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being run in to tap the main shaft, which is down about 200 feet. I send you a speci men of the ore. There are other promising locations, as the North Star, owned by Bruno & Co., and the Western State, which takes out some twenty tons weekly. Not far off, over the ridge, is Big Cottonwood Cañon. Here the Empire Tunnel Company propose torun a tunnel in toward Little Cottonwood. Here are also the Wellington, Theresa, Davenport, and other leads. The general formation is limestone. Mr. C. L. Stevenson, who has lately visited the various mining districts, gives me the following approximate product of the different mining localities during the month of July. The average value of ore exported was about $105 per ton:
Smelting works.-Messrs. Woodhull Brothers have built a furnace here, and have made the first run of this Territory. This run created, naturally, considerable excitement here. The result was a production of 5,000 pounds of bullion in thirty-six hours. This assays about $500 to the ton in silver. The metal was hauled to town, and stocked up in front of the Elephant store, where it attracted large numbers of people who were curious to see the pioneer bars of Utah. The Woodhull Works are capable of working about ten tons daily. Mr. Milton Robbins is about to put up smelting works. He will have the able assistance of Mr. Charles C. Ruegar, who will take the active management and the construction of the furnaces in hand. Mr. Ruegar has studied in Germany, and has spent considerable time among the mines of California. He appears to be well fitted for his work. Mr. Leopold Balbach, a cousin of the Balbach Brothers, of Newark, New Jersey, has been visiting the mines of Utah, and was so impressed with their extent and richness that he telegraphed to parties East (he tells me) that he thinks best to erect smelting works in the valley, and these are to be put up. There are others here who engage in buying ores, and the mines are attracting persons from different quarters. There seems to be every reason to suppose that Utah contains valuable mineral deposits, and probably these will be developed quite extensively henceforth.
The facts seem to be that the most productive mines working up to the close of 1870 are masses or "stock-works" of argentiferous galena in limestone; that the business of mining and reducing or shipping the ores is one that requires considerable capital; and that the abundance of supplies, cheapness of labor, and facility of transportation render this a highly inviting field for operations on a large scale. That the sanguine expectations of the owners of thousands of locations will be fulfilled, it would be foolish to predict; but it cannot be denied that the actual progress already made, and the favorable economic conditions attending the new industry, give unusually good ground, even for speculative anticipations.
The present chapter is based chiefly upon the notes of Mr. A. Eilers, my deputy, who has also arranged and edited the material contained in it from other sources. Besides those citizens to whom Mr. Eilers acknowledges in these pages his indebtedness for valuable assistance, thanks. are due in an especial manner to Hon. Richard C. McCormick, delegate of the Territory in Congress, who contributed in many ways, including advice, information, time, personal exertions, and money, to facilitate the examinations which Mr. Eilers was charged to make. Without the influential and energetic support of Mr. McCormick, and, I should add, of Hon. A. P. K. Safford, the public-spirited governor of the Territory, it would have been vain to attempt so laborious and perilous a task with the time and means at my disposal.
The act of February 24, 1863, creating the Territory of Arizona, describes it as comprising all the United States lands west of the one hundred and ninth degree of longitude to the California line, which, before that time, had belonged to the Territory of New Mexico. Since then the portion of Pah-Ute County lying west of the Colorado River has been ceded to Nevada, but at the present writing it has not been legally accepted by that State, and the inhabitants are in favor of reunion with Arizona. Presuming, however, this cession to be an accomplished fact, the present boundaries of the Territory are as follows: On the east, the one hundred and ninth meridian of longitude; on the west, the Colorado River, except above the big bend of that river, where the one hundred and fourteenth meridian of longitude forms the western line; on the north, the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude; on the south, the boundary line between the United States and Mexico.
The total area of the Territory is given as 105,120 square miles. It joins on the west California and Nevada; on the north Nevada and Utah; on the east New Mexico; and on the south the State of Sonora, of the Mexican republic.
Arizona is divided into five counties, Yuma and Pima in the southern, and Pah-Ute, Mohave, and Yavapai in the northern and middle portions of the Territory. Yavapai is by far the largest county, and its northern and eastern parts are almost unknown at the present time. Prospecting parties have, from time to time, ventured to enter these regions, but were invariably driven back by the hostile Indians before penetrat ing far into the interior, and Government expeditions have only in a few instances penetrated small belts of that domain. The whole vast Territory of Arizona is drained by one single river and its tributaries, the Colorado of the West. This river is formed by the junction of the Green and Grand Rivers, which join in the southern part of Utah Territory, and rise, the one in the Rocky Mountains, a short distance north of the Great South Pass, the other in the Middle Park of Colorado Territory. The Colorado River, although it drains an enormous area, and sends a vast body of water to the Gulf of California, is only navigable for a distance of about five hundred miles, and here only for boats drawing very little water. It has a very rapid current, and carries along large masses of the soft materials that form the greater portion of its banks from its mouth to the
Black Cañon and those of its tributaries in the Territories above. Thus the navigable channel is often changed entirely in a single night, and the greatest care is required to run steamboats on it successfully. Broad strips of bottom-land skirt its lower part on both banks, with the exception of a few miles, where mountain ranges, such as the Monument Mountains and the Needles, approach to the water's edge.
The principal tributaries of the Colorado, in Arizona, are the Colorado Chiquito or Flax River, the Diamond River, Bill Williams' Fork, into which the Santa Maria River empties, and the Gila, with its affluents, the Rio Salinas, Rio Verde, the San Carlos, and San Pedro. The Santa Cruz from the south, and the Agua Frio and Hassayampa Rivers from the north, sink in the dry plains before they reach the Gila.
The climate of the Territory is like neither that of the Atlantic States nor that of the Pacific coast, but rather stands between the two, exhibiting peculiarities of both. While in the portion south of the Gila River and along the trough of the Colorado River an excessively hot and dry atmosphere prevails, relieved only by the semi-annual showers of January and July, the middle and northeastern parts of Arizona enjoy a climate very similar to that of the South Atlantic States. As a natural consequence, the vegetation of Southern and Western Arizona is scanty and limited to a few genera, such as cactus, aloe, artemisia, palo verde, iron-wood, and mesquite, which can sustain themselves on a parched soil and under the rays of an almost tropical sun. The bottom-lands of the rivers are, of course, an exception to this, the increased moisture and richer soil supporting here a luxurious growth of cottonwood, willow, mesquite, arrow-weed, and many different kinds of nutritious grasses. The middle and northeastern portions of Arizona are made up of elevated plateaus and an extensive system of mountain ranges, and here a more varied vegetation prevails. The heat is here never oppressive, and even during the hottest summer months the thermometer does not rise any higher than in the Blue Ridge in the Southern States. Greater moisture in the atmosphere stimulates the growth of magnificent pine and cedar forests, and the soil is everywhere covered with beautiful flowers and nutritious grasses. Ash, walnut, cherry, willow, cotton-wood, and many other forest-trees grow along the course of the streams, and large oak-trees are seen on the very tops of some of the highest mountains in the Sierra Prieta.
The agricultural resources of Arizona have been underrated. It is true, the greater portion of the "Gadsden purchase" is made up of sterile waste; of great, sandy plains, and "mal pais" plateaus, in which the "Lost Mountain" ranges can be seen days before the traveler is able to reach them. But even here the valleys of the Colorado, the Gila, the Santa Cruz, San Pedro, Arivaypa, and San Simon contain thousands of acres of the most fertile bottom-lands, which need only irrigation to make them yield abundant harvests. This has been demonstrated in the present generation by the settlers of the Gila, in the neighborhood of Florence and Adamsville, and those of the Salt River Valley, at . Phoenix and vicinity, as it was proved centuries ago by the aborigines of that country-now an extinct race. Indeed, the remnants and monuments of that former civilization are so abundant all over Arizona as to leave no doubt that all this vast region was once thickly inhabited by an industrious and thriving agricultural people. The Pima Indians, living at present upon their large reservation near the mouth of the Salt River and along both banks of the Gila above that point, claim that the great "casas," and the large irrigating canals, unmistakable evidence of which still abounds all over the Territory, were constructed by
H. Ex. 10-15
their forefathers, the Aztecs, and that they themselves are the only tribe left which traces its descent back to that once powerful people. All the agricultural products of Southern California and Northern Mexico, Indian corn, wheat, barley, oats, grapes, figs, oranges, lemons, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, the castor-bean, etc., thrive in this southern portion of Arizona, wherever the land can be irrigated. And as to grazing lands, there are millions of acres covered with the best grasses, in many detached parts of the "Gadsden purchase," especially in the southeastern corner of that portion of Arizona; and that country would be covered with cattle-ranches to-day, as it has been when first settled by Mexicans one hundred years ago, were it not for the savage Apache and the insufficient protection which the Government accords to the settlers.
Middle and Eastern Arizona contain much more arable land than the "Gadsden purchase;" but only the different valleys in the vicinity of Prescott are now occupied by white settlers. Prominent among these are the Val de Chino, Walnut Grove, Williamson's, People's, Kirkland's, Skull, Thompson's, and Agua Frio Valleys, the two first alone with an area little less than 1,000,000 acres. Here all the cereals and roots of the Northern Atlantic States are grown, but the high elevation of this part of Arizona, its mountainous character and the late frosts in the spring, as well as those in the early fall, frequently endanger the crops. On the other hand, this region is well supplied with moisture, not alone during the winter months, when much snow falls, without, however, remaining longer than a few days in the valleys, but also during the months of July and August,, when copious and rapid discharges of rain occur, filling all the mountain streams, and saturating the plains. As a grazing country this region cannot be surpassed. A thick growth of grama and bunch-grass covers the whole country, not alone the valleys and plains, but the very tops of the mountains, giving to the pine woods of this region the aspect of beautiful natural parks. Of the region east of Prescott, between the Rio Verde and its tributaries and the New Mexico line, little is known. Only the reports of military expeditions and prospecting parties give a clew to the character and topography of small portions of the country, while the greater part remains to this date unexplored. It is reported that many fine valleys exist in the Mogollon Range, the Pinal Mountains, and the Sierra Blanca, and that the greater portion is a good grazing country. Of the extreme northern and northeastern part of Arizona nothing whatever is known, the thirty-fifth parallel being the northernmost route ever traveled by an exploring expedition across Arizona. None of the smaller expeditions branching off from this route penetrated far to the north and northeast, and we know from them only that the country is a vast elevated plateau made up principally of cretaceous rocks, into which deep gorges and cañons are cut by the streams. Some of the valleys of this region, notably those of the Navajoe country, are reported to be fertile and to present conditions favorable for agriculture, while the greater area of the plateau is said to be a fine grazing country.
Many different tribes of Indians inhabit the Territory of Arizona, a few of which are friendly to the whites and live upon reservations, while the greater number are intensely hostile.
Of the friendly Indians, the Pimas, and a small tribe living close to them, the Maricopas, hold the first rank in importance, not alone on account of numbers, but also because they are much more civilized and physically as well as morally a better class of Indians. I have mentioned before that they claim to be the direct descendants of the Aztecs; and if
a splendid physical development of the race, as well as the high state of civilization they had attained when the white people first entered their domain, can entitle them to this distinction, it must certainly be accorded to them. Captain Grossmann, the Indian agent for the Pimas and Maricopas, has made the habits and legends of these tribes a subject of much study and research, and I hope that his investigations may yet determine the correctness or fallacy of their assertions. The Pimas and Maricopas raise annually much more corn, wheat, beans, melons, etc., than they need for their own sustenance, and their stock of horses and work cattle increases steadily from year to year. They are the deadly foes of the Apaches, into whose country they make frequent expeditions, and by whom they are much more feared than are the soldiers stationed in the Territory.
The Papagos are another friendly tribe, and have, like the Pimas, permanent homes. They live south of the Gila, and their villages are scattered along the line of Sonora, in the valleys of the Santa Cruz, Sonoita, etc. They devote their energies principally to stock-raising, of which they own large herds. They, too, are continually at war with the Apaches and remain the steadfast friends of the whites.
The Mojaves are a powerful tribe, living along the Colorado River above La Paz, their principal villages being located between the Chemehuevis Valley and Fort Mojave. They support themselves by agriculture like the Pimas, but cultivate neither as much nor as good land as the former. Their stock of working cattle and horses is limited, and the irrigation of their lands is attended with much difficulty. The tribe is physically a very fine one, but stands morally far below the Pimas.
The Yumas, Cocopas, and Chemehuevis are three small tribes living upon the Lower Colorado, none of which deserve more than mention. The Utes on the Upper Colorado, the Moquis and Navajoes in Northeastern Arizona, complete the list of friendly Indians. The latter are a very important and rich tribe.
Of the hostile Indians in Arizona, the Apaches are the most powerful and dangerous to the country. They have always been the enemies of the Mexicans, and their raids into that republic often extend as far. south as Durango. Up to 1859 they lived at peace with the Americans, but since that time they have waged a relentless war upon all whites. They are not a brave tribe, always avoiding an open fight, in marked distinction from the Indians of the northwestern plains. They invariably attack small traveling parties and trains from ambush, and these only when there is no possible chance of failure. Their sole object of attack is apparently plunder, and to get this they murder those in the way of accomplishing their object. Their raids, always conducted in small parties of generally less than one hundred warriors, extend all over the Territory of Arizona, with the exception of a narrow strip of country along the Colorado River, and a hundred miles of the Lower Gila. The nation is divided into several tribes, the Pinal-Apaches, the Tontos, Coyoteros, and Apache-Mojaves. The Pinal-Apaches live in the Pinal Mountains, southwest of the Mogollon Range; the Tontos on the Tonto Plateau, between the Agua Frio and Rio Verde; the Coyoteros in the southern foot-hills of the Mogollon Range and the Sierra Blanca; and the ApacheMojaves west of Prescott, in the Aztec Range, their principal rancherias being on the Santa Maria River, which empties into Bill Williams's Fork. It is thus seen that the Apaches are distributed over the greater portion of Middle and Eastern Arizona, and their roving habits tend still more toward bringing them into frequent collision with the white settlers and the peaceable Indians all over the Territory. They are very much feared