were restored to their country; the means of subsistence were liberally provided; and Totila, in the robe of peace, exhibited the equestrian games of the circus. Whilst he amused the eyes of the multitude, four hundred vessels were repared for the embarkation of his troops. The cities of hegium and Tarentum were reduced ; he passed into Sicily, the object of his implacable resentment; and the island was stripped of its gold and silver, of the fruits of the earth, and of an infinite number of horses, sheep, and oxen. Sardinia and Corsica obeyed the fortune of Italy; and the sea-coast of Greece was visited by a fleet of three hundred galleys.” The Goths were landed in Corcyra and the ancient continent of Epirus; they advanced as far as Nicopolis, the trophy of Augustus, and Dodona,” once famous by the oracle of Jove. In every step of his victories, the wise Barbarian repeated to Justinian the desire of peace, applauded the concord of their predecessors, and offered to employ the Gothic arms in the service of the empire. Justinian was deaf to the voice of peace; but he neglected the prosecution of war; and the indolence of his temper disappointed, in some degree, the obstinacy of his passions. From this salutary slumber the emperor was awakened by the pope Vigilius and the patrician Cethegus, who appeared before his throne, and adjured him, in the name of God and the people, to resume the conquest and deliverance of Italy. In the choice of the generals, caprice, as well as judgment, was shown. A fleet and army sailed for the relief of Sicily, under the conduct of Liberius; but his youth f and want of experience were afterwards discovered, and before he touched the shores of the island he was overtaken by his successor. In the place of Liberius, the conspirator Artaban was raised from a prison to military honors; in the pious presumption, that gratitude would animate his valor and fortify his alle, giance. Belisarius reposed in the shade of his laurels, but the command of the principal army was reserved for Germanus,” the emperor's nephew, whose rank and merit had been long depressed by the jealousy of the court. Theodora had injured him in the rights of a private citizen, the marriage of his children, and the testament of his brother; and although his conduct was pure and blameless, Justinian was displeased that he should be thought worthy of the confidence of the malecontents. The life of Germanus was a lesson of implicit obedience: he nobly refused to prostitute his name and character in the factions of the circus: the gravity of his manners was tempered by innocent cheerfulness; and his riches were lent without interest, to indigent or deserving friends. His valor had formerly triumphed over the Sclavonians of the Danube and the rebels of Africa: the first report of his promotion revived the hopes of the Italians; and he was privately assured, that a crowd of Roman deserters would abandon, on his approach, the standard of Totila. His second marriage with Malasontha, the granddaughter of Theodoric, endeared Germanus to the Goths themselves; and they marched with reluctance against the father of a royal infant, the last offspring of the line of Amali.” A splendid allowance was assigned by the emperor: the general contributed his private fortune; his two sons were popular and active; and he surpassed, in the promptitude and success of his levies, the expectation of mankind. He was permitted to select some squadrons of Thracian cavalry: the veterans, as well as the youth of Constantinople and Europe, engaged their voluntary service; and as far as the heart of Germany, his fame and liberality attracted the aid of the Barbarians.” The Romans advanced to Sardica; an army of Sclavonians fled before their march; but within two days of their final departure, the designs of Germanus were terminated by his malady and death. Yet the impulse which he had given to the Italian war still continued to act with energy and effect. The maritime towns, Ancona, Crotona, Centumcellae, resisted the assaults of Totila. Sicily was reduced by the zeal of Artalan, and the Gothic navy was defeated near the coast of the Adriatic. The two fleets were almost equal, forty-seven to fifty galleys: the victory was decided by the knowledge and dexterity of the Greeks; but the ships were so closely grappled, that only twelve of the Goths escaped from this unfortunate conflict. They affected to depreciate an element in which they were unskilled; but their own experience confirmed the truth of a maxim, that the master of the sea will always acquire the dominion of the land.” After the loss of Germanus, the nations were provoked to smile, by the strange intelligence, that the command of the Roman armies was given to a eunuch. But the eunuch Narses” is ranked among the few who have rescued that unhappy name from the contempt and hatred of mankind. A feeble, diminutive body concealed the soul of a statesman and a warrior. His youth had been employed in the management of the loom and distaff, in the cares of the household, and the service of female luxury; but while his hands were busy, he secretly exercised the faculties of a vigorous and discerning mind. A stranger to the schools and the camp, he studied in the palace to dissemble, to flatter, and to persuade; and as soon as he approached the person of the emperor, Justinian listened with surprise and pleasure to the manly counsels of his chamberlain and private treasurer.” The talents of Narses were tried and inproved in frequent embassies: he led an army into Italy, acquired a practical knowledge of the war and the country, and presumed to strive with the genius of Belisarius. Twelve years after his return, the eunuch was chosen to achieve the conquest which had been left imperfect by the first of the Roman generals. Instead of being dazzled by vanity or emulation, he seriously declared that, unless he were armed with an adequate force, he would never consent to risk his own glory and that of his sovereign. Justinian granted to the favorite what he might have denied to the hero: the Gothic war was rekindled from its ashes, and the preparations were not unworthy of the ancient majesty of the empire. The key of the public treasure was put into his hand, to collect magazines, to levy soldiers, to purchase arms and horses, to discharge the arrears of pay, and to tempt the fidelity of the fugitives and deserters. The troops of Germanus were still in arms; they halted at Salona in the expectation of a new leader; and legions of subjects and allies were created by the well-known liberality of the eunuch Narses. The king of the Lombards” satisfied or surpassed the obligations of a treaty, by lending two thousand two hundred of his bravest warriors,f who were followed by three thousand of their martial attendants. Three thousand Heruli fought on horseback under Philemuth, their native chief; and the noble Aratus, who adopted the manners and discipline of Rome, conducted a band of veterans of the same nation. Dagistheus was released from prison to command the Huns; and Robad, the grandson and nephew of the great king, was conspicuous by the regal tiara at the head of his faithful Persians, who had devoted themselves to the fortunes of their prince.” Absolute in the exercise of his authority, more absolute in the affection of his troops, Narses led a numerous and gallant army from Philippopolis to Salona, from whence he coasted the eastern side of the Adriatic as far as the confines of Italy. His progress was checked. The East could not supply vessels capable of transporting such multitudes of men and horses. The Franks, who, in the general confusion, had usurped the greater part of the Venetian province, refused a free passage to the friends of the Lombards. The station of Verona was occupied by Teias, with the flower of the Gothic forces; and that skilful commander had overspread the adjacent country with the fall of woods and the inundation of waters.” In this perplexity, an officer of experience proposed a measure, secure by the appearance of rashness; that the Roman army should cautiously advance along the seashore, while the fleet preceded their march, and successively cast a bridge of boats over the mouths of the rivers, the Timavus, the Brenta, the Adige, and the Po, that fall into the Adriatic to the north of Ravenna. Nine days he reposed in the city, collected the fragments of the Italian army, and marched towards Rimini to meet the defiance of an insulting enemy. The prudence of Narses impelled him to speedy and decisive action. His powers were the last effort of the state; the cost of each day accumulated the enormous account; and the nations, untrained to discipline or fatigue, might be rashly provoked to turn their arms against each other, or against their benefactor. The same considerations might have tempered the ardor of Totila. But he was conscious that the clergy and people of Italy aspired to a second revolution : he felt or suspected the rapid progress of treason; and he resolved to risk the Gothic kingdom on the chance of a day, in which the valiant would be animated by instant danger, and the disaffected might be awed by mutual ignorance. In his march from Ravenna, the Roman general chastised the garrison of Rimini, traversed in a direct line the hills of Urbino, and reëntered the Flaminian way, nine miles beyond the perforated rock, an obstacle of art and nature which might have stopped or retarded his progress.” The Goths were assembled in the neighborhood of Rome,

24 In these seas Procopius searched without success for the Isle of Calypso. He was shown, at Ph;eacia, or Cocyra, the petrified ship of Ulysses (Odyss. xiii. 163); but he found it a recent fabric of many stones, dedicated by a merchant to Jupiter Casius (l. iv. c. 22). Eustathius had supposed it to be the fanciful likeness of a rock.

* M. D'Anville (Mémoires de l'Acad. tom. xxxii. pp. 513-528) illustrates the Gulf of Anubracia; but he cannot ascertain the situation of Dodona. A. country in sight of Italy is less known than the wilds of America.”

* On the site of Dodoma compare Walpole's Travels in the East, vol. ii. p. 473; Col. Leake's Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 168; and a dissertation by the Fo boop of Lichfield (Dr. Butler) in the appendix to Hughes's Travels, vol.

... p. 511.-M

f This is a singular mistake. Procopius calls him egxaroyipos. Gibbon must have hastily caught at his inexperience, and concluded that it must have been from youth. Lord Mahon has pointed out this error, p. 401. I should add that in the last 4to, edition, corrected by Gibbon, it stands “want of youth and experience ; ”—but Gibbon can scarcely have intended such a phrase.—M.

26 See the acts of Germanus in the public (Vandal. 1. ii. c. 16, 17, 18, Goth. 1. iii c. 31. 32) and private listory (Anecdot. c. 5), and those of his son Justin, in Agathias (l. iv. p. 130, 131). Notwithstanding an ambiguous expression of Jor. to: fratri Suo, Alemannus has proved that he was the son of the emperor's rother. * Conjuncta Aniciorum gens cum Amalá stirpe spem adhuc utriusque gene: †." (Jormandes, c. 60, p. 703). He wrote at Ravenna before the death

* See note 31, p. 618.-M.

* The third book of Procopius is terminated by the death of Germanus (Add. 1. iv. o. 23, 24, 25, 26).

-9 Procopius relates the whole series of this second Gothic war and the victory of Narses (l. iv. c. 21, 26–35). A splendid scene !. Among the six subjects of epic

etry which Tasso revolved in his mind, he hesitated between the conquests of ł. }} Belisarius and by Narses (Hayley’s Works, vol. iv. p. 70)

3) The country of Narses is unknown, since he must not be confounded with the Persarmenian.* Procopius styles him (Goth. l. ii. c. 13) Bag watków xomu drov railt as : Paul Warnefrid (l. ii. c. 3. p. 776), Chartularius : Marcellinus adds the name of Cubicularius. In an inscription on the Salarian bridge he is entitled Exconsul, Fox-praepositus, Cubiculi Patricius (Mascou, Hist. of the Germans, 1. xiii. c. 25). The law of Theodosius against eunuchs was obsolete or abolished (Annotoo *::) o foolish prophecy of the Romans subsisted in full vigor (Procop. l. iv. c. 21).

M Lord Mahon supposes them both to have been Persarmenians. Note, p. 256. 31 Paul Warnefrid, the Lombard, records with complacency the succor, service, and honorable dismission of his countrymen—reipublicae Romanae adversus aemulos adjutores fuerant (1. ii. c. i. p. 774, edit. Grot.). I am surprised that Alboin, their martial king, did not lead his subjects in person.*

* He was, if not an impostor, the son of the blind Zames, sayed by compassion, and educated in the Byzantine court by the various motives of policy, pride, and generosity (Procop. Persic. l. i. c 23).

*The Lombards were still at war with the Gepidae. See Procop. Goth. lib. iv. p. 25.—M. + Gibbon has blindly followed the translation of Maltretus: Bis mille dueentos —while the original Greek says expressly Tevrakoorious re kai Staxoxtovs (Goth. lib. iv. c. 26). In like manner (p. 266), he draws volunteers from Germany, on the authority of Cousin, who, in one place, has mistaken Germanus for Germania. Yet only a few Po. further we find Gibbon loudly condemning the French and Latin readers of Procopius. Iord Mahon, p. 403. The first of these errors remains uncorrected in the new edition of the Byzantines.—M.

* In the time of Augustus, and in the middle ages, the whole waste from floor to Ravenna was covered with woods, lakes, and morasses. Man has subdued nature, and the land has been cultivated, since the waters are confined and embanked. See the learned researches of Muratori (Antiquitat. Italiae Medii Aevi, tom. i. dissert. xxi. pp. 253,254), from Vitruvius, Strabo, Herodian, old charters, and local knowledge.

* The Flaminian way, as it is corrected from the Itineraries, and the best modern maps, by D'Anville (Analyse de l’Italie, pp. 147-162), may be thus stated :. RQME, to Narni, 51, Roman miles; Terni, 57; Spoleto, 75; Foligno. 88; Nocera, 193; Cagli, 142;. Intercisa, 157; Fossombrone, 160; Fano, 176; Pesaro, 184; Ri. MINI.208−about 189 English miles. He takes no notice of the death of Totila; but Wesseling (Itinerar. p. 614) exchanges, for the field of Tagings, tue unknowl; appellation of Ptanias, eight miles from Nocera.

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