upon those who, being better in- countries our form of goverument, formed themselves, have yet led by artifice or force; but to teach away the ardour of youth and an ill- by example, and show by our sucdireeted love of political liberty. sess, moderation, and justice, the The correspondence between this blessings of self-government, and Government and that of Spain re- the advantages of free institutions. lating to this transaction is here- Let every people choose for itself, with communicated.

and make and alter its political in“Although these offenders de stitutions to suit its own condition gainst the laws have forfeited the and convenience. But, while we protection of their country, yet the avow and maintain this neutral Government may, so far as is con- policy ourselves, we are anxious to sistent with its obligations to other see the same forbearance on the countries, and its fixed purpose to part of other nations, whose forms maintain and enforce the laws, en- of government are different from tertain sympathy for their unof- our own. The deep interest which fending families and friends, as well we feel in the spread of liberal as a feeling of compassion for them- principles and the establishment selves. Accordingly, no proper of free Governments, and the sym

. effort has been spared, and none pathy with which we witness every will be spared, to procure the re- struggle against oppression, forbid lease of such citizens of the United that we should be indifferent to a States engaged in this unlawful en- case in which the strong arm of a terprise as are now in confinement foreign power is invoked to stifle in Spain; but it is to be hoped public sentiment and repress the that such interposition with the spirit of freedom in any country. Government of that country may

“ The Governments of Great not be considered as affording any Britain and France have issued ground of expectation that the Go- orders to their naval commanders vernment of the United States on the West India station to prewill hereafter feel itself under any vent, by force if necessary, the obligation of duty to intercede for landing of adventurers from any the liberation or pardon of such nation on the Island of Cuba with persons as are flagrant offenders hostile intent. against the law of nations and the "The principle which this Go. laws of the United States. These vernment has heretofore solemnly laws must be executed.

announced it still adheres to, and desire to maintain our respect- will maintain under all circumability among the nations of the stances and at all hazards. That earth, it behoves us to enforce principle is, that in every regularlysteadily and sternly the neutrality documented merchant vessel, the acts passed by Congress, and to crew who navigate it, and those on follow, as far as may be, the vio- board of it, will find their proteclation of those acts with condign tion in the flag which is over them, punishment.

No American ship can be allowed “ Friendly relations with all, but to be visited or searched for the entangling alliances with none, has purpose of ascertaining the chalong been a maxim with us. Our racter of individuals on board, nor true mission is not to propagate can there be allowed any watch by our opinions, or impose upon other the vessels of any foreign nation

If we

over American vessels on the coasts the Spanish flag found in the ofof the United States or the seas fice carried off and torn in pieces, adjacent thereto.

and he himself induced to flee for Ministers and consuls of fo- his personal safety, which he supreign nations are the means and posed to be in danger.

On reagents of communication between ceiving intelligence of these events us and those nations, and it is of I forth with directed the attorney the utmost importance that, while of the United States residing at residing in the country, they New Orleans to inquire into the should feel a perfect security so facts, and the extent of the pelong as they faithfully discharge cuniary loss sustained by the contheir respective duties, and are sul, with the intention of laying guilty of no violation of our laws. them before you, that you might This is the admitted law of nations, make provision for such indemnity and no country has a deeper in- to him as a just regard for the terest in maintaining it than the honour of the nation, and the reUnited States. Our commerce spect which is due to a friendly spreads over every sea and visits power, might, in your judgment, every clime, and our ministers and seem to require. The corresponconsuls are appointed to protect dence upon this subject, between the interests of that commerce, as the Secretary of State and Her well as to guard the peace of the Catholic Majesty's Minister Plecountry, and maintain the honour nipotentiary, is herewith transmitof its flag. But how can they dis- ted. charge these duties unless they be “ The occurrence at New Orleans themselves protected ? and, if pro- has led me to give my attention to tected, it must be by the laws of the state of our law in regard to the country in which they reside. foreign ambassadors, ministers, and And what is due to our own pub- consuls. I think the legislation lic functionaries residing in foreign of the country is deficient in not nations is exactly the measure of providing sufficiently either for the what is due to the functionaries of protection or the punishment of other Governments residing here. consuls. I therefore recommend As in war the bearers of flags of the subject to the consideration of truce are sacred, or else wars Congress. would be interminable, so in peace

* The Turkish Government has ambassadors, public ministers, and expressed its thanks for the kind consuls, charged with friendly na- reception given to the Sultan's tional intercourse, are objects of agent, Amin Bey, on the occasion especial respect and protection, of his recent visit to the United each according to the rights be- States. On the 28th of February longing to his rank and station. last a dispatch was addressed by In view of these important prin- the Secretary of State to Mr. ciples it is with deep mortification Marsh, the American Minister at and regret I announce to you that Constantinople, instructing him to during the excitement growing out ask of the Turkish Government of the executions at Havannah, the permission for the Hungarians, office of Her Catholic Majesty's then imprisoned within the doconsul at New Orleans was assailed minions of the Sublime Porte, to by a mob, his property destroyed, remove to this country. On the



3rd of March last both Houses of to those who should invest their Congress passed a resolution re- property in the enterprise. questing the President to authorize “ A convention between the two the employment of a public vessel Governments for the accomplishto convey to this country Louis ment of that end has been ratified Kossuth and his associates in cap- by this Government, and only tivity.

awaits the decision of the ConThe instruction above referred gress and the Executive of that to was complied with, and the Republic. Turkish Government having re- “Some unexpected difficulties leased Governor Kossuth and his and delays have arisen in the racompanions from prison, on the tification of that convention by 10th of September last they em- Mexico, but it is to be presumed barked on board the United States' that her decision will be governed steam-frigate Mississippi, which by just and enlightened views, as was selected to carry into effect the well of the general importance of resolution of Congress. Governor the object, as of her own interests Kossuth left the Mississippi at and obligations. Gibraltar for the purpose of “In negotiating upon this immaking a visit to England, and portant subject this Government may shortly be expected in New has had in view one, and only one, York. By communications to the object. That object has been, and Department of State he has ex- is, the construction or attainment pressed his grateful acknowledg- of a passage from ocean to ocean, ments for the interposition of this the shortest and the best for traGovernment in behalf of himself vellers and merchandise, and and his associates. This country equally open to all the world. It has been justly regarded as a safe has sought to attain no territorial asylum for those whom political acquisition, nor any advantages events have exiled from their peculiar to itself; and it would see homes in Europe ; and it is re- with the greatest regret that commended to Congress to con- Mexico should oppose any obstacle sider in what manner Governor to the accomplishment of an enKossuth and his companions, terprise which promises so much brought hither by its authority, convenience to the whole commershall be received and treated. cial world, and such eminent ad

“In my last annual message I vantages to Mexico herself. Iminformed Congress that citizens of pressed with these sentiments and the United States had undertaken these convictions, the Government the connection of the two oceans will continue to exert all proper by means of a railroad across the efforts to bring about the necesIsthmus of Tehuantepec, under a sary arrangement with the Regrant of the Mexican Government public of Mexico for the speedy to a citizen of that Republic; and completion of the work, that this enterprise would probably " For some months past the Rebe prosecuted with energy when- public of Nicaragua has been the ever Mexico should consent to theatre of one of those civil consuch stipulations with the Govern- vulsions from which the cause of ment of the United States as free institutions, and the general should impart a feeling of security prosperity and social progress of Vol. XCIII.


have ac

the States of Central America 56c.; which, however, includes the have so often and so severely suf- sum of 3,242,400 dollars paid under fered. Until quiet shall have been the 12th article of the treaty with restored, and à Government ap- Mexico, and the further sum of parently stable shall have been or- 2,591,213 dollars 45c., being the ganized, no advance can prudently amount of awards to American citibe made in disposing of the ques- zens under the late treaty with tions pending between the two Mexico, for which the issue of stock countries.

was authorized, but which was paid I am happy to announce that in cash from the Treasury. an inter-oceanic communication

* The public debt on the 20th from the mouth of the St. John to ultimo, exclusive of the stock authe Pacific has been so far accom- thorized to be issued to Texas by plished as that passengers

the Act of the 9th of September, tually traversed it, and merchan- 1850, was 62,560,395 dollars 26c. dise has been transported over it; • The receipts for the next fiscal and when the canal shall have been year are estimated at 51,800,000 completed according to the original dollars, which, with the probable plan, the means of communication unappropriated balance in the Treawill be further improved.

sury on the 30th of June next, will “By reference to the report of give as the probable available means the Secretary of the Treasury it for that year the sum of 63,258,743 will be seen that the aggregate re

dollars 9c. ceipts for the last fiscal year • It has been deemed proper, in amounted to 52,312,979 dollars view of the large expenditures 87c. ; which, with the balance in consequent upon the acquisition the Treasury on the 1st of July, of territory from Mexico, that 1850, gave, as the available means the estimates for the next fiscal for the year, the sum of 58,917,524 year should be laid before Congress dollars 36c.

in such manner as to distinguish “The total expenditures for the the expenditures so required from same period were 48,005,878 dol- the otherwise ordinary demands lars 68c.

upon the Treasury. “ The total imports for the year "The total expenditures for the ending the 30th of June, 1851, next fiscal year are estimated at were 215,725,995 dollars.

42,892,299 dollars 19c., of which “Of which there were in specie there is required for the ordinary 4,967,901 dollars.

purposes of the Government, other • The exports for the same pe- than those consequent upon the riod were 217,517,130 dollars. acquisition of our new territories,

“Of which there were, of do- and deducting the payments on mestic products, 178,546,555 account of the public debt, the sum dollars; foreign goods

of 33,343,198 dollars 8c., and for ported, 9,738,695 dollars; specie, the purposes connected directly or 29,231,880 dollars: 217,517,130 indirectly with those territories, dollars.

and in the fulfilment of the obliga“ Since the 1st of December last tions of the Government, contracted the payments in cash on account of in consequence of their acquisition, the public debt, exclusive of interest, the sum of 9,549,101 dollars llc. have amounted to 7,501,456 dollars The values of our domestic



exports for the last fiscal year, as notwithstanding the repeal of the compared with those of the pre- restrictive corn laws in England, vious year, exhibit an increase of the foreign demand for the products 43,646,322 dollars. At first view of the American farmer has steadily this condition of our trade with declined, since the short crops and foreign nations would seem to pre. consequent famine in a portion of sent the most flattering hopes of Europe have been happily replaced its future properity. An examina- by full crops and comparative tion of the details of our exports, abundance of food. however, will show that the in- " The production of gold in Calicreased value of our exports for the fornia, for the past year, seems to last fiscal year is to be found in the promise a large supply of that metal high price of cotton which prevailed from that quarter for some time to during the first half of that year, This large annual increase which price has since declined of the currency of the world must about one-half.

be attended with its usual results. “The value of our exports of These have been already partially bread-stuffs and provisions, which it disclosed in the enhancement of was supposed the incentive of a low prices and a rising spirit of specutariff and large importations from lation and adventure, tending to abroad would have greatly aug. overtrading as well at home as mented, has fallen from 68,701,921 abroad. Unless some salutary check dollars in 1847 to 26,051,373 dol- shall be given to these tendencies, lars in 1850, and to 21,948,653 dol. it is to be feared that importations lars in 1851, with a strong proba- of foreign goods beyond a healthy bility, amounting almost to a cer- demand in this country will lead to tainty, of a still further reduction in a sudden drain of the precious the current year.

metals from us, bringing with it, “ The aggregrate values of rice as it has done in former times, the exported during the last fiscal year, most disastrous consequences to as compared with the previous year, the business and capital of the also exhibit a decrease amounting American people. to 460,017 dollars, which, with a “In my last annual message, to decline in the values of the exports which I respectfully refer, I stated of tobacco for the same period, make briefly the reasons which induced an aggregate decrease in these two me to recommend a modification articles of 1,156,751 dollars. of the present tariff, by converting

“The policy which dictated a low the ad valorem into a specific duty rate of duties on foreign merchan- wherever the article imported was dise, it was thought by those who of such a character as to permit it, promoted and established it, would and that such a discrimination tend to benefit the farming popula- should be made in favour of the tion of this country, by increasing industrial pursuits of our the demand and raising the price country as to encourage home proof agricultural products in foreign duction without excluding foreign markets.

competition. " The foregoing facts, however, " The numerous frauds which seem to show incontestably that no continue to be practised upon the such result has followed the adoption revenue by false invoices and of this policy. On the contrary, undervaluations constitute an un.


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