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NATIONAL EXISTENCE;

THE UNITED STATES

THEY WERE AND ARE:

GIVING

THE PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF MINERAL WEALTH, INCLUDING NOT ONLY THE PRECIOUS AND THE USEFUL METALS, BUT
COAL, PETROLEUM, AND THE VARIOUS ALKALIES AND EARTHS IN USE; THE PUBLIC LANDS, THEIR SALES IN EACH YEAR,
LAND GRANTS TO ROADS, RAILROADS, STATE, AND EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES, THEİR RAPID SETTLEMENT, THE FORMATION OF
STATES AND TERRITORIES, FOUNDING OF CITIES AND COMMERCIAL CENTERS ; INTERNAL TRADE; IMMIGRATION,
ITS INCREASING TIDE AND THE REGIONS MOSTLY SOUGHT BY IMMIGRANTS ; BANKING, ITS SUCCESSIVE SYSTEMS
AND CHANGES ; FIRE, LIFE, ACCIDENT, AND OTHER INSURANCE, WITH STATISTICS; LITERATURE AND
AUTHORS; BOOKS, PERIODICALS, AND NEWSPAPERS ; THE FINE ARTS, PAINTING, SCULPTURE,
ARCHITECTURE, AND ENGRAVING; DOMESTIC LIFE, DWELLINGS, FURNITURE, FOOD, COSTUMES,
&c.; TELEGRAPH ; EDUCATION, HIGHER AND ELEMENTARY, LIBRARIES, MUSEUMS, AND
SCIENTIFIO COLLECTIONS ; BENEVOLENT AND HUMANITARIAN INSTITUTIONS, &o.

WITH

AN APPENDIX,

GIVING

THE PROGR338 OF ALL THE RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AND SECTS, THER PECULIAR DOCTRINES AND ORDINANCES,

THEIR FORMS OF CAURCA GOVERNMENT, MODE OF WORSHIP, &C., &0.

THR WBOLU CAREFULLY PREPARED BY

In Eminent Corps of Scientific and Literary Men.

Superbly illustrated with over Two Hundred and Twenty-Five Engravings, executed by the most accomplished Artists in the Country

carefully printed from Steel Electrotypes and in Chromo.

Sold only by subscription.

HARTFORD, CONN.:
PUBLISHED BY I. STEBBINS.
FRANCIS DEWING & CO., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

1875.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by

L. STEBBINS,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. MINING INDUSTRY OF THE UNITED STATES, Including Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Iron, Coal, Petroleum, &c., showing the

Localities, Richness of Ores, Methods of Mining, Smelting, and applying the different Minerals to practical uses, with their values, &c., &c.

FUR TRADE, various kinds and values of Furs.

Of the late Pennsylvania, and other Geological Surveys ; Contributor to Apple

ton's “6 New American Cyclopædiaon the same Subjects.

LAND, SETTLEMENT, INTERNAL TRADE. Western Settlement, Population, and Land Sales, Canals and Railroads, Expenditures,

Lake Cities, Reciprocity, Annual Sales of Land by the Government, River Cities, Atlantic Cities, Date of Settlement, Population, Valuation, Manufactures, Exports, Imports, Growth of New York, Express Business.

BANKS, UNITED STATES MINT, AND INSURANCE. Bills of Credit, Government Issues, United States. Bank, State Banks, Suffolk System,

Safety Fund, Banks, Free Banks, Number of Banks in Each State, Aggregate Capital, Clearing Houses, Private Banking, New National System, &c., Establishment of Mint, Standard of Coins, Laws Regulating Coinage, Precious Metals in the Country, Insurance,-Fire, Marine, Life, Accident, &c.

. EMIGRATION. General Migrations, Colonies and United States, Number of Aliens arrived in the

United States from 1820 to 1856, and their Nationalities, Landing in New York,
Future Homes.
AUTHORS, BOOKS, NEWSPAPERS, BOOK-BINDING.

PRINTING PRESSES, TELEGRAPH.
Writers,—including Theologians, Statesmen, Novelists, Historians,—Short Sketches of

their Lives, their Literary Productions; Newspapers,--Dailies, Weeklies, Periodicals, Book Trade, Publishing, Jobbing, Retailing, Selling by Subscription, Book-Binding, Printing Presses, Telegraph.

By THOMAS P. KETTELL.

SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC LIFE
Domestic Architecture, Furniture, Food, Dress, Social Culture, &c.

By FREDERICK B PERKINS.

ARTS OF DESIGN.

Painters, Sculptors, Engravers, &c.
By T. ADDISON RICHARDS, Artist,
Editor of Appleton's " Railway Guide," Correspondent of Harper's

Magazine."

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EDUCATION, Including the History and Statistics of Free Schools, Common Schools, Grammar Schools,

Academies, Colleges, Professional Schools of Theology, Law, Medicine, War, Teaching, Engineering, Agriculture, Mechanics and Fine Arts; with Special Schools for Deaf Mutes, Blind, Idiots, Juvenile Criminals, and Orphans, and Supplementary Educational Agencies and Libraries, Lyceums, Lectures, &c.

By HENRY BARNARD, LL. D., Superintendent of Common Schools in Connecticut and Rhode Island ; Chancellor of the State University of Wisconsin; and Editor of the

American Journal of Education."

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH,

Its Inventors, and Progress,
By GEORGE B. PRESCOTT.
Electrician of Western Union Telegraph Company.

FIRE INSURANCE, Giving in a historical form the progress and growth of Fire Insurance in the United

States from the first organized Companies up to 1871, with valuable tables, showing the magnitude of the business, rates, losses, profits, &c.,

By D. A. HE ALD,
Vice-President of the Home Fire Insurance Company of N. Y.

LIFE INSURANCE, Showing the progress of the business under the Stock and Mutual principles, from the

first organized Company up to 1871, with valuable tables showing the immense magnitude of the business, per centage, losses, profits, &c.,

By JACOB L. GREENE,
Secretary Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, Hartford, Ct.

CONTENTS

PAGE

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MINING INDUSTRY.

PAGE

Cast Steel.........

Introductory Remarks....... .......... Table of Iron Works in operation and aban-

Iron Works in Virginia previous to 1622....

doned in 1856...........

First Blast Furnace in 1702............. Production of Pig Iron........

IRON .....

......

Distribution of Furnaces by States..

First Trial of Anthracite Coal for manufac Product of Wrought Iron........

facturing............................. 18 Value of the Iron product in 1856.....

Great Britian produces more than half of the COPPER.........

whole product of the world......

New Jersey Mines..

Iron produced from 1828 to 1840........... Tennessee Mines....
MATERIALS EMPLOYED IN THE MANUFACTURE.. Lake Superior Mines.....
Ore in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Tennessee, Product of the Pittsburgh and Boston Com-
New York, Canada, and Wisconsin......

pany Mines from 1852 to 1860.........
Consumption of Charcoal per Ton of Iron... Minesota Company..
Quantities of Air used in Blast Furnaces..... Product of do from 1848 to 1860....

Furnaces in the Lehigh Valley............ Statistics of Lake Superior Mines..........

DISTRIBUTION OF ORES.

COPPER SMELTING........

........

Ores in New Jersey.

| USEFUL APPLICATIONS OF COPPER ...

Ores in Pennsylvania. .....

Cost of Smelting Copper...

Great Chestnut Hill Ore-bed.

Manufacture of Brass...

Ores in Maryland..........

28 GOLD.......................

Ores in Southern States

Vermont Mines.

Ores in Western States..

Virginia do .........

IRON MANUFACTURE....

North Carolina Mines.

Description of Blast Furnaces

Georgia

do

WROUGHT IRON........

Pike's Peak do .....

PUDDLING.......

California

List of Rolling Mills in 1856.

............

Australia do ........

Mills making Railroad Iron in 1856.

Annual production of Gold in the World at

Boiler Plate and Sheet Iron Manufactories in

the time of its discovery in California. ...

1856.......

Length and Cost of Artificial Water-courses in

IRON WIRE..... .....

California. ...........................

NAILS........

Quartz Mining....

List of Nail Manufactories in 1856.

Table of annual productions of the Mines of

STOL............

California from 1848 to 1857..

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