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CIVIL DISTURBANCES IN WASHINGTON

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON
THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

NINETIETH CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

THE EXTENT OF THE DAMAGES AND LOSSES RESULTING FRONI THE RIOTING, LOOTING AND OTHER CIVIL DISTURBANCES IN WASHINGTON IN APRIL 1968, AND THE ACTIONS OF THE DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC SAFETY, THE POLICE, AND OTHER DULY CONSTITUTED LAW ENFORCEMENT AND GOVERNMEN

TAL AGENCIES WITH RESPECT THERETO

MAY 15 AND 16, 1968

Print

use of the Committee on

District of Columbia

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1968

94-293

COMMITTEE ON THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

JOHN L. MCMILLAN, South Carolina, Chair man THOMAS G. ABERNETHY, Mississippi ANCHER NELSEN, Minnesota WILLIAM L. DAWSON, Illinois

WILLIAM L. SPRINGER, Ilinois JOHN DOWDY, Texas

ALVIN E. O'KONSKI, Wisconsin BASIL L. WHITENER, North Carolina

WILLIAM H. HARSHA, Ohio B. F. SISK, California

CHARLES MCC. MATHIAS, JR., Maryland CHARLES C. DIGGS, JR., Michigan

FRANK J. HORTON, New York G. ELLIOTT HAGAN, Georgia

JOEL T. BROYHILL, Virginia DON FUQUA, Florida

LARRY WINN, JR., Kansas DONALD M. FRASER, Minnesota

GILBERT GUDE, Maryland BROCK ADAMS, Washington

JOHN M. ZWACH, Minnesota
ANDREW JACOBS, JR., Indiana

SAM STEIGER, Arizona
E. S.JOHNNY WALKER, New Mexico
PETER N. KYROS, Maine

JAMES T. OLARK, Clerk
CLAYTON S. GASQUE, Staff Director

HAYDEN S. GARBER, Counsel

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CONTENTS

STATEMENTS

Department of Defense:

Page

Hon. David E. McGiffert, Under Secretary of the Army --

2, 35

District of Columbia government:

Galotta, Henry A., Chief, Fire Department..

2

Layton, John B., Chief, Metropolitan Police Department.--

2, 35

Murphy, Patrick V., Director, Office of Public Safety

U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia, David G. Bress, Esquire.. 2, 35

MATERIAL SUBMITTED FOR THE RECORD

"Build Black,” reprint of circular--

Capitol Hill Southeast Citizens Association, resolution and recommenda-

tions regarding crime reporting and disposition of criminal cases.--

51

D.C. Government:

Murphy, Patrick V., Director, Office of Public Safety, letter dated

June 27, 1968, to James Clark, Clerk.---

13

D.C. Government Exhibits:

Arrests by Metropolitan Police Department (March 30-April 14,

1968).

14

Building fires reported by Fire Department (March 30-April 14, 1968). 14

Estimates of Costs and Revenue Losses to the D.C. Government
from the April 1968 civil disorders.

Appendix 87-92

Hotel business losses due to disorders.

94

Legal authority for activating the National Guard..

29

Tourist decline...

80

Extortion threats to business..

44

Federal troops.

4, 5, 23, 38, 40

Federation of Citizens Associations of the District of Columbia:

Letter from Mrs. Edward B. Morris, secretary, dated February 20,

1968, to Chairman McMillan opposing consolidation of police

precincts.

53

Resolution dated February 8, 1968, deploring action of Director of

Safety -

51

Resolution dated February 8, 1968, in support of Police Chief John B

Layton.---

Resolution dated April 25, 1968, in support of legislation to make

ineligible for government employment persons convicted of rioting,

etc.

58

Resolution dated May 9, 1968, urging use of Armed Forces to patrol

D.C. streets..

59

Resolution dated May 9, 1968, urging abolishment of position of

Director of Public Safety -

59

Riots of April 1968, Bill of particulars relative to..

57

Hackl, A. J., telegram dated April 24, 1968, to Chairman McMillan.

57

Moore, Robert S., letter dated April 9, 1968, to Chairman McMillan.-

55

National Guard...

31

Police:

Arrests and Citations.

13, 30, 45

Civil Disturbance Unit..

31

Force Required.--

46

Policy in Effect at Time of Riots.

5, 11, 16, 41

Precincts.

11

Protection in Future.

9, 29, 49

Vacancies...

38

Prosecution of offenders ..

42

Raisbeck, Virginia P., letter dated May 2, 1968, deploring lawlessness - 59

Smith, Leonard, copy of letter dated April 17, 1968, to Hon. Walter E.

Washington.-

56

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86

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U.S. Attorney David G. Bress, letter dated May 29, 1968, to Chairman Page

McMillan, submitting further recommendations.-
Washington Evening Star:

Advertisement dated May 7, 1968, entitled "Ben Brown Is Dead”. 71
Article dated March 17, 1968, entitled “Day and Night Effort-
Murphy Believes D.C. Will Escape Disorder”.

61 Article dated April 26, 1968, entitled "Threats of Pay-or-Burn Pose Problem to Police”,

62 Article dated April 29, 1968, entitled "D.C. Leases 150 Units for Victims of Riots"..

62 Article dated May 2, 1968, entitled "Pressure Group FormedBusinessmen Ask Protection.

63 Article dated May 4, 1968, entitled “Pride Worker Charged in Liquor Store Slaying?

64 Article dated May 10, 1968, entitled “35 Percent of Counties' Fire Forces Sent Into D.C. During Riots”,

65 Article dated May 20, 1968, entitled “An Answer to Threats”

64 Article dated May 20, 1968, by David Lawrence, entitled “Washington Reign of Terror”,

72 Article dated May 26, 1968, entitled “A Businessman Voices his Faith in the Capital City”.

59 Article dated May 29, 1968, entitled, “Riot Cases Overtax Court, Curran Says”.

78 Article dated May 30, 1968, entitled “Judges Lay D.C. Court Crisis to Riot Cases, Rise in Crime”.

82 Article dated June 4, 1968, entitled "Judge in Riot Cases Criticizes District”.

83 Article dated June 19, 1968, entitled “Guard Chief Urges Tougher Riot Role"

80 Article entitled “Swift Action Stressed-D.C. Police Set Up Secret Anti-Riot Command Post”.

73 Article entitled “Positioning Troops for Massive Rally Studied by Murphy".

73 Letters to the Editor, May 11, 17 and 21, 1968.-

69–72, 76-77 Washington Post:

Article dated March 17, 1968, entitled "No Serious Disorder Expected by Murphy”,

61 Article dated May 21, 1968, entitled "8 Percent of $145,667 Riot Funds Spent”

77 Article dated June 1, 1968, entitled "Sharp Drop in Tourism Noted Here".

79 Article dated June 12, 1968, entitled "Get Maximum of Year: 'Remorseless' Trio Sentenced in Riot”.

81 Article dated June 16, 1968, entitled “Bankers Ask Aid for D.C. Police”.

85 Article entitled, “Clark Warns on Use of Deadly Force”.

63 Open letter to the President dated May 17, 1968.

66 Waters, William H., Jr., letter dated February 19, 1968, to Chairman McMillan, in support of Police Chief Layton -

52 WMAL, Evening Star Broadcasting Co., editorial dated May 12, 1968, entitled "Troops in Washington

65

APPENDIX

Staff Memorandum, May 15, 1968—The April 1968 Civil Disturbances in Washington..

87-94 Arrests by Metropolitan Police Department, March 30-April 14, 1968.-

93 Estimates of real property and other losses..

87-88 Estimates of costs and revenue losses to the District of Columbia government.-

88-92 Estimates of costs of Federalizing the National Guard and bringing in Army troops.

92 Estimates of hotel and business losses.

94 Fires and false alarms, March 30-April 14, 1968.

93 Troops called out in Civil Disturbances: Authority for Use of Troops in the Suppression of Riots.

92 Executive communications dealing with same.

95-103

CIVIL DISTURBANCES IN WASHINGTON

WEDNESDAY, MAY 15, 1968

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
COMMITTEE ON THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,

Washington, D.C. The Full Committee met, pursuant to recess, at 10:40 a.m., in Room 1310, Longworth House Office Building, Honorable John L. McMillan, Chairman, presiding.

Present: Representatives McMillan (presiding), Abernethy, Dowdy, Whitener, Sisk, Diggs, Fuqua, Fraser, Adams, Jacobs, Walker, Kyros, Nelsen, O’Konski, Harsha, Mathias, Horton, Broyhill, Winn, Ġude, Zwach, and Steiger.

Also present: James T. Clark, Clerk; Sara Watson, Assistant Counsel; Donald Tubridy, Minority Clerk; and Leonard D. Hilder, Investigator.

The CHAIRMAN. The Full Committee will come to order.

Mr. Murphy, will you come to the table, and Chief Layton, Chief Galotta, and the Under Secretary of the Army, and any other people that are around here.

Mr. MURPHY. Mr. Chairman, this is Mr. Bress, United States Attorney, who was good enough to come in accordance with your invitation.

The CHAIRMAN. We will be happy to have him sit at the table with you.

Mr. Murphy, I want to thank you and the other gentlemen for taking time to appear before our Committee this morning. We hope that we will be able to bring to light some of the rumors that have been flying around ever since you arrived; as to what the police were doing on the first day and night of the April civil disturbances; and a number of other accusations that have been made, and the reason for not stopping some of the looting that appeared here in the Nation's Capital on these days.

You might make a little statement first as to the type of orders that were given by you or whoever gave out the orders.

I would also like to have the orders given the troops by the Under Secretary, please. I would like to know if you were given authority to use force in handling these people, and whether they were permitted to walk in and take anything they wanted, as those are the rumors that have been flying around.

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