(Whereas by the treaty of alliance between the most Christian King and the United States of North America, the two parties guaranty mutually from that time and forever, against all other powers, to wit, the United States to his most Christian Majesty the possession then appertaining to the Crown of France in America, as well as those which it may acquire by à future treaty of peace ; and his most Christian Majesty guaranties on his part to the United States, all their liberty, sovereignty and independence, absolute and unlimited, as well in matters of government as commerce, and also their possessions and the additions or conquests that their confederation may obtain during the war, according to the said treaty. And whereas the said parties did further agree and declare that in case of a rupture between France and England, the said reciprocal guarantee should have its full force and effect the moment such a war should break out:-And whereas doubts may hereafter arise how far the said guarantee extends to the case, to wit, that should Great Britain molest or disturb the subjects or inhabitants of France, or the said States, in taking fish on the Banks of Newfoundland, and other of the fishing banks and seas of North America, formerly and usually frequented by the subjects and inbabitants res. pectively :- And whereas the said King and the United States have thought proper to determine with precision the true interest and meaning of the said guarantee in this respect, now therefore as a further demonstration of this natural good will and affection, it is hereby agreed, concluded and determined as fol. lows, to wit, that if after the conclusion of the treaty or treaties which shall terminate the present war, Great Britain shall molest or disturb the subjects or

inhabitants of the United States, in taking fish on the banks, seas and places, formerly used and frequented by them, so as not to encroach on the territorial rights, which may remain to her after the termination of the present war as aforesaid, and war should thereupon break out between the United States and Great Britain : or if Great Britain shall molest or disturb the subjects and inhabitants of France, in taking fish on the banks, seas and places formerly used and frequented by them, so as not to encroach on the territorial rights of Great Britain as aforesaid, and war should thereupon break out between France and Great Britain; in either of these cases of war as aforesaid, bis most Christian Majesty and the said United States shall make it a common cause, and aid each other mutually with their good offices, their councils, and their forces according to the exigence of conjunctures, as becomes good and faithful allies. Provided always that nothing herein contained shall be taken or understood, as contrary to or inconsistent with the true intent and meaning of the treaties already subsisting between his most Christian majesty and the said states, but the same shall be taken and understood, as explanatory of and conformable to those treaties."

The following were the instructions agreed upon to the Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain. “ Congress have come to the following resolution, That if his Catholic majesty sball accede to the treaties between France and the United States of America, and in the concurrence with them continue the present war with Great Britain for the purpose expressed in the treaties aforesaid, he shall not thereby be precluded from securing to himself the Floridas : on the contrary, if he shall obtain the Floridas from Great Britain, these

United States will guaranty the same to his Catholic Majesty; provided always that the United States shall enjoy the free navigation of the river Mississippi into and from the sea. You are therefore to communicate to his most Christian Majesty, the desire of Congress to enter into a treaty of alliance, and of amity and commerce, with his Catholic Majesty, and to request his favourable interposition for that purpose ; at the same time you are to make such proposals to his Catholic Majesty as in your judgment, from circumstances, will be proper for obtaining for the United States of America, equal advantages with those which are secured to them by the treaties with his most Christian Majesty, observing always the resolution aforesaid as the ultimatum of these United States. You are particularly to endeavour to obtain some convenient port or ports below the 31° of north latitude on the river Mississippi free for all merchants' vessels, goods, wares and merchandise belonging to the inhabitants of these states. The distressed state of our finances, and the great depreciation of our paper money, incline Congress to hope, that his Catholic Majesty, if he shall conclude a treaty with these states, 'will be induced to lend the money ; you are therefore to present to him the great distress of these states on that account, and to solicit a loan of five millions of dollars upon the best terms in your power, not exceeding six per cent. per ann, effectually to enable

. them to cooperate with the allies against the common enemy: but before you make any proposals to his Catholic Majesty, for a loan, you are to endeavour to obtain a subsidy, in consideration of the guarantee aforesaid."


They likewise prepared instructions to the commissioner, who should be appointed to negotiate a treaty of peace with Great Britain ; in which after point

; ing out the boundaries that it would be necessary for him to insist upon, they proceed— As the great object of the present defensive war, on the part of the allies, is to establish the independence of the United States, and as any treaty whereby this end cannot be obtained, must be only ostensible and illusory, you are therefore to make it a preliminary article to any negotiation, that Great Britain shall agree to treat with the United States as sovereign, free and independent. You shall take especial care also, that the independence of the said states be effectually assured and confirmed by the treaty or treaties of peace, according to the form and effect of the treaty of alliance with his most Christian Majesty ; and you shall not agree to such treaty or treaties, unless the same be thereby assured and confirmed. Although it is of the utmost importance to the peace and commerce of the United States, that Canada and Nova Scotia should be ceded, and more particularly that their equal, common right, to the fisheries, should be guarantied to them, yet a desire of terminating the war hath induced us not to make the acquisition of these objects an ultimatum on the present occasion. You are empowered to agree to a cessation of hostilities during the negotiation, provided our ally should consent to the same, and provided it shall be stipulated that all the forces of the enemy should be immediately withdrawn from the United States. In all other matters not above mentioned, you are to govern yourself by the alliance between bis most Christian Majesty and these states, by the advice of our allies, by your knowledge of our inter

ests, and by your own discretion, in which we repose the fullest confidence."

A few days after these instructions were agreed upon, Congress proceeded to the appointment of a proper person for negotiating a treaty of peace. The ballots for John Adams and Mr. Jay, were twice equal, so that no choice could be made; in the mean time a resolution prevailed “that a Minister plenipotentiary be appointed to negotiate a treaty of alliance, and of amity and commerce, between the United States of America, and his Catholick Majesty." The appointment of a Minister under this resolution, relieved them from the embarrassment of fruitless balloting between the two gentlemen above mentioned, Mr. Jay was elected ; and Mr. Adams was immediately appointed Minister Plenipotentiary for negotiating treaties of peace and commerce with Great Britain. Mr. Jay soon after sailed for Europe in company with the late French Minister, but previous to his sailing, Congress determined upon giving him the following instructions. 6 You are to use your utmost endeavours for obtaining permission for the citizens and inhabitants of these states, to lade and take on board their vessels, salt at the island of St. Tortuga; and also to cut, load and bring away, log wood and mahogany, in and from the bay of Honduras and its rivers, and to build on the shores, stores, houses and magazines, for the woodcutters and their families, in the extent ceded to his Britannick Majes. ty by the 17th article of the definitive treaty concluded at Paris, the 10th of February, 1763, or in as great an extent as can be obtained.”

The indifference with which Congress viewed the evils of their system of paper currency, and the bigh

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