hands of the ambassador, on the frail security of an oath not to produce the second till the first had been privately rejected. The event may be easily foreseen : Justinian required and accepted the abdication of the Gothic king. His indefatigable agent returned from Constantinople to Ravenna, with ample instructions; and a fair epistle, which praised the wisdom and generosity of the royal philosopher, granted his pension, with the assurance of such honors as a subject and a Catholic might enjoy ; and wisely referred the final execution of the treaty to the presence and authority of Belisarius. But in the interval of suspense, two Roman generals, who had entered the province of Dalmatia, were defeated and slain by the Gothic troops. From blind and abject despair, Theodatus capriciously rose to groundless and fatal presumption,” and dared to receive, with menace and contempt, the ambassador of Justinian ; who claimed his promise, solicited the allegiance of his subjects, and boldly asserted the Inviolable privilege of his own character. The march of Belisarius dispelled this visionary pride; and as the first campaign" was employed in the reduction of Sicily, the invasion of Italy is applied by Procopius to the second year of the Gothic war.” After Belisarius had left sufficient garrisons in Palermo and Syracuse, he embarked his troops at Messina, and land. ed them, without resistance, on the opposite shores of Rhegium. A Gothic prince, who had married the daughter of Theodatus, was stationed with an army to guard the entrance of Italy; but he imitated, without scruple, the example of a sovereign faithless to his public and private duties. The perfidious Ebermor deserted with his followers to the Roman camp, and was dismissed to enjoy the servile honors of the Byzantine court.” From Rhegium to Naples, the fleet and army of Belisarius, almost always in view of each other, advanced near three hundred miles along the sea-coast. The people of Bruttium, Lucania, and Campania, who abhorred the name and religion of the Goths, embraced the specious excuse that their ruined walls were incapable of defence: the soldiers paid a just equivalent for a plentiful market; and curiosity alone interrupted the tool occupations of the husbandman or artificer.

ol. A Sibylline oracle was ready to pronounce—Africa captă mundus cum nato peribit; a sentence of portentous ambiguity (Gothic. l i. c. 7), which has been published in unknown characters by Opsopaeus, an editor of the oracles. The Père Maltret has promised a commentary, but all his promises have been vain and fruitless.

62 In his chronology, imitated, in some degree, from Thucydides, Procopius begins each spring the years of Justinian and of the Gothic war, and his first aera coincides with the first of April, 535, and not 536, according to the annals of Baronius (Pagi, Crit. tom. ii. p. 555, who is followed by Muratori and the editors of Sigonius). Yet, in some passages, we are at a loss to reconcile the dates of Procopius with himself. and with the Chronicle of Marcellinus.

* The series of the first Gothic war is represented by Proconius (1.1, c. 5–20, 1. it. c. 1–30, l. lii. e. 1) till the captivity of Vitiges. With the aid of Sigonius (Opp. tom. i. de Imp. Occident. 1. xvii. xviii.) and Muratori (Annali d'Italia, tom. v.), I have gleaned some few additional facts.

*:/ornandes, de Rebus Geticis, c. 60, p. 702, edit. Grot., and tom. i. p. 221. Mu ratori, de Success. Regn. p. 241.

aples, which has swelled to a great and populous capital, long cherished the language and manners of a Grecian colony;" and the choice of Virgil had ennobled this elegant retreat, which attracted the lovers of repose and study, from the noise, the smoke, and the laborious opulence of Rome.” As soon as the place was invested by sea and land, Belisarius gave audience to the deputies of the people, who exhorted him to disregard a conquest unworthy of his arms, to seek the Gothic king in a field of battle, and, after his victory, to claim, as the sovereign of Rome, the allegiance of the dependent cities. “When I treat with my enemies,” replied the Roman chief, with a haughty smile, “I am more accustomed to give than to receive counsel; but I hold in one hand inevitable ruin, and in the other peace and freedom, such as Sicily now enjoys.” The impatience of delay urged him to grant the most liberal terms; his honor secured their performance: but Naples was divided into two factions; and the Greek democracy was inflamed by their orators, who, with much spirit and some truth, repre. sented to the multitude that the Goths would punish their defection, and that Belisarius himself must esteem their loyalty and valor. Their deliberations, however, were not perfectly free: the city was commanded by eight hundred Barbarians, whose wives and children were detained at Ravenna as the pledge of their fidelity; and even the Jews, who were rich and numerous, resisted, with desperate enthusiasm, the intolerant laws of Justinian. In a much later period, the circumference of Naples" measured only two thousand three hundred and sixty-three paces; * the forti. fications were defended by precipices or the sea; when the aqueducts were intercepted, a supply of water might be drawn from wells and fountains; and the stock of provisions was sufficient to consume the patience of the besiegers. At the end of twenty days, that of Belisarius was almost exhausted, and he had reconciled himself to the disgrace of abandoning the siege, that he might march, before the winter season, against Rome and the Gothic king. But his anxiety was relieved by the bold curiosity of an Isaurian, who explored the dry channel of an aqueduct, and secretly reported, that a passage might be perforated to introduce a file of armed soldiers into the heart of the city. When the work had been silently executed, the humane general risked the discovery of his secret by a last and fruitless admonition of the impending danger. In the darkness of the night, four hundred Romans entered the aqueduct, raised themselves by a rope, which they fastened to an olive-tree, into the house or garden of a solitary matron, sounded their trumpets, surprised the sentinels, and gave admittance to their companions, who on all sides scaled the walls, and burst open the gates of the city. Every crime which is punished by social justice was practised as the rights of war; the Huns were distinguished by cruelty and sacrilege, and Belisarius alone appeared in the streets and churches of Naples to moderate the calamities which he predicted. “The gold and silver,” he repeatedly exclaimed, “are the just rewards of your valor. But, spare the inhabitants; they are Christians, they are suppliants, they are now your fellow-subjects. Restore the children to their parents, the wives to their husbands; and show them by your generosity of what friends they have obstinately deprived themselves.” The city was saved by the virtue and authority of its conqueror;” and when the Neapolitans returned to their houses, they found some consolation in the secret enjoyment of their hidden treasures. The Barbarian garrison enlisted in the service of the emperor; Apulia and Calabria delivered from the odious presence of the Goths, acknowledged his dominion; and the tusks of the Calydonian boar, which were still shown at Beneventum, are curiously described by the his. torian of Belisarius.” The faithful soldiers and citizens of Naples had exected their deliverance from a prince, who remained the inactive and almost indifferent spectator of their ruin. Theodatus secured his person within the walls of Rome, while his cavalry advanced forty miles on the Appian way, and encamped in the Pomptine marshes; which, by a canal of nineteen miles in length, had been recently drained and converted into excellent pastures.” But the principal forces of the Goths were dispersed in Dalmatia, Venetia, and Gaul; and the feeble mind of their king was confounded by the unsuccessful event of a divination, which seemed to presage the downfall of his empire.” The most abject slaves have arraigned the guilt or weakness of an unfortunate master. The character of Theodatus was rigorously scrutinized by a free and idle camp of Barbarians, conscious of their privilege and power; he was declared unworthy of his race, his nation, and his throne; and their general Vitges, whose valor had been signalized in the Illyrian war, was raised with unanimous applause on the bucklers of his companions. On the first rumor, the abdicated monarch fled from the justice of his country; but he was pursued by private revenge. A Goth, whom he had injured in his love, overtook Theodatus on the Flaminian way, and, regardless of his unmanly cries, slaughtered him, as he lay prostrate on the ground, like a victim (says the historian) at the foot of the altar. The choice of the people is the best and purest title to reign over them ; yet such is the prejudice of every age, that Vitiges impatiently wished to return to Ravenna, where he might seize, with the reluctant hand of the daughter of Amalasontha, some faint shadow of hereditary right. A national council was immediately held, and the new monarch reconciled the impatient spirit of the Barbarians to a measure of disgrace, which the misconduct of his predecessor rendered wise and indispen. sable. The Goths consented to retreat in the presence of a victorious enemy; to delay till the next spring the operations of offensive war; to summon their scattered forces; to relinquish their distant possessions, and to trust even Rome itself to the faith of its inhabitants. Leuderis, an aged warrior, was left in the capital with four thousand soldiers; a feeble garrison, which might have seconded the zeal, though it was incapable of opposing the wishes, of the Romans. But a momentary enthusiasm of religion and patriotism was kindled in their minds. They furiously exclaimed, that the apostolic throne should no longer be profamed by the triumph or toleration of Arianism ; that the tombs of the Caesars should no longer be trampled by the savages of the North ; and, without reflecting, that Italy must sink into a province of Constantinople, they fondly hailed the restoration of a Roman emperor as a new aera of freedom and prosperity. The deputies of the pope and clergy, of the senate and people, invited the lieutenant of Justinian to accept their voluntary allegiance, and to enter the city, whose gates would be thrown open for his reception. As soon as Belisarius had fortified his new conquests, Naples and Cumae, he advanced about twenty miles to the banks of the Vulturnus, contemplated the decayed grandeur of Capua, and halted at the separation of the Latin and Applan ways. The work of the censor, after the incessant use of nine centuries, still preserved its primaeval beauty, and not a flaw could be discovered in the large polished stones, of which that solid, though narrow road, was so firmly compacted.” Belisarius, however, preferred the Latin way, which, at a distance from the sea and the marshes, skirted in a space of one hundred and twenty miles along the foot of the mountains. His enemies had disappeared : when he made his entrance through the Asinarian gate, the garrison departed without molestation along the Flaminian way; and the city, after sixty years' servitude, was delivered from the yoke of the Barbarians. Leuderis alone, from a motive of pride or discontent, refused to accompany the fugitives; and the Gothic chief, himself a trophy of the victory, was sent with the keys of Rome to the throne of the emperor Justinian.”

65. Nero (says Tacitus, Annal. xv. 35) Neapolim quasi Graecam urbem o: One hundred and fifty years afterwards, in the time of Septimius Severus, the Hellenism of the Neapolitans is praised by Philostratus. Yevos EAAmves kal & Trvkot, 66ew kai rās a movčás Tov Adyov "EXAmvikov čvoru (Icon. l. i. p. 763, edit. Olear);

to The otium of Naples is praised by the Roman poets, by Virgil, Horace, Silius Italicus, and Statius (Cluver. It al. A nt. l. iv. pp 1149, 1150). In an elegant epistle (Sylv. l. iii. 5, pp. 94–98, edit. Markland), Statius undertakes the difficult task of drawing his wife from the pleasures of Rome to that calm retreat.

67 This measure was taken by Roger I., after the conquest of Napies (A. D. 1139) which he made the capital of his new kingdom (Giannone, Istoria Civile tom. ii. p. 169). That city, the third in Christian Europe, is now at least twelve miles in circumference (Jul. Caesar. Capaccii Hist. Neapol. 1. i. p. 47), and contains more inhabitants (350,000) in a given space than any other spot in the known world.

VOL. III.-33

* Not geometrical, but common paces or steps, of 22 French inches (D'An ville, Mésures Itinéraires, pp. 7, 8). The 2363 do not make an English mile.

* Belisarius was reproved by Pope Silverius for the massacre. He re opled Naples, and imported colonies of African captives into Sicily, Calabria, asso. ‘Hist. Miscell. l. xvi. in Muratori, tom. i. pp. 106, ion).

70 Beneventum was built by Diomede, the nephew of Meleager (Culver. tom ii. pp. 1195, 1196). The Calvdonian hunt is a picture of savage life (Ovid, Meta moroh. 1. viii.). Thirty or forty heroes were leagued against a hog : the brutes (not the hog) quarrelled with a lady for the head.

71 The Decemnovium is strangely confounded by Cluverius (tom. ii. p. 1007) with the River Ufens. It was in truth a canal of nineteen miles, from Forum Appii to Terracina, on which Horace embarked in the night. The Decemnovium, which is mentioned by Lucan, Dion Cassius, and Cassiodorus, has been sufficiently ruined, restored, and obliterated (D'Anville. Analyse de l'Italie, p. 185, &c.).

72 A Jew gratified his contempt and hatred for all the Christians, by enclosing three bands, each of ten hogs, and discriminated by the names of Goths, Greeks and Romans. Of the first almost all were found dead; almost all of the second were alive ; of the third, half died. and the rest lost their bristles. No unsuitablo emblem of the event.

18 Bergier (Hist, des Grands Chemins des Romains, tom. i. pp. 221–228,440-444) examines the structure and materials, while D'Anville (Analyse d’Italie, pp. 200213) defines the geographical line.

74 Of the first recovery of IRome,the year (536) is certain, from the series of events.

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