motion, considering that this was Executive Government, a Select a question entirely for the Exe- Committee would hang up the cutive Government, and that the question for two sessions, and it appointment of a Commission to would be a bad instrument for the colony in particular, would such an inquiry. He thought the weaken the authority of the Go- best Government for a colony was vernor. Mr. Smith entered at one in itself, but if there was to much length into the practical be a colonial Government in this parts of the question, urging that country, let us have a Queen's the Cape was not a colony on Government. It was impossible whose account much expense to devise in this country the means should be incurred by the mother of settling our relations with the country.

Caffre tribes. The whole matter Mr. Francis Scott supported the should be carried over as speedily amendment, believing that the as possible to the colony itself. sending a Commission to the Cape The main ground upon which he would be highly prejudicial to that objected to a Committee was, his colony.

anxiety to avoid giving a fresh Mr. Mackinnon said the contest Parliamentary sanction to the in Caffraria was the inevitable re- mischievous and unsound system sult of the contact of civilization of managing the affairs of our with utter barbarism. No amal- colonies at home. He did not gamation could take place: the wish to throw the costs of the colosavage would retire farther and nial wars, with the management farther back until he disappeared of their affairs, upon the colonists altogether. These outbreaks would from motives of economy alone : occasionally take place; nothing a much higher principle was incould prevent them. The amend- volved. The plague and scourge ment took a middle course, and he of war could only be kept down by should support it.

the colony being responsible for Mr. Gladstone said the philoso- its expense. He protested against phical theory of Mr. Mackinnon the doctrine that a colony was to did not much help the inquiry; be treated like an infant, and that the question was, were the in. it was necessary to prepare it for cidents of that theory capable or free institutions. This was, in his not of being affected by prudent opinion, a great practical and misor impolitic conduct on our part? chievous fallacy. Colonies should It was impossible to decide on be founded in freedom. whom the blame rested for the Lord Mandeville supported the past; the future, however, was in amendment. our power. Like Mr. V. Smith, Colonel Thompson argued that he did not agree with either pro- the best security against semi-barposition. As to the appointment barous tribes was to treat them of a Commission, he was not aware with justice. that anything could be done by a Sir E. Buxton did not think Commission that could not be done that the policy of Lord Glenelg by the Governor. With respect had entirely failed. If the colonists to a Committee, not dwelling upon were left to themselves, he feared the old objection that it tended to the wars with the natives would shift the responsibility from the be of an exterminating character,

treat us.

as in all countries where the white duty upon the Government, which man came in contact with the was bound to exercise the authority black. He prayed the House to of this country to prevent the return to the high principle laid frightful consequences of allowing down by Lord Glenelg, to treat the passions of black and white the natives as we would wish they men to be arrayed against each should, in similar circumstances, other.

Mr. Hume insisted that the Mr. Roebuck said we had no time had come when the colonists business in Caffraria, except on should have self-government, and the understanding that we were the management of their own about to plant there a people of affairs, which they were prepared higher intelligence, and this could to undertake. He hoped the House only be done by the gradual anni- would not appoint à Committee, hilation of the native population. but he believed a Commission sent They might oppose cunning and out to the Cape would be of great artifice to knowledge and force, service. but it would be vain. It was an Mr. J. Bell protested against utter pretence, then, to talk of the doctrine laid down by Mr. humanity, and the principles of Roebuck, who had avowed the the Christian religion, and the principle of doing evil that good Decalogue; the black man must might come. If a doctrine chavanish in the face of the white. racterized by such a bloodthirsty We must, therefore, make up our and rapacious spirit were to be minds to the event. He still said acted on, where would the mischief “colonize;" he knew it could not be end? Who was to be the judge done without great suffering by which of two nations was the more the native population; he regretted civilized ? this, but the end sanctioned it. Mr. S. Herbert disputed the How should it be accomplished ? precedents appealed to by Mr. Just as in the case of the North- Labouchere. But, independent of American colonies, by telling the precedent, did this particular case, colonists, "We will protect you he asked, justify the appointment against great powers, but against of a Committee? The circumthe aborigines you must defend stances of the case required the yourselves.

He severely con exercise of discretion in the colony demned the proposition of Lord or by the Government at home, John Russell, which, he said, ab- and this attempt to delegate rerogated the functions of Govern- sponsibility, while it was not justiment; he denounced it as a fied by the circumstances of the miserable subterfuge to escape re- case, would be detrimental to the sponsibility, while lives as well as public service. money would be sacrificed in the Mr. Booker supported the colony, and the great name of amendment. England perhaps prostituted. Mr. Hawes said the appoint

Mr. Labouchere justified the ment of the Committee would not course proposed by the Govern- suspend the functions of the Goment by precedents. The report vernment, while there was of the Aborigines Committee of advantage in having a Committee 1837, he observed, cast a sacred that could collect the fullest in


formation, and satisfy the House parties had coincided in its printhat the policy of the Cape Go- ciples; but great difficulties arose vernment had been misrepre- in applying the principles. But sented.

Sir Harry Smith required assistUpon a division, Lord John ance while he was so much otherRussell's amendment was carried wise engrossed; and, in conseby 128 against 60, and a Select quence, two gentlemen had been Committee was appointed.

chosen who would act as his subTowards the latter end of May, ordinate assistants in the separate however, it transpired that the commission which he held as High Government were about to send Commissioner among the border out some persons in an official tribes, in deciding difficult quescharacter to the Cape, and Lord tions and in putting the decisions Wharncliffe put some questions to into prompt execution. One of Earl Grey in the House of Lords them was Major Hogg, late a Capupon the subject.

tain in the 7th Dragoons, who had Lord Wharncliffe observed that raised among the Hottentots levies when in the House of Commons Mr. which had great influence in terAdderley moved for a Royal Com- minating the late Caffre war. The mission, the Ministers had objected other gentleman was a graduate of that it would interfere with the the University of Oxford, who was operations and impair the effi- well acquainted with and spoke ciency of the colonial authorities: with fluency the Caffre language; they proposed a Select Committee, and who only returned to this and the House agreed to the pro- country in May last, bearing with position, on the assurance that if him the highest testimonials both the Committee should be of from Sir Henry Pottinger and opinion that a Commission should from Sir Harry Smith. In a few be sent out, no objection would be days, additional papers, explaining made. The Committee had not the state of affairs in the colony, yet sat, and had had no oppor- would be laid on the table, and tunity of expressing any opinion this Commission would be among on the propriety of sending a them. Commission, yet one had been Subsequently the Chancellor of appointed. Who were the Com- the Exchequer intimated, in answer missioners ? and what were their to questions asked in the House of powers and objects ?

Commons, that the expenses of Earl Grey said the objections the Caffre war had considerably made by the Government were to swelled. The latest reports seemed a Commission of inquiry. It still to negative the hope of a speedy was Lord Grey's opinion that termination of the contest, and it the appointment of such a Com- was feared that a sum beyond the mission, as was proposed by Mr. original estimate would be found Adderley, would be attended with necessary. inconvenience, though some of his On the 13th of June, in a Comcolleagues differed from him on mittee of Supply, the Chancellor that point. Inquiry would throw of the Exchequer moved that a but little light on the question of sum not exceeding 300,0001. be border policy. That policy had granted towards defraying the exlong been a settled one, and all penses of the Caffre war beyond


the ordinary grants for the army, filled up in the colony, and the navy, and commissariat depart- scheme was to be sent home in ments for 1851-2. The right the shape of ordinances for the hon. gentleman prefaced his decision of Her Majesty's Governmotion by a brief explanation of ment. He explained the course the requirements for this purpose. adopted by Sir Harry Smith, who, The motion led to a lengthened instead of filling up the vacant discussion on the affairs of the seats of the council by nominees, colony and the war.

completed that assembly, by which Mr. Adderley availed himself of the new ordinances were to be the occasion to enter fully into framed, by members elected in South-African politics, being pre- the colony; and he detailed the cluded by form from moving an result of that measure—the differaddress, of which he had given ences which arose in the Council, notice, praying that Her Majesty and the secession of Sir A. Stocken. would bestow on the colony of the ström and his colleagues. Those Cape of Good Hope the means of persons, he thought, had taken a self-government.

most unfortunate course, since, but Lord J. Russell replied to Mr. for it, the ordinances would have Adderley, justifying the course been transmitted to this country pursued by the Home Govern- and received the consideration of ment, with reference to the sub- the Home Government, anda repreject of representative institutions sentative constitution would now and frontier policy.

have been in force in the colony. In the debate which ensued, in In the House of Lords, not long which the principal speakers were afterwards, the whole policy of the Mr. Hume, Mr. Hawes, Mr. Home Government, in reference to Vernon Smith, Mr. Bright, Mr. the Cape colony, underwent a Labouchere, Lord Naas, and Mr. searching and protracted discusWakley, Lord John Russell sion, on a motion brought forpledged himself to the declara- ward by the Earl of Derby. This tion, that at the earliest practi- was one of the most important cable period a representative Go- debates of the session-the repuvernment would be established at tation and, as it seemed probable, the Cape. The vote was then the existence of the Government agreed to. Subsequently, on being involved in the issue. bringing up the report of the The resolution proposed by the Committee of Supply, the same noble leader of the opposition party, subject was resumed by Mr. Hume, and which he sustained in a speech who impugned the conduct of the of great eloquence and power, was Government for withholding from in the following terms: -- "That the the colonists of the Cape a repre- papers laid before their Lordships, sentative system which had been during the present and last sesgranted to them by letters patent. sion of Parliament, relative to the

Lord J. Russell, in reply, stated granting representative institutions the mode in which a representa- to the Cape colony, be referred to tive system had been granted to

a Select Committee.” In the outset the Cape. The letters patent con- of his speech, Lord Derby rapidly tained no distinct details, but only sketched the late history of the an outline of the system, to be Cape constitution.

That colony was one of the Crown colonies, ori- be supplied by the members of ginally acquired by conquest, and the Council on the spot. subject to the authority of the In the interval, however, ocCrown. At first the Government curred those differences under was carried on by the authority which the Anti-Convict Associaof the Governor alone; he was tion arose into being. Lord Derby afterwards assisted by an Executive felt that a great and grievous error Council; in 1834 that became the had been committed on that point Legislative Council, nominated by by Her Majesty's Government; for the Governor, and comprising a when pledges were held out, under majority of official members. In the authority of the Crown, that 1842 a petition was presented from convicts should not be admitted the Cape, praying for a repre- iuto certain colonies except when sentative constitution. To that their labour was asked for as a petition Lord Derby, then Lord boon, as it sometimes was, and Stanley and Chief Secretary for when, in the teeth of all the public the Colonies, replied, pointing out bodies of the colony of the Cape certain difficulties in the way of of Good Hope, convicts were sent adopting representative institu- out to it and their reception was tions, pronouncing no final deci- pressed—he would not say on a sion, but waiting further informa- reluctant colony, for reluctant was tion and explanation. In 1846 Lord not the proper word—but on a Grey, then at the head of the Colo- colony unanimous in refusing their nial Office, called for an answer introduction, there was no other to Lord Stanley's letter of 1842, mild expression applicable to such which had been up to that time transactions except that of great neglected. Sir Harry Smith, then and grievous error. No error, he Governor of the Cape, laid Lord repeated, could be more great and Grey's dispatch before his official grievous than to hold out, in the advisers. They expressed various name of the Crown, any expresopinions as to the expediency of sions or pledges respecting boons introducing representative institu- to be granted or privileges contions, but unanimously agreed that ceded, and then to recede from there should be a Governor, a those pledges in spirit as well as Legislative Council, and a House in letter. The error on this occaof Assembly, sitting at Cape Town, sion met with a grievous punishfor the whole of the colony. Lord ment, of which the example would Grey referred the matter to the be followed not only in the colony Board of Trade, who suggested of the Cape but also in all our that the Legislative Council should other colonies. The spirit of resisbe elective as well as the House tance had been evoked in a just of Assembly, and that the Chief cause, and had been carried to Justice should preside in the such an extent, that, after a vain Lower House.

struggle on the part of the Crown, The report was sent to the its authority had been rejected and Government at Cape Town; and lowered in the colony; and not the Governor was instructed that petitions, but threats and menaces, the details should not be included and even hostilities, had been diin the letters-patent, but should rected against the Governor on the Vol. XCIII.


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