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with the Baltick fleet, under convoy of the Serapis and Countess of Scarborough. Captain Pearson who commanded the Serapis, having received intelligence of Jones's situation, prepared to place himself between his conroy and the hostile squadron. He was joined in the course of his manœuvres by Captain Piercy of the Countess of Scarborough, and a little after 7 o'clock in the evening, the Bon Homme Richard, rounded to within musket shot of the Serapis. An action immediately commenced, which has never been surpassed in period of duration, in severity of conflict, or in the bravery with which it was sustained on both sides. The Serapis was greatly superiour to the Bon Homme Richard, but this was made up in the determined resolution with which Jones maneuvered to lay his vessel along side, and in which he succeeded after an hour's engagement. At half past 8, the two ships were lashed together fore and aft, and until half past ten, the fight raged with equal fury and with equal hopes. Both ships were on fire more than once; and to add to the horrour of the scene, the Alliance came up several times in the course of the action, and while it was too dark to distinguish friends from foes, poured several broadsides into both. Captain Pearson, at length, finding further resistance useless, and having allowed sufficient time for his convoy to escape, struck his flag. Jones's ship was reduced to a perfect wreck, and it required the most assiduous labour at the pumps to prevent her from going down before her crew could be removed. The slaughter was terrible on both sides, and accident perhaps rather than superiority of courage or skill, determined the victory in favour of Jones; for a short time before the conflict terminated,
á spark lighting upon one of the cartridges on the quarter deck of the Serapis, and communicated fire from one to another with such fatal effect, that nearly all the men abaft the mainmast were blown up, and the guns rendered entirely useless.
While this terrible engagement lasted between the Serapis and the Bon Homme Richard, the Pallas and the Countess of Scarborough also had an action of near two hour's continuance, which resulted in the capture of the latter. On the 3d of October, Commodore Jones entered the Texel with his prizes, and the remnant of his little squadron, having taken and ransomed during his cruize, prizes io the amount of forty thousand pounds sterling.
A singular incident occurred just before the Serapis struck, which shows Jones's character in a strong light. A report had been spread between decks that Jones and some of the principal officers were killed and that the ship was sinking. This alarmed the crew so much, that some of the non-commissioned officers were deputed to go on deck and sue for quarters. Jones discovered them in the act of fulfilling their mission, and ordered them in his usual peremptory tone to be shot. They all escaped below but the gunner, who being unfortunately the last man, a pistol which Jones threw at him struck him on the head and fractured his skull: the poor fellow lay in this deplorable condition until after the action, when his skull was trepanned, and he recovered. The cry for quarters produced something like a cessation of hostilities for a moment, and the captain of the Serapis demanded of Jones if he had struck ; but the latter replied by pointing to his shattered flag still waving, and the fight was renewed with redoubled fury.
The Bon Homme Richard had upwards of 300 men killed and wounded, and the Serapis 137 killed and 76 wounded.
It was not until after several applications repeated with considerable heat by Jones, that the Dutch Admiral would permit his entering the Texel with his squadron and prizes; and his compliance in the end produced a remoustrance from Sir Joseph Yorke, the British Ambassadour at the Hague, who demanded from the States General a surrender of the prizes, on the plea that Jones was a pirate ; and threatened serious consequences in case of a refusal. Their high mightinesses replied that they would « in no respect whatever pretend to judge of the loyalty or illegality of the actions of those who have on the open sea, taken any, vessels which do not belong to this country, and bring them into any of the ports of this republick; that they only open their ports to them to give them shelter from storms or other disasters, and oblige them to put to sea again with their prizes, without unloading or disposing of their cargoes, but letting them remain exactly as when they arrived ; and
; that they are not authorized to pass judgment, either on these prizes or the person of Paul Jones.” Sir Joseph Yorke was compelled for the present to be satisfied with this reply.
Let us now return to the military operations of the South.
Events of 1780—Sir Henry Clinton evacuates Rhode Island, and
prepares an expedition to the South.— The British fleet arrive at North Edisto, and disembark the army.-Rencontre between the British and American Cavalry.-Sir Henry appears before Charleston.-Situation of General Lincoln.- Earl of Caithness wounded in a sirmish.-Charleston is summoned to surrender, and the summons rejected. The enemy's batteries ar opened.- Dangerous situation of Lincoln.– Terms of capitulation offered by Lincoln and rejected. Movements of the Cavalry_Surprise of Lieutenant Colonel Washington at Monk's Corner.-
---Success of Lieutenant, Colonel White against a forag. ing party of the enemy.-Disappointment, and discomfiture at Lenew's ferry.-Sir Henry again demands the surrender of Charleston, which is given up, and Lincoln and his army become prisoners of war. Terms of capitulation, and American loss-Treachery and punishment of Colonel Hamilton Ballendine-Route and butchery of an American party at Waxhaw by Lieutenant Colonel Tarleton. Measures of Sir Henry Clinton to secure the submission of South Carolina. He sails for New York.-Lord Cornwallis succeeds to the command.-Manifestations of revolt against the Royal Authority in South Carolina.The Baron de Kalb and Major General Gates arrive in North Carolina.Two battalions of militia leave the enemy, and rejoin the American standard.—General Gates advances towards Camden.-Skirmish of Brigadier General Sumpter.-Gates and Cornwallis meet between Clermont and Camden.--Battle and defeat of Gates.---Losses of the American army.–Surprise and discomfiture of General Sumpter.--Retreat of the remnant of the American army to Salisbury and Hillsborough. Their wretched condition.
The news of the Count D'Estaing's arrival on the coast of Georgia, had given considerable alarm to Sir Henry Clinton for the safety of New York, and determined him to withdraw the forces which had been
so long idle in Rhode Island, to assist in his defen, sive measures. Orders were accordingly given for the evacuation of Newport, and the troops under Sir Robert Pigot marched for New York on the 27th October, 1779. The conduct of Sir Robert during his command on Rhode Island, had gained him the character of great humanity ; for he had permitted none of those predatory excursions whicb had occasioned so much misery in other quarters, nor were his troops suffered to commit any needless destruction or wanton cruelties upon their quitting Newport. The evacuation was made with the utmost regularity and discipline, and in a manner which did as much credit to the soldiers, for their exact obedience, as to General Pigot for the humanity which dictated his orders.
The intelligence of the repulse of the combined army
from Savannah, and the subsequent departure of the Count D'Estaing's fleet from the American coast, having releived the fears of Sir Henry Clinton for the safety of New York, he determined to give active employment to his army, which had been considerably reinforced by arrivals from Europe, by undertaking an expedition against South Carolina. With this view he committed the command of New York to Lieutenant General Knyphausen, and embarked himself with 7000 troops on board the fleet and transports, under the direction of Admiral Arbuthnot, on the 26th of December. The weather was so tempestuous and stormy during the passage, that several of the transports were lost, and very serious injury done to the whole. One of the ordnance ships, with all her stores, was sunk, and two or three fell into the hands of the Americans ; besides which nearly all the horses belonging to the expedition perished. The fleet in this