word-ignorance, a palpable and total ignorance of every part of the subject. He hoped, and he was disappointed—he expected a great deal, and found little to answer his expectations-he thought America would have submitted to his laws, and she had resisted them-he thought she would have submitted to his armies, and she had defeated them-he made conciliatory propositions, and he thought they would succeed, but they were rejected—he appointed Commissioners to make peace, and he thought they had powers; but he found that they could not make peace, and that they had no powers.

This was indeed precisely the situation of his Lordship. He had brought himself into a labyrinth of difficulties, from which he had no clue to extricate him. He had depended upon his own sagacity, and had found it incompetent to his support; he had thought himself wiser than his predecessors, and found himself only more obstinate. But unfortunately for his Lordship's reputation as a Statesman, he had still too much influence in the Parliament, to permit him to see the degradation to which he was hurrying himself and his country. His Conciliatory Bills were passed, and Lord Carlisle, Mr. Eden, and Mr. Johnstone, were appointed the Commissioners. We shall soon see with what effect their mission to America was attended.

During the present session of the British Parliament, the Earl of Chatham, for the last time, made his appearance in the House of Peers.-Having been apprized that the subject of American affairs, in which he had never ceased to feel the most lively interest, would occupy the attention of the Grand Committee of Inquiry, on the 7th of April, his Lordship, bowed

down as he was with the weight of years, and still more enfeebled by disease, entered the House, supported by his son, and Lord Viscount Mahon. We shall be excused by our American readers, for dwelling a few moments, upon this last exhibition of one of the best and greatest men that ever appeared in the councils of any nation, when they remember, that the Earl of Chatham devoted the best years of his life, the most vigorous efforts of his towering genius, to the defence of the rights and privileges of America, and to the promotion of her prosperity and happiness. And, that though he may appear in this closing scene of his life, to have receded from the noble stand which he had always made against every attempt to fetter the freedom of America, it was not that he loved Ame. rica less, but England more. The alliance of France, it cannot be doubted, had a powerful influence in determining his Lordship to oppose the recognition of American independence. Had America still been struggling single handed, against her mercenary foes, Lord Chatham would have died breathing a prayer for her success : but the acknowledgment of her independence now, would carry with it the appearance of concession to the House of Bourbon ; and his Lordship was too much an Englishman to forget his hatred to France

At his Lordship's entrance into the House, every Nobleman arose, as if with one impulse, to show their veneration and respect for his character. His pale and emaciated countenance, his enfeebled limbs wrapped in flannel, formed a melancholy contrast to the fire which still lighted his eye, and which this day's exertions were doomed to quench forever. As soon as the House were recovered from the emotions which VOL. II.


his entrance had excited, the Duke of Richmond rose to move an address to the King on the state of the nation. In the course of his Grace's speech, he distinctly avowed his belief, that the independence of America was already established, and that an immediate acknowledgment of it would be the wisest course that conld be pursued. Lord Chatham rose to reply to his Grace, and the attention of the House was rivetted upon his tottering frame. He lamented that his infirmities had kept him so long from Parliament, and declared that his present effort was almost beyond the powers of his constitution—that it was probably the last time he should ever be able to enter the House: but, said he, “ My Lords, I rejoice that the grave has not yet closed upon me—that I am still alive to lift up my voice against an acknowledgment of the sovereignty of America, against the dismemberment of this ancient and noble monarchy. Pressed down as I am by the load of infirmity, I am little able to assist my country in this most perilous conjuncture: but, my Lords, while I have sense and memory, I never will consent to tarnish the lustre of this nation by an ignominious surrender of its rights and fairest possessions. Shall a people so lately the terrour of the world, now fall prostrate before the House of Bourbon ? It is impossible. I am not, I confess, well informed of the resources of this kingdom, but I trust it has still sufficient to maintain its just rights, though I know them not.—Any state, my Lords, is better than despair. Let us at least make an effort-and, if we must fall, let us fall like men."

The Duke of Richmond got up to reply, and with the most profound respect of language and manner, urged his Lordship to point out the means by which

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America could be made to renounce her independence-adding with perfect sincerity that “ if his Lordship could not do it, no man could." - When his Grace concluded, Lord Chatham, his whole frame appearing to be struggling with some powerful emotion, attempted to rise-but the effort failed: he sunk, convulsed, into the arms that were held out to support him. The debate was immediately adjourned, and medical assistance sent for to his Lordship: but the minister of immortality bad calledhis Lordship revived but to linger a few short weeks, and died on the 11th of May, in the 70th year of his age.

Lord North had, early in March, officially communicated to Parliament, that a Treaty of amity, commerce and alliance had been concluded between France and the United States; and on the 20th of that month his Excellency the French Ambassador quitted London in pursuance of orders.

General Burgoyne, on his arrival in England shortly afterwards, finding that his Majesty would not deign to receive him, took his seat in the House of Commons; and there endeavoured to enlist a party in his favour by abusing the measures of the Ministrybut his sun was set; his voice was no longer listened to. He had sunk into contempt with all parties. Let us now return to the United States.

The new year found the American army at Valley Forge in a condition of extreme distress. They were suffering every privation and hardship, which a want of provisions and a want of clothing could bring upon them. So destitute, indeed, were they of every necessary, that Washington found himself obliged to wink at acts of depredation and plunder, which would otherwise have incurred his severest reprehension and punishment. That he should have been enabled to keep his army together, under such circumstances, is the highest eulogium which can be paid to his character. Nor do the soldiers themselves deserve less praise, for the unparalleled fortitude and patience, with which they endured the severities of winter, without shoes and blankets, and the fatigues and hardships of continued marching, without food. Was this the effect of discipline, or was it patriotism ? To say that it was the latter, would be perhaps to decide against the testimony of all history, which furnishes no example of patience under such accumulated sufferings, which could be traced to the influence of patriotism alone. But if discipline could effect it, why are such instances so rare ? Love and respect for their Chief, had no doubt considerable influence on the conduct of the army; but we must suppose also that the enthusiasm, which first brought the American soldiery to the standard of their country, had not yet subsided; and that, however contrary it may appear to the history of the world, or to the nature of man, the great body of our Revolutionary soldiers felt the value of the prize for which they were contending, and acted under the impulse of patriotick feelings, which in their case was but little different from self love. The greater part of them had an interest at stake as great as that of the Congress itself; upon the fate of their country depended their own; those who thus felt imparted the same feeling to their comrades; and this, united to a strong personal regard for Washington, prevented the entire dissolution of the army during the unexampled miseries of the present winter.

Amidst all these causes of disquietude and chagrin, Washington found that his secret enemies were still

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