature we wa to rader due bonour.

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