proportion upon the wealthy than any other; they have their dependants, correspondent to their affluence, and pay the tax in the same ratio. The laborer avoids its pressure by throwing it into his wages-the employer takes it without the possibility of shifting it upon another.

Such have generally been the topics of alarm insisted upon by the opponents of the protective system; but they have never before attempted, that we are aware of, to show that their fears have been justified by the results. That enterprise has been left to the Committee of Commerce. With what success the effort has been attended, we leave it to our readers to determine. It has been our aim to show that the public mind has been grossly abused, and we have endeavored to expose the misrepresentations by which the advocates of free trade have attempted to forestall the judgment of the nation, and turn it from its wisest and best designs. Time, which accomplishes all things that are to be accomplished, has already set its seal upon this pernicious abuse, and furnished the most abundant proofs of the incapacity and-if we did not hold the individuals in too much respect, we should say imbecility of that rash party whose counsels have so long sustained the unhappy warfare of opinion that still agitates the country.

This domestic dissension has enlivened the hopes of our enemies, who are not only anxiously watching the strife, but participating in it by the loud and frequent plaudits with which they cheer up the discomfited champions of free trade both in Congress and out of it. The busy genius of hostile rivals is abroad, and all the appliances that artful rhetoric and counteracting measures can afford, have been lavished to sustain the banner of opposition against our established, and, we may say, successful policy.

We have never pretended to assert that the prosperity or happiness of the country was concerned in the attempt to build up manufactures uncongenial with our habits, or inapplicable to our local resources.* Our protective system has been

*The Edinburg Review, of October last, contains an essay on the

exclusively applied to the encouragement of those branches of industry in which we are able to excel-to which the mineral, animal and vegetable wealth of our soil has invited us, and in reference to which, therefore, we enter upon the career with a certainty before us, that the few years of infant helplessness being overcome, we shall walk into the field of competition with all advantages. The report seems never to have regarded the question in this point of view : it has taken it for granted that the struggle is to be perpetual without an accession of French commercial system, the object of which is to show, that the restrictive policy has been hurtful to France, in some of the branches of industry to which it has been applied. It seems that in that Kingdom they have attempted to manufacture iron, with wood for their fuel. Their coal is at a distance, the roads proverbially the worst in Europe, and wood scarce and dear. We are not surprised to learn that, under such circumstances, France cannot rival Great Britain in this manufacture. We think it folly in her to attempt it until she can provide a cheaper fuel. It is, perhaps, an equally unwise attempt in France, to restrict her supply of sugar to the islands of Martinique, Guadaloupe, and the Isles de Bourbon, since they are by no means large enough to supply her wants in this article. These are evidently examples of the impolicy of forcing national industry into channels where, from fixed and natural causes, they can never excel. It is unfair to judge the protective system by such instances. Its advocates here do not predicate its success, under such circumstances. They ask for the national protection for that industry which we possess every means of bringing to perfection.

But there is one thing in the review above cited, worth attending to, and to which we especially invite the notice of Mr. Cambreleng. The Reviewer asserts that the protected commodities in France, with which he finds so much fault, have all risen enormously in cost to the people, and this is the foundation of his reproof upon the system. How does it happen that the reduction of prices, from the war rates to the ordinary prices of peace (see Mr. C.'s report, page 5), has not been felt in France? That these restricted commodities have risen there, while ours have fallen ?-Simply, because France has unwisely attempted to force an industry to which her resources were not adapted; and the United States have applied their means to the encouragement of an industry to which they were adapted. There is the difference, and there the mystery of our low prices.

strength or skill; that practice is to produce no perfection, and science no improvement. Our success, thus far, has most signally refuted this idea. We have not yet entered upon any important manufacture without, in a few years, bringing down the price, and even adding some valuable items to our exports. With such evidences before us, we are astonished at the division of opinion in the country, as to the policy of extending a liberal measure of encouragement and protection to these useful endeavors. We have not been able to discover that any department of industry has suffered by the adoption of the system, while it is evident that the nation has received many present benefits, and laid up a sure and splendid reversion of wealth for ages to come. Her duty is to cherish these attempts by a careful and considerate protection; “to lift up them that fall, and strengthen such as do stand." And we do not doubt the speedy approach of that day when the overwhelming opinion of the country at large shall applaud and sustain the protective policy that has now gained its foothold in the public counsels.

It is cur own consolation to see the strong safeguard of interest rapidly throwing its arm over every quarter of the country. Manufactures are extending into every State; and the sensibilities of our southern friends begin to revive from the shock occasioned by the doleful prophecies uttered against their prosperity. To their astonishment they still find a market abroad for their cotton, and a rich one rapidly growing up about them at home: they are not yet stripped of the necessarics of life, and even get the essential articles of clothing at a reduction of price that is quite unaccountable. Our populaSon are summoned to new fields of industry and to new sources of pic: and while peace and plenty smile upon us in our pursuits, we are every day contributing to render the nation more independent of foreign supplies of whatever is essential to our comfort and power. We feel assured that under the influence

of this system our national difficulties-come when they may, to embroil us with other States-will find us a self-possessed,

vigorous and provided people, ready to make the best of the the case and fearless of the event. Our armies will march with the muniments of war abundantly furnished from our own labor, our navy will float upon the ocean dressed in the canvass of the country, and our citizens will await the issue of the strife surrounded with the wealth of their fields, their mines and their factories.

March 15, 1830.





ELLOW-CITIZENS:-A numerous delegation from several States in the Union have convened in the city of New York representing great national interests which they are anxious, by the most efficient but peaceable means, to defend and support. In addressing themselves to the people of the United States, they invoke their candid attention to several topics of great national importance, without assuming any authority ultimately to decide them; conscious that their reasonings and opinions can have, and ought to have, no other influence or force than belongs to their truth and soundness.

A system of laws imposing duties for the encouragement and protection of domestic industry, upon the faith of which a large portion of the people of this country have invested their property and given a new direction to the labor, and with a continuance of which are completely identified all their hopes of maintenance for themselves and their families, has been recently denounced as "distinguished by every characteristic which may define a tyranny the most odious." The entire abolition of this system, vitally involving the interest of farmers, mechanics, manufacturers, merchants and all the laboring classes, has been demanded in a tone that offers no hope of

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