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BIBLE ANIMALS;

BEING A DESCRIPTION OF

EVERY LIVING CREATURE MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES
FROM THE APE TO THE CORAL.

BY THE

REV. J. G. WOOD, M.A. F.L.S. ETC.

AUTHOR OF "HOMES WITHOUT HANDS,"

COMMON OBJECTS OF THE SEA-SHORE AND COUNTRY," ETC.

BODE

WITH ONE HUNDRED NEW DESIGNS BY W. F. KEYL, T. W. WOOD, AND E. A. SMITH

ENGRAVED BY G. PEARSON.

LONDON:

LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER,

1869.

101. e. 193

[All Rights reserved.]

LONDON:

R. CLAY, SONS, AND TAYLOR, PRINTERS,

BREAD STREET HILL.

PREFACE.

OWING to the conditions of time, language, country, and race under which the various books of the Holy Scriptures were written, it is impossible that they should be rightly understood at the present day, and in this land, without the aid of many departments of knowledge. Contemporary history, philology, geography, and ethnology must all be pressed into the service of the true Biblical scholar; and there is yet another science which is to the full as important as either of the others. This is Natural History, in its widest sense.

The Oriental character of the Scriptural books causes them to abound with metaphors and symbols, taken from the common life of the time. They embrace the barren precipitous rocks alternating with the green and fertile valleys, the trees, flowers, and herbage, the creeping things of the earth, the fishes of the sea, the birds of the air, and the beasts which abode with man or dwelt in the deserts and forests. Unless, therefore, we understand these writings as those understood them for whom they were written, it is evident that we shall misinterpret instead of rightly comprehending them. Even with secular books of equally ancient date, the right understanding of them would be important, but in the case of the Holy Scriptures it is more than important, and becomes a duty. The field which is laid open to us is so large that only one department of Natural History, namely Zoology, can be treated in this work, although it is

illustrated by many references to other branches of Natural History, to the physical geography of Palestine, Egypt, and Syria, the race-character of the inhabitants, and historical parallels. The importance of Zoology in elucidating the Scriptures cannot be overrated, and without its aid we shall not only miss the point of innumerable passages of the Old and New Testament, but the words of our Lord Himself will either be totally misinterpreted, or at least lose the greater part of their significance.

The object of the present work is therefore to take, in its proper succession, every creature whose name is given in the Scriptures, and to supply so much of its history as will enable the reader to understand all the passages in which it is mentioned. A general account of each animal will be first given, followed by special explanations (wherever required) of those texts in which pointed reference is made to it, but of which the full force cannot be gathered without a knowledge of Natural History.

The illustrations are all taken from the living animals, while the accessory details have been obtained either from the Egyptian or Assyrian monuments, from actual specimens, or from the photographs and drawings of the latest travellers. They have been selected and arranged so that each illustration explains one or more passages of Scripture, and it is hoped that the work will possess equal interest for the natural historian and the Biblical student.

CONTENTS.

MAMMALIA.

THE APE.

The Monkey tribe rarely mentioned in Scripture-Why the Ape was introduced into Palestine-Solomon's ships, and their cargo of Apes, peacocks, ivory, and gold-Various species of Monkey that might have been imported-The Rhesus Monkey-The Hoonuman, or Entellus-Habits of the Monkey, and reverence in which it is held by the natives-The Egyptians and their Baboon worship-Idols and memorials-The Wanderoo-Its singular aspect-Reasons why it should be introduced into Palestine-General habits of the Wanderoo -Its love of curiosities-Probability that Solomon had a menagerie-Various species of Monkey that may be included in the term Kophim-The Satyr of Scripture-Babylon in its glory and fall-Fulfilment of prophecy—Judaic ideas of the Satyrs, or Seirim

1

THE BAT.

me-The

The Bat mentioned always with abhorrence-Meaning of the Hebrew nameprohibition against eating Bats-The edible species, their food and mode of life-The noisome character of the Bat, and the nature of its dwelling-placeIts hatred of light-Baruch and his prophecy-Appropriateness of the prophecy-Singular Mahommedan legend respecting the original creation of the Bat-The legend compared with the apocryphal gospels-The Bats of Palestine -Mr. Tristram's discoveries-Bats found in the quarries from which the stone of the Temple was hewn-Edible Bats in a cave near the centre of Palestine— Another species of long-tailed Bat captured in the rock caves where hermits had been buried—Other species which probably inhabit Palestine . . . 11

THE LION.

Frequent mention of the Lion in the Scriptures-Probability that it was once a common animal, though now extinct-Reasons for its disappearance-The Lion employed as an emblem in the Bible-Similarity of the African and Asiatic species-The chief characteristics of the Lion-Its strength, activity,

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