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ingly. The “Cuddems" bad a long, night-constable that his name was but intermittent life. They came in Wilbertorie! with Williarn the First, and died out Despite the troubles, anxieties, and with William the Fourth, since whose unceriainties of the Tudor era, there period oaths have ceared to be part was no lack of rahes and ale; and of the indispensable outfit of a gen- gmer was hot in the mouths of the tleman.

roynterers. They who belonged to Throughout the Plantagenet era, the brotherhood of swells, and who perhaps the most remarkable circum- had been to France, exlubited their stance was the readiness with which nobility, and set the loungeis alwut noblemen, who atterted to be bound Paul's aghast by weapol rings in by the laws of chivalry, violated them their ears the new fabion at the whenever they were called upon to Luve. At that same proud the do so for a * consideration." The head of the hours of Berkelty, the seventh Lord of Berkeley lent his Marques Whaam, was a genthunanıf castle for the killing of King Edward. Buch diintinition that he was unlike The knightly Brackenbury quietly anything in the world excepit ! withdrew from his post in the tower, Berkeley. His brothers lived with and fished in the moat of his pretty hun at Brihtley Cantle', as his mus. house, it is still pretty at Ichtham, vanta, "uli be havikuli preperty, while a very good gentleman, accord says Frbrooke; but mudeaal medie di ing to the old method of estimation, di- vines and schwain Weie net behind rected the murder of the youn,"princes. tie lasoching lonel of land The uncle, who profitee liy tils mur. Henry the light is onys All Souls, der, if murder there were, was not at One, Was an full of ***13b all given to debauchedd manners; but bukit is" - auy kumlige ordered he had an illegitimate min), John of within muund of Bow Deus; and all Gloucester, who was tampon, in his End proper enkel mai mul on day, for his gentlemanly questinationis, "their compititions, ingurs tations, that is to may, for hul ptrench of surfing, drunhe wilt asa and (des. limb, his grace of artion, and the mous and excessive contuesitions. alacrity with which he enjoyed lite. The printin tunted abroad in the and left his loboured father to settie :

1st Tawn of ti.farlin, the bill!

and), in l. ul lisa annuing to the It was in the York and Lancasterian hard word. jilmi obitel. Jo Wuer periods that the "Duily bany's' area - that parents tien (xa med that ihode riotous and matery resellers who they would rather still their mans to were so styired, at least, by the poets the cart that to enlere! who subsequently sale of the in ami In Queen Siria the unsteady their objectionale del The juis times muss durind manners. To tification of the sepse pes of the ins relate the latter, an anonymous of slexp was in the rample set the in author puloheni a ole tuliotis l_ k by the young porner, when hepit ('heap “ The Institution of a Gentleman. siile and the virumty in nishatiy terior Such corruption of anders, be tulis by the lieentions 04.1941 of luz if his really in hand take a phe, "that and companions

But when in tie a.most the maine of sintieman is young priner who is claro with quets bed, and band tatt-tuen have. such unprimely carride! The ques oltanned the title of li neur." lie pular ilea has mirat upon that Harry surrowinx'y renathu that are houding of Monmouth whom we fammatly require to live trted with your call “ Masteap Harry." But dus Wointip ; and a loud Die hanie, wie cluster thickly around this l_m; woud once de leyen content with and there is misur renn to be trup "we man then demanded to in that it was Priner Harry's brother; altres d de “Master! Thomas, who und to swarmer it o Contrary tot! cod rhyming araw." misht through the ety, and who, the author bombs on Adeln as the tir-i fa uing into the date of the wateti, gentle than, inaltir do that in proper wa wiitit te barn ble freedom dig fost to the race be reerived will be juring kunne if stils butlier, the Anderwed with mobility ani pentihty. Prince of War' just an Mr.Sheri- Alim's manure of true was, at all on being piche d'un drunk, fnin events, alune), and widttle was their

greittes.- .. -gdle of now !in L'or, 11 ut urna tarel

touching the one great fault, the con- persons and purposes of the Eusequences of which we all feel, the phuists. There was much roystering shabby father of mankind threw the and ruinous extravagance, and gamwhole of the blame upon Eve! bling, and pretty hard drinking about

The very fast gentleman of Queen St. Paul's and in the taverns of EastMary's days bore a title which is fa- cheap; but there was also a fashion miliar to us through the poets of the for higher pursuits. Society began Tudor period. The author cuts him to be sensible of a growing refinement short of a syllable, and writes such in language and manners; but therefast fellow down as a “royster.” He with came an excessive affectation in alvocates intense severity of discip- dress and speech, which rendered line to be applied to boys. Anything them alike grotesque. The Euphuists sort of that will, he is quite sure, in costume, if we may so call them, convert them, as they grow up, into wore the highest of high hats, the roysters ; and a “royster," he adds, loftiest of feathers, the longest of “ cannot do the office of a gentleman, swords, the most capacious of manso long, I mean, as a roysterian hé tles, the widest of trunk-hose, and doth continue." There was another the heaviest and noisiest of spurs. term, now familiar to us, which was So the Euphuists, who affected to realso coined in Mary's reign, and which fine the language, missed their aim was applicable to the foolish persons through their very affectation of who aped the follies of their foolish being the finest of fine gentlemen, if betters. “These gentlemen,” he says, in no other parts, at least in their "are now called upstarts'-a term parts of speech. lately invented by such as pondered The man who stands out beyond not the grounds of honest means of all others for his extravagance in the rising or coming to promotion.” It is early part of the Stuart era is the singular that the prevalence of gen- Earl of Carlisle, who, in a very jovial tlemen lacking gentlemanlike man- life, as it was called, spent above ners is ascribed by the author to £100,000, and “left not a house nor " the putting down of abbeys, which an acre of land to be remembered time is within my remembrance.” by.” At a later period of that era, Not less singular is his hypothesis to the precedency in infamy belonged account for the failure of the Cru- to Rochester, one of whose fits of Bailes-namely, that there was a want drunkenness lasted five years, with of gentlemanlike principle in the brief intermission. But then, and knightly warriors. "At this period, indeed under every dynasty, there as now, "arms" seemed to be the were gentlemen-blackguards and genfavourite vocation of gentlemen tlemen-exquisites; the first, like Sedwhose heads were not likely to help ley, violated every law in public, and them to distinction. They bore them were under no more constraint than selves in the field like brave men ; beasts ; the latter are portrayed in but at the butts or out sporting they Sir Courtly Nice, who sent bis linen were not distinguished, if we may to Holland to be washed by launtrust the contemporary proverb, which dresses who dipped their fingers in raid, “He shooteth like a gentleman, rose-water before they presumed to

fair and far off ;" and this was ap- touch it! . plied not only to the missing at a One of the distinctions of the last

mark, but to foolishly aimed remarks century is to be found in its clubs, in ordinary conversation. In fact, which then flourished, though their there were Lord Dundrearys in the origin is of earlier date, and which Tudor times; and the author describes underwent much needed improvesuch men as indolently complaining ment before the century had closed. that “they do not understand the Some idea of the ruffianly quality of ink-horn terms that are lately crept the worst of them may be formed into our language." What else was from a knowledge of its name, the to be expected of men who had aban- Hell-fire Club; and that small respect doned the practice of the long-bow was rendered to those who affected a for the throwing of dice?

certain propriety may be seen in a During the reign of Elizabeth, how- remark of Foote's, to this effect :ever, there was something superior to “The Christian Club," he says, “may the upstarts of Mary's davs, in the have some fears of the gallows, but they don't value damnation a far- through the whole collection for litething."

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rary purposes; but there is not one of There was not more difference be- thrine table stories that would hear to tweenthelleil fire and 'hri-tia't'lubs mom the light. It never occurred to thin between the Johawks and the Walpole that there was anything Jaccaronies; the former were xiul objectionable in them; and yet it is wart brutes of goud blood, me half uit too strong a ten to say than dozen of whom would surrounil a "out of hell one cannot think of quiet citizen on his way hone, and 8uh abominations ling narrated. puncture him with their xwords till Had Jenner to post ay Waipo.it islo d trickled from him in a r re of siently committing these una of hi. gory threads; the Marannies had pien's partits to his allm, the littir less of the coworillyaungwin in them; file of the writer would have taken their grease it forty coumteil in run the form and shadow of a well-dir-se el ning rang on Sunday even in de 11:01, steering at the losty preten Kensington Ginden«, nakul the polo Ils of humuity, as he resistered long. Neither Visawk nur Wind the poriofs otiin vietes, and enjoyed, ronixurvived the century. Sinne in- t.4 winde, lix Wuik, and the thi uylt lividuals of the leative Cic of it mo rrul, la wever, tl. ir inl'.leta into Wispole was not s'ofimagandletur tintury in wie Wpuve.

Il'in buh to be a very all mT.. Very lioraf stem in of the fil; kiti la Wanan far in the folder lastn'n Word, is nislili atirin), a, to turn wired this listo paralle Hora e Wissen 11.11.Drillis leor him! "Gandolerant, the «uil. "... '../17., 14... bir weisen to Luly (v1y, "ex}"18 hent of all of us dil, at al 11.kute n Wandbi i thipament jur ***Ful, oflri: lari 1. in the

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him in a pamphlet, in which he set When Lord Camelford was at the up a parallel between Lord Sandwich head of the fashionable ruffianism of and the Redeemer, and found a supe- the last year of the last century, there riority of character in the former! was born the second legitimate son of All the “gentlemen” in all the coffee- the Earl and Countess of Berkeleyhouses enjoyed both the joke and its Mr. Grantley Berkeley. This gentlehorrible blasphemy:

man has recently published a book Of the class which combined within entitled “My Life and Recollections," itself the maccaroni, ruffian, anda dash from the pages of which may be of the gentleman, perhaps young Lord gathered many samples of the sayings, Camelford was the most remarkable. doings, morals, and maxims of a race He belongs to the close of the last, of men who were born in a transition and the beginning of the present cen- period between two epochs--the epoch tury. He had no fellow-feeling, and of rampant blackguardism and that of set no value on human life. When he a silly but better-toned dandyişm. Of was a subordinate in the navy, he the men so born, some united the was refractory; when he became a crimes of one period with the follies commander, he was intolerant; and of that which succeeded; others rehe once shot a lieutenant dead for mained under the influences of the delaying to obey orders. It was his earlier period; many passed from the pleasure to read infidel books, that rutian to the dandy, under impulse of he might perplex poor naval 'chap- fashion; a few, unaffected by any lains with difficulties which they were fashion, followed a good principle to not learned enough to explain away. righteous purposes, and lived and died He made war against society; but honest men and gentlemen. often came shattered out of the con- As far as descent is concerned, the test, particularly when he made on- Berkeleys are of the noblest. Twentyslaught on the passengers in the four of them, from father to son, have public streets. There was rank cowar- been peers of England, by tenure or dice in the fact of his depending on by writ, since Fitzhardinge came over his strength as the motive for quar- with Norman William. But the relling and fighting with the weak; oldest nobles are those whose ancesand he provoked men to challenge tors were settled on their own estates, him, simply because he felt sure that and previous to the Norman Invasion. his skill would enable him to slay or This was the case with an ancestress maim his adversary, and save his own of this house, who wedded with the life. His reliance failed him, of stranger from beyond sea. course, at last. Between two opposite descent is warrant, perhaps, for a assertions made by a painted harlot little pride. But there are few of and one of his own intimate friends, the Lords of Berkeley who have been Mfr. Best, he professed to believe that remarkable for exemplary deeds. of the "devium scortum,” though he Selfishness, haughtiness, contempt knew she had lied. A duel ensued, for law, readiness to commit crime in which Lord Camelford was killed, for the sake of serving a king, to the satisfaction of all men, except cowardly cruelty to inferior men, and those who used to eat devilled-turkey a restless desire to have precedence with him, for the preparation of of better men than themselves, are which dish he was unrivalled. Lord among the characteristics of those Cainelford lingered for some days who belong to history. Some of the after he was shot, and he slowly died bombast and burlesque of the old after the manner of the gentleman- pride lingers in Mr. Grantley Berkeley, rutiian of his evil days. He boldly who, all unconscious of the silliness hoped that the agonies he endured of his assertion, informs us that the might expiate or atone for the sins he body of King Edward, so inhumanly had committed! He had so little murdered in Berkeley Castle, “was love for the native land in which he carried with due respect and attention lived so ill, that he left strict orders to his last resting-place, in our carthat his boily should be buried in riage!" The Berkeleys seem to have Switzerland. The example of his had all the arrogance of the Napiers, ruffianism, and of its consequences, with none of the great merits of the was all the bequeathed to latter, which constituted their warhis your

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Berkeley, certainly, cannot rank with gamekeepers, took a little learning the Sapiers in a knowledge of English reluctantly, from a tutor by day; history; for this ex-legislator gravely watched vermin in the fields by night, tells his readers that his ancestor and were taught boxing by the most who came over with William, quar- gentlemanlike of the blackguards of relled so fiercely with the Berkeleys' pugilism. Not all enjoyed this curSaxon ancestor, settled at Dursley, riculum; the illegitimates seem to that, “to end the hostility of the two have been more accomplished than families, King Edward the Confessor their better-born brethren; and the caused the elder son of Fitzhardinge above was only a portion of the course to marry the daughter and heiress of which helped to make a man and a the Saxon Berkeley.” It is said that senator of the author in whose record -the author does not know the differ- it is written. ence between a goshawk and a hen. The Berkeley family, as that auharrier ; he appears to be equaliy thor further records, were never slow confused between William and in “alvancing their own interests," Friward, though he must have studied and Mr. Berkeley succeeds in showing their respective bistories, for hie de- that he had as much sense in that seribes the royal Confes or as “pious matter as any of his family. At but weak."

Sandhurst a whole class incurred It is not in the history of a remote punishment through an offence which period, however, with wich we wish he bad committed, but which he had io conee, 'n ourselves. Our object is not the requirite pluck to avow. His to trace suelal history as it is here gracions and hlampaheming godfather, illustrated in the lite of a molein the Prince of Wales, presented him, genteman. We are, indeed, startled in due time, with a commission in the at the out-et, by details which may (unlaburram Guarde. The young oftifairiy surprise vuiar penins Wind cer had a gentle inanly rinse of his have not four quarters in their slijedilo, duties, On one occasion, when in and who know ittit more of ancently command of a guaril, at Dep ford than that their mother was an honest Docks, his term of duty "included Woran. Mr. Berhrley writes of his that, to me, loved day, the lot of parents in a way that will induce in16 September. I went oti to crantoril on rradesh to balseve that his kire wana the evening of the Inst day of Auanwardly brute, and tim mother ais gut." In the colline of the next day, krur to wombed. Welearn from the sergeant appeared at tranford, not thiet kill that she was oriz maliy a M's to arrest him as a denster, but with vant, and he cade is to indir that her the report

bk, in which he had tor backp seter, alsı) a servant, sold her to gutten to make the Deitswiry entries, his father, as a mistari After the Jir. Berkeley reported that all is burth of filer 11: ..rate protein, this nthe, gave the rigeant l beaktart press to 13p'11.01.2011, 21:11, no sed and a tea, “and ordened him to ko letumati t'i tren, of wis mn to two Akas pasitur for his duty." Hind llent are the potenput tail behandy 1 Berhriey given meil time to and his brother and her preulltupitereanime thom story, when he had it is Gantly. Trza later ***!* pala at's fure bun in prent, he would surely tipu Very that water and webes bulve caberisid it. There is some the very f**nt of talsy I nel', in this marvelous in the fact that he this matter. HI 11.* Dispy to is utterly blind, or inditterent, to the Our Innd but oir 24.11~16-31, il teatre Roths to low drawn from this l.is partits struve to admit their nat ding teasil. kitimate to the lenf * Olilin, And yet, en points of honour, and that to fur:krt en tot fe W. Ilary or other it sme', he dicasound' for at fortempat di wil lerply with a referat: m:vative of

I ti in tinaron lee knowledge and aliniation. 2014 repubeuils the fun 12° with the after Mr. Berkefy bad with hfwstone ha fall modo tyk of drawn from the army, and had been the author. However the sake 11 y compa man atut town, and even an be, legitimates and maintai !!1en auther, there dururned the "attair of brought ups of louder olup or lour" between him and Dr. Ma.

up, together it to be PN 11. Mr. Hierhers literary powers le-boys, il af W.iltir boltin muhly treated by Shain,

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