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deroga, and on the 18th gained possession of the French blockhouses on Mounts Hope and Defiance, and entered the works of Ticonderoga with but little loss. An armed sloop, several gunboats, 200 batteaux, and nearly 300 prisoners fell into his hands ; besides which, 100 American prisoners, confined at Lake George, were released. The American standard also, which had been left at Ticonderoga, when that fortress was evacuated, was recovered. Colonels Brown and Johnson after retaining possession of the two forts for three or four days, abandoned them, and returned to their commander, The enemy immediately reentered them; but evacuated them a month afterwards, on the surrender of Burgoyne's army.

The mention of Ticonderoga will bring to the recollection of the reader, the circumstances attending its evacuation by Major General St. Clair, in the month of July. That unfortunate and aspersed officer, though soon after ordered to attend Congress to undergo an investigation of his conduct, was still held in a state of distressing suspense, as will appear by the following extract of bis letter to General Gates of the 21st November.-“ My affair is still in the same situation as when I last wrote you. I am firmly persuaded it is the intention of Congress, to avoid bringing it to a trial as long as possible, in hopes that the matter will die away of itself and be forgotten; that, however, is not my intention. I have been pretty constant in my applications for justice to myself, and to my country, and shall continue them until I prevail, or they throw off the mask.After some severe remarks upon

the cabals that distracted the councils of the country, justified perhaps by his peculiar situation, he adds

21

VOL. II.

66 This moment I have a letter from the President, covering the following very extraordinary resolve : •Whereas the committee appointed to inquire into the causes of the loss of Ticonderoga and Fort Independence, have not yet been able to collect materials, and make their report, resolved, that Major General St. Clair be at liberty to attend to his private affairs, until he shall have notice to attend head quarters, in order to an inquiry into his conduct.' -"

This was indeed what General St. Clair indignantly denominated it, an extraordinary resolve, and sufficiently justified the following comments, with which he concluded his letter to General Gates. “ Judge now, Sir, what I ought to think of them, for I made no such application as this would indicate ; or whether the suspicion I threw out above is not but too well founded. If they had candour or common honesty, they would have owned, that after five months spent in searching for an accusation, they had been unable to find one-one at least which they dared to own; and instead of commanding me to retire from the army, which is the English of the resolve,with all the ignominy upon my head which they had unjustly endeavoured to fix there, could have acknowledged their errours, and done what was in their power to remove it; but many of them are incapable of a generous sentiment or action in private life ; and a publick station, by making men more acquainted with the vices and frailties of others, confirms and increases their own. A trial however they shall give me ; be the event what it will, they cannot rob me of that heartfelt satisfaction, which is the companion and reward of virtuous actions."

On the last day of the year, Congress resolved to give to the officers and soldiers in the immediate army of the Commander in Chief, one month's extra pay, as a reward for the patience, fidelity and zeal, with which they had borne the dangers, fatigues and sufferings of their peculiar situation, and certainly no army ever suffered more, or were, under such circumstances, more faithful to their Commander in Chief.

Thus closed the second year of our independence. We shall see in the next chapter some of the important consequences which flowed from the several campaigns of the two grand armies.

CHAPTER VII.

Events of 1778.- Proceedings of the British Parliament.-Lord

North's second conciliatory scheme. Duke of Richmond proposes to acknowledge the independence of America.-Last publick appearance of Lord Chatham.-Disgrace of Burgoyne.Situation of the American army at Valley Forge.-Commissary General appointed.-Baron Steuben appointed Inspector Ge. neral.-Inactivity of Sir William Howe at Philadelphia Conduct of Congress on receiving Lord North's Bills. Ar. rival of Mr. Simeon Deane with copies of the treaties with France.- Proceedings of Congress thereon.-Sir Henry Clinton arrives, and supersedes Sir William Howe-Arrival of the Commissioners, Lord Carlisle, Mr. Eden and Mr. Johnston.Their unsuccessful negotiation and outrageous conduct.Sir Henry evacuates Philadelphia.- Is pursued by Washington-Battle in New Jersey.--Arrest and trial of Lee.-Congress return to Philadelphia.Lieutenant Brown shot by a centinel at Cambridge.- Arrival of Count D'Estaing with a French fleet.-Pursues Lord Howe to New York, and blockades him there.--Sails to Rhode Island to assist in the expedition of General Sullivan.-British and French fleets prevented from engaging by a storm.-Retreat of General Sullivan.-Count D'Estaing sails for Boston.--Mysterious affair of Captain Folger. Mr. Deane.-Beaumarchais.-Loss of the Frigate Randolph.-Bloody massacre at Wyoming

- Colonel Clarke's expedition to the Mississippi.

In order to show more fully the effects produced by the campaign of 1777, and particularly by the unexpected disasters of General Burgoyne on the banks of the Hudson, it will be necessary to attend to the proceedings of the British parliament, at their meeting, after a short recess, in January 1778. It will be seen that the unfortunate General Burgoyne, on his return to England, was refused the miserable

consolation of throwing himself at his Majesty's feet, and that after having encountered dangers and difficulties sufficient to have appalled a man less devoted to the cause of his king and country, he was compelled to hide his head in disgrace, and add another to the thousand monuments of ministerial ingratitude.

In a few days after the meeting in January, Mr. Fox in a committee of the whole house, moved for an address to his Majesty, beseeching him not to send any more troops from England, Ireland, Gibraltar or Minorca, to America-Mr. Fox declared that his motive was grounded upon a retrospective view of the disasters which had occurred in Ameri. ca, where the losses and disgraces of the army had been so great as to endanger the safety of the kingdom; the army for the defence of wbich had been so reduced by the continual reinforcements sent to America, that the kingdom now laid at the mercy of the House of Bourbon; that necessity if not choice would compel the ministers to abandon their plan of conquest, which had as yet been attended with nothing but calamity.

Not a word was said by the Ministers or their friends in reply to Mr. Fox—the question on his motion was silently put and negatived—but the large majority clearly showed that the Minister was losing ground in the house,

Mr. Burke afterwards moved for the papers relative to the employment of the Indians; and took occasion with his usual energy of style and manner to enlarge upon the horrid murder of Miss M-Crea, before related. But his motion was also rejected by a large majority; and a few days afterwards, Lord

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