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rcsolute and hardy race of men, bat of his conquests ; menaced by extremely attached to the family of variety of unfavourable circumstanAustria; of whom they 'had 'forces, against which vigorous exercenturies continued the faithful and tions were required without delay. / affectionate subjects.

The distance at which the forces Buonaparte did not, however, de- of the French were at this time, spair to make an inpression upon from several districts, known by the them in his favour, through the me- name of Imperial Fiefs, and situated dium of those addreffis, of which lie on the borders of Piedmont, Genoa, he had experienced the efficacy on and Tuscany, had emboldened the other occasions. On the fourteenth people there, who were in the inof June he published a manifesto, terest of the emperor, to act a very wherein he informed them, that he hostile part against the French ; they intended to march through their attacked their convoys, intercepted country, in order to force the em- the communication with Buonaperor to come into terms of peace parte's army, and killed his couriers. with the French, who desireď a Sucli were the complaints and repretermination of the war, not only sentations of the French. In order for themselves, but for the benefit to put a stop to those proceedings, of all Europe, so long harrassed and which were secretly. countenanced desolated throug!ı the ambition of by those numerous enemies of the the Imperial family; for which alone French, who did not dare to avow the people of its dominions were themselves, Buonaparte was obliged involved in the horrors of war, as to dispatch large detachments from well as the people of France. The the main body of his forces, to reFrench, he told them, bore no hatred press them. This was the very end to the inhabitants of Germany, but proposed by those insurrections, butsolely to their ambitious sovereigns, the celerity with which he acted, and felt the fincerest sentiments of quickly effected their suppreslion: good will and fraternity for their the insurgents were compelled to oppressed subjects. He invited them, submit, and deliver up their arms therefore, in the name of the French, and hostages for their obedience. to receive their army with hospi. Heavy fines were imposed upon tality, and abstain from all hoftili.. them, and ordinances iflued; a reties; promising the strictest honour fulal to comply with which, was and, punctuality, in all dealings made punishable with military exeand transactions with trem, but ad. cution.' monishing them, at the same time, The motive that led to this sethat if compelled to have recourse verity, was the determination to to their arms, the French woull, proceed, without the danger of behowever, unwillingly, prove as ter- ing recalled by new commotions, ‘rible to them, as they had unvaria- in the plan of extending, through the bly done to all their other enemies. noft diftant parts of Italy, an un

But while he was preparing to resisting subjugation to the dictates follow up this manifesto, by march- of France. Rome and Naples were ing his army into the Tyrol, he was the two states againft. which Buona*called away by the indispensible ne- parte was intending to act. The eeflity of providing for the security enmity of both to the French was

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endeniable. The inability of the cesity with the best grace in the Pope to resist them was an addi- world. He dilch urged bis fubjects tional motive to invade his terri- from molesting, and even from reviLories ? Ferrara, Bologna, and Ur. ling the French. He exhorted them bino, all cities of importance, were

to use them well, and even to pray talen possession of, and Rome itself for them. In former ages, the

popes has threatened.

were wont molt bitterty to curle The partisans of the French in even their own spiritual fons, when Itals, and elsewhere, exprefled open they thewed any degree of a refatisfaction at their conduct towards fractory spirit. The piety of the the Roman see. The disreputable church, fmothered by wealth and means by which it had risen to power, appeared to be revived with power, and acquired the territories perfecution. The Chriftians seemed composing its fovereignty, were not to return to the principles of,“ lovforgotten. The arrogance of its ing their enemies, blessing thole pretensions, and the daily diminu- that cursed them, doing goud to tion of the reverence and veneration thole that hated them, and praying which it formerly commanded, joint- for (hole who despitefully uled and ly induced people to view its hu- persecuted them.” Had the pope miliation with pleasure. Conscious with the Romilh clergy been fincere of these sentiments in the generality, in fuch profeflions of humility and Buonaparte felt the less scruple in benevolence, and credit been given the severity of his transactions with to such professions, the church might the court of Rome, with which it hare Iprung, like a phenix, from its seems he had determined to keep no own alhes, and the tide of affairs. measures ; commissioned doubtless been turned: but, without inquiring by the government of France to act too minutely into the piety of the in this rigorous manner.

pope, we must commend his priTerrified at this invasion of his dence, in advising the Romanis to dominions, and totally unable to give up a part of their wealth, rarelif it, the pope was reduced to ther than the whole. His holiness the necessity of suing for an armi- was a more prudent man than the ftice, which was granted to him, Roman knight Nonius, who was on conditions fimilar to those on put to death by Tiberius, for rewhich the dukes of Parma and Mo- fuling to part with a very exquidena had obtained it: to which site and precious piece of fculpture. was added, the surrender of the All perfons impritoned for their opi. cities of Bologna, Ferrara, and the nions were now to be set at liberty; citadel of Ancona, with the terri- tlie ports of the ecclefiaftical fate 10 tories of the two former, and a be open to the Frencin, and thut to larger proportion of pictures and their enemies, and a free parlage alftatues, and some hundreds of the lowed to the French troops through most curious manuscripts from the the papal territories. This arm lice Vatican library. The pope, with was signed on the twenty-third of a refignation more becoming the June : but the directory: thongh head of the church, than to many willing to negociate 'a. peace with of the ambitious and daring actions the pontiff, reiulet to receive the of his predecellors, yielded to ne- ininitters he had feni to Paris for

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that purpole, on account of their of the French, and the terror of being ecclesiastics, a profession of his arms, he was equally careful to which they had declared to admit impress the Italians with favourable no members in the quality of ne- opinions of his inclination to progociators.

mote their general welfare, and A suspension of arms had already equally of his respect for learning been concluded with the king of and literary men. This, he knew, Naples, on terms of more equality. would exhibit an advantageous conThe multiplicity of operations, un- trast of the respective dispositions of dertaken by the French, did not the French and the Austrians, in matpermit them to exert the like seve- ters of this nature. The neglect and rity with a prince who was so much indifference of these latter, for the more able to oppose them.

polite arts and sciences, and their In the mean time, the resolution profesors, had long been well known, taken by the directory, to exclude and it was a part of Buonaparte's the English from an access to any policy, by displaying his partiality part to which it could barr their to characters of this description, to entrance prompted them to direct conciliate their esteem, and secure their general to fieze on the port their prepossession in his favour. of Leghorn, on pretence of the flag To this intent he had taken with of France having been infulted there, him, to Italy, feveral eminent literati and the French merchants illtreated, from France. They were the comin violation of the rights of neu- panions of his private hours, and strality. On the twenty-eighth of were looked upon as a credit to his June, a detachment of Buonaparte's expedition : with them he consulted army took possession of this place. in what manner he could make it The English merchants, however, redound to the benefit of letters and being apprised of his intentions, had philosophical knowledge. fufficient time to remove their pro- The cultivators of learning in perty on board their tips in the Italy, to whom he was represented harbour, and very little was seized in this advantageous light, could not by the French.

fail to conceive amicable ideas of The seizure of Leghorn was ac- him, and he was particularly folicompanied by the reduction of the citous to improve them. An opporcastle of Milan : this celebrated tunity offered, on the reduction of fortress, surrendered to them on the Milan, where he requested an inlast day of June. The garrison, con- terview with the celebrated astrofisting of more than two thousand nomer Oriane, in order to testify men, convinced of the impossibility his respect, and that of the French of making any effectual refiftance, nation, for his extraordinary merit. yielded themselves prisoners of war. In a letter, written to him on this "One hundred and fifty pieces of occasion, and addresled, through cannon, with an immense quantity hiin, to all the Italian literati, Buon ofammunition and stores, were taken naparte exerted his perfuafive talents here by the French.

to convince him and them of the During these various transactions, predaliction with which the rulers while Buonaparte was occupied in of France regarded all individuals extending through Italy the empire of his characlar, and how zealous

they

they were in the protection and en- his confidence and intimacy, did couragement of polite knowledge more in conciliating the people, who and the liberal arts, and desirous had submitted to him, than the to afford them the most generous dread of his power ; the clergy and and honourable countenance and the nobility excepted: to the very support. " All men of genius," said existence of which orders the French the letter, "all those who have ob- fystein was immediately inimical : tuiired a diftinguished rank in the the other clafles beheld in the French sepublic of letters, are Frenchmen, a' nation of warriors, who seemed in whatever country they may have to have taken up arins for the purbeen borne. The learned in Italy, pose of reducing all other nations to esteemed themlelves happy, if left a level of opinion and government unmolested by princes and prieits : with themselves, and to harbour no but henceforth, opinions thall be enmity but to hereditary fovereigns, free, and the inquifition, intole- and the adherents to iniplicit obedirance, and despotilm, be no more. ence in matters of church and I invite,” he contined, “ the learned state. to assemble, and propose their senti- To disseminate such a disposition in ments on the means necellary to be the generality was the chief aim of taken, and the assistance they may the French general, well knowing require, to give new life and ex- that, on such a ground, he would be istence to the sciences and the fine able to erect a more durable fabric arts.”

of that republicanism he had in He addressed the university of view, than on the military power he Pavia in the same style, and took pe- had established, and which, without caliar pains to impress on the minds those concomitances that he held of the public, that the French were out to the natives, would have been folicitous to place the people of odious to them, and have presented Italy on the same footing with no other picture than that of conthemselves, in whatever related to quest and tyranny. the liberty of thinking, and would In this court,' that was paid by feel more satisfaction in acquiring the French general to men of letters their efteem and their approbation andgenius, we contemplate a policy, of the proceedings of the French not less folid than fublime. It is government, and of the political from the opinions and spirit of maxims on which it acted, than in the truly learned and intelligent, the submission enforced by their that public fpirit in all nations victorious arms. The conquefts fooner or later derive their complexobtained over the human mind, ion with their origin. The class being of far greater importance to too that would he hattered by this men who knew the difficulty of ob. address was more numerous by far, taining them, and the utility which than it will be very easy to imagine: they produced, than victories won fo great a portion of mankind being by the sword, and empire maintained so highly fatisfied with their own through terror

talents and accomplishments. The Language of this kind, which professions of Buonaparte, however, was inceliantly in the mouth of but ill accorded with his actions. the French general, and of those in The'whole of his conduct indicated

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that his main design was, to establishposed a much more formidable the power and influence of the strength than that under Buo: aparte. French in Italy. At Milan he But the confidence he placed in the formed the plan of a republic on Valour of his men, and that which the model of that of France, and to they reposed in his superior genius be under her protectien, in the fame and skill, seemed, in the opimon of manner as the victorious and am- the public, to stand him in the stead bitious Romans admitted the con-. of numbers. quered fiates to the alliances and The palles into the Tyrol were friend!hip of the fenate and people guarded by works extending from of Ronie: thus endeavouring to the Lake tif Garda to the river, subvert the authority of the empe- Adige. Here the Imperial comror, and to erect that of France on mander, newly arrived, posted its ruins, by abolifhing feudal rights, himself: but the French generals and giving the great mass of the peo- Maslena, and Joubert, at the head of ple a share and an interest in the a select body, broke into his lines, new government. He fortified by turning his right and left: they Verona, notwithstanding the recla- feized his baggage and standing mations of the Venetians; and placed camp, and forced him to retreat general officers, in whom he could with the utmosi precipitation. This confide, over the Tuscan troops, as happened towards the clole of June, well as over those of Piedmont and The first engagement, between Milan. The intentions of the Wurmfer and the French, wonld French were still less concealed at probably have been followed with Paris; where those who bore sway, worse consequences to him, had not at the same time that they proselled an insurrection taken place in a city a delire to fraternize with all na- of the ecclefiaftical state, which obtions, talked of nothing but the structed for a while their iutended extension of their arms, and of operations. The inhabitants of the Paris becoming the capital of Eu- city and diftrict of Ligo, incited by sope. They boasted of the ge- the complaints of their clergy, and nerous design of giving peace and others who lore heavily the French tranquillity to all nations under the yoke, cook uparms, as tiey exprelled protection of the French republic. themselves, in defence of their

In the mean time, Buonaparte was faints, and their lawful sovereign, the preparing to meet the new general pope.

A finall detachment was appointed to take the command of sent to quell them, but they forced the Imperial forces that were march- it to retire, after killing some men, ing to the protection of the Tyrol. the heads of two of whom, accordThe situation of the French at this wing to the French accounts, they experiod was extremely critical: they posed at the town house of Lugo. had lubdued an exiensive range of The French general, who was tent country; to preserve which they with a fufficient force to reduce had been obliged to detch con- thien, employed admonitions and fiderable numbers from their main threats to that purpole: but they body. The renains of Beaulieu's fet him at detiance, and made a army, and the reinforcements ar- desperate resistance: upwards of a siving with marshal Wurmser, come thouland of them were killed and

wounded,

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