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A. D. PAGE.

482 or 483. Birth of the Emperor Justinian........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

518–527. Elevation and Reign of his Uncle Justin I.............. ......... 410

520–527. Adoption and Succession of Justinian............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 411

527–565. The Reign of Justinian................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 413

Character and Histories of Procopius......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

Division of the Reign of Justinian..................................... 415

Birth and Vices of the Empress Theodora................. . . . . . . . . . . . 416

Her Marriage with Justinian...................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 418

Her Tyranny................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 420

Her Virtues........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 421

548 And Death....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 422

The Factions of the Circus............... ......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 422

At Itome.................................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - ... . 423

They distract Constantinople and the East................... - - - - - - - - - - 424

Justinian favors the Blues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... . 424

532. Sedition of Constantinople, surnamed Nika. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 426

The Distress of Justinian................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - 428

Firmness of Theodora ........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 429

The Sedition is suppressed....'................ . . . . . . . . . ................ 429

Agriculture and Manufactures of the Eastern Empire................. 430

The Use of Silk by the Romans......................................... 432

Importation from China by Land and Sea. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

Introduction of Silk-worins into Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

State of the Revenue....................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 438

A varice and Profusion of Justinian........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 439

Pernicious Savings................ ... - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 441

Itemittances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - 441

Taxes........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

Monopolies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 442

Venality. . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

Testaments........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - - - - ... 443

The Ministers of Justinian ........... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

John of Cappadocia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 445

His Edifices and Architects........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

Foundation of the Church of St. Sophia. . . . . . . . . • * - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - 449

Description.............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . 450

Marbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - 452

Itiches. ... . . . ............................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 452

Churches and Palaces....................... .... • e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 453

Fortifications of Europe............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454

Security of Asia after the Conquest of Isauria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

Fortifications of the Empire, from the Euxine to the Persian Frontier 459

488. Death of Perozes, King of Persia............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... . . . . . . . 462

502–505. The Persial) War....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 462

Fortifications of I)ara............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 463

The Caspian or Iberian Gates ........... ......................... ... . . 464

The Schools of Athens..... . . . .... - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 466

They are suppressed by Justinian...................... • - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . 470

Proclus............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 470

485–529. His Successors. . . . ........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 470

The last of the Philosophers. . . . . ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

541. The Roman Consulship extinguished by Justinian............. ....... 472

533. Preparations for the African War.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479

Departure of the Fleet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - * - - - - - 481

Belisarius lands on the Coast of Africa............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

I)efeats the Vandals in a first Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . • * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 486

Reduction of Carthage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487

Final Defeat of Gelimer and the Wandals........ ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

534. Conquest of Africa by Belisarius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e - - - - - - - - - - - * * * * * * * * * * . 493

Distress and Captivity of Gelimer... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

Return and Triumph of Belisarius ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

535. His sole Cons ilship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . s = < * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * - - - - - - - - 499

End of Gelimer and the Vandals . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

Manners and Defeat of the Moors. . . . . • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 501

Neutrality of the Visigoths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - ... ........ 503

550–620, Conquests of the stomans in Spain................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

534. Belisarius threatens the Ostrogoths of Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • - - - - - - - - - - 504

532–534. Government and Exile of Amalasontha, Queen of Italy . . . . . . . . . . 505

535. Her Death....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ... .. 508

Belisarius invades and subdues Sicily. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

634–536. Reign and Weakness of Theodatus, the Gothic King of Italy..... 510

537. Belisarius invades Italy, and reduces Naples ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512

536—540. Vitiges, King of Italy......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

536. Belisarius enters IRO me . . . . . . • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 516

537. Siege of Rome by the Goths ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517

Valor of Belisarius.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - 518

His Defence of Rome........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518

Repulses a general Assault of the Goths..... . . . . . . . . . . • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 521

His Sallies .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

Distress of the City.......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

Exile of Pope Sylverius ................... • * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 525

Deliverance of the City. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 526

Belisarius recovers many Cities of Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528

538. The Goths raise the Siege of Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 528

Lose IRimini. . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 530

Retire to Ravenna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • * * * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30

PAGF.

Their Inroads ... ................. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

545. Origin and Monarchy of the Turks in Asia........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . 555

The Avars fly hafore the Turks, and approach the Empire............ 5.9

558. Their Embassy to Tonstantinople....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .... 55.9

569–582. Embassies of the Turks and Romans ............................. 501

500–530. State of Persia... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 564

531—-579. Reign of Nushirvan or Chosroes....................... - - - - - - - - - - - 565

His Love of Learning.................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . .. 567

533–539. Peace and War with the Romans................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 57.1

540. He invades Syria............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572

And ruins Antioch............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573

541. IXefence of the East by Belisarius............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575

Description of Colchos, Lazica, or Mingrelia......................... . 577

Manners of the Natives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . 580

Revolutions of Colchos......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581

Under the Persians, before Christ 500................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581

Under the Romans, before Christ 60.............................. - - - - - - 582

130 Visit of Arrian........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582

522. Conversion of the Lazi................ -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 583

542–549. Revolt and Repentance of the Colchians.......................... 583

549–551. Siege of Petra . . . . . . . . ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585

549–556. The Colchian or Lazic War................................... ... .. 587

540–561. Negotiations and Treaties between Justinian and Chosroes....... 589

522. Conquests of the Abyssinians....... ................... ..... - - - - - - - - 591

533. Their Alliance with Justinian..... - - - - - - - --- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 592

CHAPTER XLIII.

535–545. The Troubles of Africa............................................ 595

543—558. Rebellion of the Moors........................ ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598

540. Revolt of the Goths........ - - - - - - - - - - - - ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600

541–544. Victories of Totila, King of Italy;............................ .... 601

Contrast of Greek Vice and Gothic Virtue ......................... .... 602

544–548. Second Command of Belisarius in Italy........................... 604

546. Rome besieged by the Goths............ ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605

Attempt of Belisarius........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 606

Rome taken by the Goths.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607

547. Recovered by Belisarius................ . . . . . • e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ........ 611

548. Final Recall of Belisarius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 611

549. Rome again taken by the Goths... :: ...: ...: ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14

549–551. Preparations of Justinian for the Gothic War...................... 615

552. Character and Expedition of the Eunuch Narses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617

Defeat and Death of Totila............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619

Conquest of Rome by Narses........ ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621

553. IXefeat and Death of Teias, the last King of the Goths... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - {:23

Invasion of Italy by the Franks and Alemanni........ ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 625

554. I)efeat of the Franks and Alemanni by Narses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626

554–568. Settlement of Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . ... 628

559. Invasion of the Bulgarians........... . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680

Last Victory of Belisarius................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631

561. His Disgrace and Death................... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to:

565. Death and Character of Justinian................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635

531--539. Comets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

Earthquakes.................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... . . . . . 639

542. Plague—its Origin and Nature........... ................... . . . . . . . . .... 641

542–594. Extent and Duration............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643

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IDEA OF THE ROMAN JURISPRUDENCE. – THE LAWS OF THE KING8. – THE
TWELVE TABLES OF THE DECEMV IRS. — THE LAWS OF THE PEOPLE. - THE
DECREEs of THE sexATE.--THE EDICTs of THE MAGISTRATES AND EMPE-
RoRs. – AUTHORITY OF THE CIVILIANs. – Code, PANDECTs, Novels, AND
INSTITUTES OF JUSTINIAN : I. RIGHTS OF PERSONS.—II. RIGHTS OF THINGS.
—III. PRIVATE INJURIES AND ACTIONS.-IV. CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS.

A. D. PAGE.

The Civil or Roman Law................. .............................. 645

Laws of the Kings of Rome...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 647

The Twelve Tables of the Decemvirs.........- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 649

Their Character and Influence. ... . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 651

Laws of the People............................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 652

IXecrees of the Senate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 654

Edicts of the Praetors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 654

The Perpetual Edict.................................. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656

Constitutions of the Emperors............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 657

Their Legislative Power.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659

Their Rescripts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 660

Forms of the Roman Law......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 661

Succession of the Civil Lawyers............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 662

303–648. The First Period.................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 663

648–988. Second Period...................................................... 664

988–1230. Third Period................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 664

Their Philosophy....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 665

Authority............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 666

Sects......... . . . . . . . . . . ................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .... 668

527. Reformation of the Roman Law by Justinian.......................... 670

527–546, - Tribonian - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 67.1

528, 529. The Code of Justinian ..................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 672

530–533. The Paindects or Digest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... ... .... 673

Praise and Censure of the Code and Pandects........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 674

Loss of the ancient Jurisprudence ... ................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 676

Legal Inconstancy of Justinian............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 678

534. Second Edition of the Code............................................. 678

534 565. The Novels............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 79

533 The Institutes............ . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 679

I. OF PERSONs. Freemen and Slaves........ .................. ..... 680

Fathers and Children..................................... ............. 68.

Ilimitations of the Paternal Authority ........................ - - - - - - - . 683

Husbands and Wives ............... ... .............................. 686

The religious Rites of Marriage............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 686

Freedom of the matrimonial Contract...................... ........... 686

Liberty and Abuse of Divorce .............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 687

Limitations of the Libertv of Divorce.................................. 689

Incest, Concubines, and Bastards...................................... 691

Guardians and Wards .................................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 693

II. _ QF THINGs. Right of Property....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 694

Of Inheritance and Succession........ .......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 698

Civil Degrees of Kindred..................................... - - - - - - - - - - 698

Introduction and Liberty of Testaments ............................ .. 700

Legacies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... 701

Codicils and Trusts..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 702

III. OF ACTIONs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................. 703

Promises..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 703

Benefits ........................ ....... ...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 704

Interest of Money.................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 705

Injuries........ . . . . . . . . . . ............................................. 706

IV. OF CRIMES AND PUNIs HMENTs.................................. 708

Severity of the Twelve Tables................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 708

Abolition or Oblivion of Penal Laws................................... 710

Revival of Capital Punishments........................................ 712

Measure of Guilt....... ............................................... . 713

Unnatural Vice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 71.4

Rigor of the Christian Emperors................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 715

Judgments of the People .......... ................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 716

Select Judges... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... ....................... 717

Assessors............... ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 718

Voluntary Exile and Death........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 718

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INVASION OF ITALY BY ALARIC.—MANNERS OF THE ROMAN" SENATE AND PEOPLE.—ROME IS THRICE BESIEGED, AND AT LENGTH PILLAGED, BY THE GOTHS.—DEATH OF ALARIC.— THE GOTHS EVACUATE ITALY.—FALL OF CONSTANTINE.GAUL AND SPAIN ARE OCCUPIED BY THE BARBARIANS.INDEPENDENCE OF BRITAIN.

- THE incapacity of a weak and distracted government may often assume the appearance, and produce the effects. of a treasonable correspondence with the public enemy. If Alaric himself had been introduced into the council of Ravenna, he would probably have advised the same measures which were actually pursued by the ministers of Honorius.' . The king of the Goths would have conspired, perhaps with some reluctance, to destroy the formidable adversary, by whose arms, in Italy, as well as in Greece, he had been twice overthrown. Their active and interested hatred laboriously accomplished the disgrace and ruin of the great Stilicho. The valor of Sarus, his fame in arms, and his personal, or hereditary, influence over the confederate Barbarians, could recommend him only to the friends of their country, who despised, or detested, the worthless characters of Turpilio, Varanes, and Vigilantius. Iły the pressing instances of the new favorites, these generals, unworthy as

1 The series of events, from the death of Stilicho to the arrival of Alaric be fore Rome, can only be found in Zosimus, l. v. pp. 347–350. 11) (

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