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Croatan, Roanoke, and part of Currituck sounds; to continue the engraving of the first sheet; to draw and engrave the chart of Cape Fear entrance, of the Fryingpan shoals, &c.,will require ...............
............... SECTION V. Coast of South Carolina and Georgia. Field . work. To continue the secondary triangulation from its present limit eastward to Charleston, and westward from Beaufort, South Carolina; to complete the triangulation of the Savannah entrance and river, and of Calibogue sound; to continue the primary triangulation eastward to Charleston; to complete the topography of Kiawah, James's and John's islands, and of the shores of Stono and Ashley rivers; to complete the hydrography of St. Helena and Calibogue sounds, and to commence that of the ocean coast between Charleston harbor and Savannah entrance; to make the Gulf Stream exploration in this section; to make tidal observations at Charleston and Savannah entrance. Office work.To make the computations required for the section; to complete the drawing of Savannah river, the engraving of the chart of Charleston harbor, and of Savannah harbor, entrance, and river, and of North Edisto harbor of refuge,– will require.....
..... SECTION VI. Reefs, keys and coast of Florida.—See estimate
for special appropriation, as provided for the three years
last past. SECTION VIII. Coast of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisi
ana.—To continue the main and secondary triangulation southward from the Chandeleur islands towards the mouths of the Mississippi; to complete the connexion of Washington, Mobile and New Orleans, for difference of longitude by telegraph; and to make a triangulation of the principal entrances of the Delta of the Mississippi; to continue the topography of the shores of Pontchartrain and of the Chandeleur islands and main; to continue the hydrography of Mississippi sound, and of Louisiana bay; to make tidal observations at several points on the coast of Louisiana. Office work.–To make the computations and reductions required by the field work of the section; to complete the drawings of the two eastern sheets of the map from Mobile entrance to the mouths of the Mississippi; the engraving of
one sheet of Mobile bay, and the commencement of a second SECTION IX. Coast of Texas.–To continue the main and
secondary triangulation, to include part of Espiritu Santo bay; to continue the topography westward, to include Matagorda bay; to continue the hydrography of the outer coast and of the entrances, and Matagorda bay, and the tidal observations at points of the coast. Office work.—To complete the drawing of the map of Galveston upper and lower bay:, and to commence the first sheet of the general coast chart of Texas; to complete the engraving of the chart of Galveston entrance, and to commence that of Galveston
25,000 bay; to make the computations and reductions required for the work of the section,—will require...
.... $21,000 Sections X and XI. Western coast, California and Oregon.
See estimate provided for, as last year, by special appropriation.
Total, exclusive of Florida reefs and keys, and of the west
the comportanete the t of Santors alred of Prents alr
SECTION VI. To continue the survey of the Florida coast,
reef, and keys. Field work.—Tocomplete the triangulation of the Walker keys; to continue that of the reef from Key Rodriguez southward and westward to Key Vacas; to continue the secondary triangulation of the western coast of Florida from Crystal river southward; to complete the topography of the keys to the limits of the triangulation; to continue the hydrography of the outer coast and reef, from Ajax reef southward. Office work. To make the necessary computations and reductions; to complete the drawing of Boca Grande passage, and Bahia Honda, and the engraving of the chart of Key West harbor and the approaches; and sketches
of the Boca Grande passage and Bahia Honda—will require $30,000 SECTIONS X and XI. To continue the survey of the west
ern coast, Oregon and California. Field work.—To determine the geographical positions, absolute and relative, of the most important capes and headlands in California and Oregon; to complete the triangulation of San Francisco and San Pablo bays, &c., and of Santa Barbara sound; to complete those of the several harbors already examined; to continue that of the Columbia river, and of Puget's sound; to complete the topography for the harbor charts already commenced, and for the sites of light-houses; to complete the hydrography of the Columbia river; to continue that of San Francisco bay, of Monterey, Santa Barbara, &c.; to complete the general examination of the harbors of the coast and to revise the general reconnaissance of the coast. Office work.–To make the computations and reductions; to complete the drawings and engravings for the sites of lighthouses, and of the examinations of harbors; to continue those of San Francisco bay, Monterey, and the revised reconnaissance; to provide for the drawing and engraving af sketches received; for the engraving of the revised general coast reconnaissance; of the Columbia river survey; of Santa Barbara sound, &c.,—will require............. 150,000 The appropriation for the western coast will include the ne
cessary repairs and expenses of a steam-vessel, and will
add one party to those operating in that quarter. The appropriation for the coast of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico in 1850–51, was...
186,000 For the Florida reefs, keys, and coast................... 30,000 For the western coast, including the cost of a steam-vessel.. 190,000
Olete the top for the siteombia riverid Bar
For the next year—the present fiscal year—the appropriations were severally $180,000, $30,000, and $100,000. I am satisfied, from experience, that the sums now asked are as small as, with the most economical administration of the survey, the work marked out can be executed for; requiring a close and constant care to make them give these results. The plan of operation is in a degree deranged, and the relative parts make a progress not adapted to each other, when the amounts are lessened; besides which, a portion of the work is necessarily cut off, and the survey makes slow progress. I am of opinion that true economy in such a work is to be found by enlarging the operations, thus increasing the division of labor. The work being of a temporary character, the enlargement of its expenditures is more than made up to the treasury by its less duration.
I proceed, next, to give a more particular account of the operations on the several sections of the coast, derived from the reports of the assistants and others employed; prefacing the more detailed statements with remarks on the progress of the section, and on the more interesting general results. The incidental notices of the office-work which thus occur in connexion with the sections, are followed by a complete detail of the progress in its various departments.
A table of occupation of the field and hydrographic parties is given in the Appendix, (No. 1, showing their distribution during the different seasons appropriate to surveying different parts of the coast.
The light-house work executed in the different sections is stated in the general table, (Appendix, No. 15,) and more in detail under the head of each geographical section of the coast.
In the Appendix to this report, Nos. 13 to 14 bis, inclusive, will be found the instructions of the Treasury Department, and the general correspondence on the subject of light-houses, &c.; special reports being elsewhere given in the Appendix, in connexion with the section to which they refer. The Appendix No. 16 contains a circular to the chiefs of hydrographic parties, referring to a communication from the secretary of the Light-house Board, asking suggestions for the improvement and extension of the present light-house establishment, and extracts from the replies.
SECTION I.-FROM PASSAMAQUODDY BAY TO POINT JUDITH, INCLUDING
THE COAST OF MAINE, NEW HAMPSHIRE, MASSACHUSETTS, AND RHODE ISLAND.—(Sketch A.)
The new appropriation having been available from the very beginming of the fiscal year, the work in this section has made very good progress. Two triangulation, three topographical, and two hydrographic parties, were at work during nearly the whole of the season; one of the triangulation parties making also the astronomical and magnetic observations connected with the primary work; two of the topographical parties using each two plane tables; and one of the hydrographic parties having, for the greater part of the time, three vesselsone of them a steam-vessel. The primary triangulation was extended to Cape Small Point, at the mouth of the Kennebec, and the reconnais. sance for it beyond the Penobscot. The secondary triangulation was completed to Portland. The topography of Cape Cod, Cape Ann, and Newburyport harbor, in Massachusetts, was nearly completed. The hydrography of Nantucket shoals was continued; that of Salem, Chatham, Portsmouth, and Newburyport harbors completed; off-shore work off Block island and Gay Head was executed; and tides and currents were observed near the Elizabeth islands, in the Vineyard sound and Buzzard's bay, at Holmes' Hole, Salem, Newburyport, and Portsmouth. The permanent tidal station at Charlestown, Massachusetts, has been kept up, and observations for several lunations have been made in Sar lem, Portsmouth, and Newburyport harbors. The office-work has made corresponding progress.
Accompanying this report (sketch A, No. 3) is a current chart, show ing the nature and results of observations of previous years in the harbor of Boston.
The preliminary chart of Richmond's Island harbor, issued to meet the wants of the Committee on Commerce, has given place to a more complete map.
During the great gale of April last, the violence of which was especially felt on the coast of Massachusetts, an opening was made through Chatham beach, (see sketch A,) giving a more direct and deeper entrance to the harbor of Chatham than had previously, at least of late years, existed. This attracted much attention, and hopes were entertained that a harbor of refuge might thus be obtained at a point where one was much needed. I incorporated in the instructions of the season directions to examine Chatham harbor, and if the bar and entrance were found in a moderately permanent condition, to make a complete survey of it. The topographical party of Assistant J. B. Glück was instructed to complete, without delay, the shore line; and Lieutenant Commanding Woodhull to take some convenient opportunity, towards the close of his operations in the Vineyard sound, to make the desired examination. This was promptly executed. The greatest depth which he found could be carried over the bars, at high water, was eleven feet; the rise and fall of the tide being about four and a half feet. There is deep water—in one spot twenty-two feet at low water-near the village af Chatham. The changes from week to week in the outer bar, he was satisfied, were such that a chart could not be made which would be of service to navigation. He accordingly recommended the postponement of the survey until a more permanent condition was reached; making, meanwhile, quite a careful examination, which has been plotted, and the chart representing which has been placed on file in the office, where it may be consulted by, or copied for, those who are especially interested in the matter.
The occupation of some twelve more stations will complete the pri mary triangulation to the northeastern boundary. The reasons which render it more expedient to employ a party only during part of the season for this purpose, have been frequently stated. The primary triangulation is still in advance of the secondary, though, in consequence of the desirableness of prompt surveys of some of the harbors in the more eastern part of the section, that operation has been pushed well forward.
The difficult and comparatively expensive hydrography of the Nan
tucket shoals, has delayed the hydrography beyond my calculations. The transfer of one of the southern hydrographic parties to this section formed part of my plan for the past season, which was interrupted by causes beyond my control, and which it is not necessary here to state. The plan is only deferred, not given up. The examination for a base of verification will be made next season, or in the following one; and, should a suitable one be found, the triangulation will be directed in reference to a junction with it.
The tides, and currents resulting from them, in the passages between the Elizabeth islands are altogether peculiar, and require close investigation. On one side of the islands the rise and fall belongs to Buzzard's bay; and on the other side to the Vineyard sound. The Buzzard's bay tide is propagated through the entrance between Cuttyhunk and Saghkonnet Point. (See sketch A.) The two chief passages used by vessels between the Vineyard sound and Buzzard's bay are Wood's Hole and Quicks' Hole. The plan which I sketched for determining the facts in regard to the tides was the establishment of three tide-gauges, to be observed during the same period on the north side of the Elizabeth islands at Wood's Hole, Kettle cove, and Quicks' Hole; and on the south side at Wood's Hole, Tarpaulin cove, and Quicks' Hole. These observations would give the corresponding phenomena and their progress between the two passages, and, being completed satisfactorily, the gauges from Kettle and Tarpaulin coves were to be removed to points nearly midway, or, better, at or near the point of meeting of the tides from the bay and sound, between the two gauges in Wood's and the two in Quicks' Hole, so as to determine the relation of the movement in these passages. This plan has been satisfactorily carried out during the present season, except that three days of simultaneous hourly observations, which I considered essential to its completeness, could not be made on account of the boisterous character of the weather.
During the season I had repeated conferences with the chiefs of parties in this section when the diversified operations required it, but made no special inspection. The inspection of a portion of the operations was made by Major I. I. Stevens, of the corps of engineers, assistant in charge of the office.
In 1849, a special expedition for the determination of the difference of longitude between the coast survey stations and European observatories was organized and reported upon. During the following year the reduction of the observations was made, so as to draw upon the experience of that operation for improvement in a subsequent one. During the past season the second trial has been made, the general results of which will be stated in their place from the report of Professor W. C. Bond, director of the Cambridge observatory, by whom, in concert with Mr. Hartnup, director of the Liverpool observatory, the work has been executed.
Arrangements have also been made, through Professor Bond, for connecting the coast survey of the United States with the surveys making by the British government in Nova Scotia. The occasion will be taken to obtain the longitude, by telegraph, of Bangor, in Maine, an important point in every respect, while facilitating the connexion of Cambridge and Halifax. The thanks of the Survey are due to H. O. Alden, esq.,