path of rectitude, prevailed with him to publish a proclamation forbidding the Roman Catholic clergy to exercise their religion in the open and public manner to which they had been encouraged by the. indulgence of government. This proclamation occasioned by the complaints of zealous, indiscreet Protestants, was not enforced, yet it occasioned discontent in the minds of a number of the Popish party. Discontent produced complaints of Falkland, in respect to this r and other measures of government. He was recalled; and Richard Earl of Cork and Lord Viscount Ely were appointed, in the capacity of lords justices, his successors.

It the Roman Catholics were dissatisfied with the late Deputy, they had now much more cause to complain. The laws against them were executed, by the new governors, with severity. As an instance of which, they ordered Saint Patrick's purgatory, situated in a small island of Lough Derg and held in great veneration by the Catholics, to be dug up and totally effaced. It was an act of unmanly intolerant bigotry, inconsistent with the benign spirit of the Gospel and with the dictates of all the kind feelings of the heart. When his Majesty became acquainted with them, the lords justices were ordered to desist from these proceedings.



THE time of paying the last proportion of the subsidy was now at hand. So many were the wants of government that a new subsidy was neces1632 ^ar^' WaS demanded, but the Roman Catholics, whose grievances, notwithstanding his Majesty's positive engagement, had been very

partially partially redressed, refused to comply. The King declared, that, if they continued obstinate, the graces should be entirely withdrawn. In consequence, twenty thousand pounds were added to the former contribution, to be paid in four separate proportions.

Charles perceiving the difficulties in which his affairs were likely to be involved and that it would be of much importance to his interest were the government of Ireland under the direction of a man of abilities and on whose principles he could entirely depend, had some time before committed that office to Thomas Lord Viscount Wentworth. Among the friends of liberty and their country in that distinguished age Wentworth had been conspicuous in his opposition to the unconstitutional measures of Charles. But totally destitute of that noble principle, which raises the mind above selfish views where the public interest is concerned, he acted this part, to give himself consequence with government to which he looked up for the gratification of his vanity and ambition, the predominant passions of his heart, Whenever he had so far gained his point as to be taken notice of by the King, he threw off the mask, deserted his old friends and enlisted in the service of ministry. In reward of his prostitution, he was made president of York, received other proofs of the kindness of government, and, as a higher mark of royal favour, was made Deputy of Ireland. He was sworn into office the twenty fifth of July sixteen hundred and thirty three.

Never was the Irish nation ruled by a governor so artful, so haughty and tyrannical. That Ireland was a conquered country, that with respect to the privileges it enjoyed, it was altogether dependent on England, were the ideas which he entertained of this kingdom. His ideas and the principles on which he

determined determined to act, soon appeared very conspicuously. In his treatment of the council, he assumed a stately dignity and an insolent demeanour to which they had been little accustomed.

The calling of a parliament, a measure to which, the despotic principles of Charles made him , very averse in both kingdoms, became quite necessary in Ireland to procure supplies and settle' them on a more permanent foundation.

This measure being determined, Wentworth took every step to render it conducive to the wishes of his Majesty. It had been usual with the Deputy to summon the lords of the pale to council that they might have an opportunity of giving their advice with respect to the time proper for the meeting of parliament and the business to be transacted in it. To this custom, which was friendly to the liberties of the nation, Wentworth paid no regard.

The council on meeting to consider of the bills to be transmitted, wished that certain bills, agreeable to the desires of the people and conducive to the public welfare, should, accompany the bill of subsidy, and that the sum to be granted should be such as the country could bear and be particularly specified. *' Your sole object," replied the imperious Wentworth, "must be to please the King ; I will admit of no bargain, the subsidy bill must be transmitted with a blank to be filled up by his Majesty, at pleasure; if the parliament does not comply with his Majesty's desires, I will obey him should he order me to put myself at the head of the army and there either die or force the people to do what is fit and reasonable." The council were astonished, but instead of being roused into indignation by language detestable in-a free country and which no man could use•but the servile minion of a despot, they tamely submitted.


Great pains having been taken, and with success, to procure a majority in favour of government, the parliament assembled. In his speech to it, the Deputy, to prevent any schemes from being laid by opposition, with a view to frustrate the wishes of the court, expressed himself in the following very extraordinary manner, " You must have no private meetings; this, in the King's name, I must forbid, and am ordered to punish with a severe and a heavy hand." From his own letters, this appears to have been perfectly agreeable to his Majesty's instructions. Sir Robert Talbot ventured to make some remarks on the conduct of Wentworth, for which he was expeled from the house of commons and imprisoned. Six subsidies were granted, which, including the whole assessment on the lords, commons, and clergy, •amounted to the enormous sum of three hundred thousand pounds. The object of the Deputy in burthening this country with a pressure so much beyond what it was able to bear, was not merely to supply the wants of the Irish government; he desired also to be furnished with the means of assisting his Majesty in executing the designs which he had formed against the liberties of his English subjects, .

Nothing of any consequence was done in the lower house concerning the complaints of the nation. Those rights of the people of which they were the delegated guardians, seemed to have been to the members of it an object of no importance.

The lords discovered a very different spirit; They spoke much of the King's promise with respect to the graces, they loudly complained of public grievances, they even, proceeded to frame certain bills, in behalf of the public good, in order to their being transmitted to England. As this was done, in contradiction tradiction to Poynings' Statute, the lords having no power, in the first instance, but that of remonstrating to the Deputy and council with respect to such points as they wished should be passed into a law, Wentworth entered his protest against the measure.



IT had been settled betwixt Charles and the Deputy that there should be two sessions of the present parliament and that in the beginning of the first the act of subsidy should be passed. To procure money was the design for which the parliament had been convened, and by complying with it previous to the consideration of grievances, they gave up the only power, by the prudent exercise of which, the redress of them could be accomplished. But notwithstanding, there was a difficulty in the matter which it was necessary to obviate to save the character of the King from severe reflexions. It has been related that to procure a considerable sum from the recusants, his Majesty had engaged, under the royal signet, that the graces which they desired should be confirmed by parliament. Charles saw that some of the graces were inconsistent with his interest and though he did not scruple to promote his selfish designs, at the expence of sincerity, he had difficulty in breaking an obligation of so very particular a nature. To solve his doubts, Wentworth observed; - that by Poynings' Law, he and the council were empowered to transmit or to suppress bills, at pleasure, that those of them proper to be sent over might be transmitted, the pasting of which into laws would redound to his Majesty's honor; that such of them as were not conducive to his interest could be suppressed,

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