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the possession of Tippoo Sultaun, and the English factory withdrawn. The external appearance of Calicut remained much the same as when formerly described. The Dutch, Porlugueze, and Danish flags waved over their respective factories, while the Mahomedan colours usurped the place of the zamorine's standard, in this once celebrated emporium, which was completely conquered by the sultaun of Mysore, now become one of the first potentates in India; while the zamorine of Calicut, so great and powerful a sovereign when De Gama arrived here, was annihilated—or, like the queens of Allinga, and other Malabar princés, enjoyed only the name and shadow of royalty. The zamorines, or kings of Calicut, according to the Nellore manuscript, were ascertained to have maintained twelve hundred brahmins in their household; and until they had been first served with victuals, the zamorine never tasted any himself. It was an etiquette also, that he never spoke to, nor suffered a Mahomedan to come into his presence. Hyder Ally, after taking Calicut, sent a complimentary message, and desired to see the zamorine, but was refused: he, however, admitted Hyder's head brahmin to speak to him, and carry his answer back to his master, then waiting at some distance from them. After this interview, Hyder, instead of sending rice sufficient for the daily food of twelve hundred brahmins, ordered only enough for five hundred; this they dispensed with. The second day he diminished the allowance to a sufficiency for three hundred; and on the third they received only enough for one hundred. All further supplies were afterwards refused; nor did the conqueror take any notice of the zamorine's complaints and applications. The unfortunate prince, after fasting three days, and finding all remonstrances vain, set fire to
his palace, and was burned, with some of his women, and three brahmins, the rest having left him on this sad reverse of fortune.
On the zamorine’s death, Hyder Ally garrisoned Calicut with two thousand foot and five hundred horse, and marched with the remainder of his army to Coimbatore, forty coss on his route to his own country. About two months after the nabob's departure, the late zamorine's brother appeared before Calicut with twenty thousand men, and having got possession of it, he put every man of Hyder's army to death, except about three hundred, who fled to a temple for safety. As soon as this news reached Hyder, he detached Assut Khan, with five thousand foot and one thousand horse, to retake Calicut; who, after two engagements, forced the Hindoos to abandon the country, and kept the town for Hyder. Within three months they returned with greater force, retook the place, cut off Assut Khan's head, and killed a number of his people. This was after my visit to Calicut in 1772, and previous to the year 1776; but I cannot ascertain the exact date. Before the expiration of many months, Hyder Ally himself marched for Calicut with two thousand borse and six thousand foot; but when he had proceeded two days towards it, he gave the command of that force to Sevajee Row, a Mahratta general in his service. The zamorine's brother again tried his fortune in the field, and was again defeated. He then left the country, the inhabitants of Calicut evacuated the place, and Sevajee immediately took possession.
These extraordinary events having taken place since my former voyage on the Réalabar coast, and description of this celebrated emporium, I thought a brief recital would be interesting. They may be said to complete its oriental history; for Calicut,
with all the extensive districts included under the appellation of the Malabar province, are now subject either to the power or influence of the East India Company, under whose settled government and mild administration, the natives must be happy. Nor can I quit this interesting spot without contrasting the cruel behaviour of Hyder Ally, in withholding food from a conquered sovereign, the last of a noble Hindoo dynasty, who had never offended him, with the generous conduct of the British government to the descendants of the Mysore usurper, who are allowed every thing becoming their royal descent, except the liberty of treading in the bloody footsteps of their ancestors, and fomenting wars and rebellions in their native country.
The particular assignments to the family and descendants of the late Tippoo Sultaun, and the sums appropriated to the zenana, the legitimate and illegitimate children, and dependants of every description on the Mahomedan sovereigns of Mysore, have been so fully detailed in recent publications as to render it unnecessary to insert thern in this place. They are liberal and benevolent, becoming the conquerors of a despot with whom they were compelled to engage for the preservation of their own existence in India, and the restorers of the ancient line of Hindoo rajahs, from whom the sovereignty of Mysore had been usurped by the unjust ambition and cruel policy of Tippoo's father.
Taking advantage of the land-breeze, we sailed from Chelwa for Europe, soon after midnight on the 22d of February, and at sun-rise the next morning I beheld, for the last time, the coast of India, exactly eighteen years from my first arrival at Bombay, where I landed on the 23d of February 1766. This diversified
and interesting period of life I recollect with heartfelt delight; nor did I take a final view of the cloud-capt mountains of Malabar without strong sensations. Nineteen passengers had embarked from England on the same ship with myself, full of youthful ardour, and eager to obtain their respective situations in the civil, military, and marine departments of the company's service. I never read Camoen’s Lusiad without a peculiar interest in that pathetic description of the Lusitanian youth embarking with De Gama in his first voyage to India. It is a scene truly pathetic ; from which I long ago connected a few detached lines, and fashioned them to the modern departure of an Indiaman full of passengers, for those distant shores; with youthful hearts and warm imaginations impatient to encounter their future trials and enter the path of glory.
Urg'd by ambition, or allurid by fame,
Safe through the deep, where every yawning wave
Of the nineteen youths with whom I thus commenced my juvenile career, seventeen died in India many years before my departure; one only besides myself then survived ; with him I formed an early friendship, which continued without interruption to his death, for he also has since fallen a sacrifice to the climate, and I have been for nearly ten years the only survivor! Many in this country who have participated in the generous, hospitable, and social virtues of the late Daniel Seton of Surat, will unite in this little eulogy to his memory, and lament that he was not permitted to return home, and enjoy the delights of domestic happiness with his amiable family, who left him some years before, to acquire, under the eye of maternal affection, those accomplishments which cannot be attained in India. This separation of families is a great alloy to a residence in that distant country, where parents are obliged to part with these sweet pledges of connubial love; or a fond mother is compelled, as it were, to divide herself in the performance of her tenderest duties.
· I greatly admire a passage in Pliny's letters on the subject of human mortality. The sentiments of that amiable and virtuous heathen are as exalted and noble as can be conceived in a mind unassisted by divine revelation. Happily a Christian's view of immortality is of a more sublime and durable nature, extending beyond the bounds of time to a scene of endless duration.
“ Within what narrow limits are ihe lives of so great a multi