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wounded, and the city taken and and Verona on the other, which the delivered up to the troops for pil- French were compelled to abandon, lage during three hours. A procla- was moving with the division under mation was then illued, ordering all his command towards Buonaparte, arins to be furrendered, on pain of while the other was advancing with death to those who retained them; all expedition to place the French and threatening to set fire to places between two fires. where Fornchmen should be mur- Conscious that his strength was dered. The recluction of Lugo took not equal to an encounter with the place on the fixth of July.
Auftrian general's united divifions, Marua was, in the mean time, Buonaparte came to the determinaclor , betieged, and hard presled. tion to attack them tgly before Ti garrilon made several vigorous they could form a junction. This, fal.ies, bu: Buonaparte, who had by indeed, seemed the only expedient this time collected, from the many left to extricate bim from bis present ftrong wri he had taken, a nume. danger. It was not, however, To us und fimidable artillery, gave wi hout the deepeit concern, that no refpe to the besieged, and con
he law himalt reduced to the nefiandy repelle i them. He erected cellity of abandoning the firge of haiteries for the ring red hot balls, Mantua, now almost deftitute of and several parts of the city were provifions, and on the point of lurin flames: but the governor was re- rendering: folved to hold out to the last ex- He raifed it on the thirtieth of tremity, and refused to listen to the July, and, in pursuit of his plaii, fummons to Surrender.
marched with all expeditio Powerful reinforcements having Brescia, where he joined the dijoined marshal Wurmfer, since the visions of his army. They hadi check he had received in the moun- gained several advantagi's over the tains of the Tyrol, he re'olved to re- Austrians, particularly ai Lonado, a pair this by railing the siege of Man- town which ibere had seized, but tua; by effecting which he would at from which they here appelled, once undo all that had been done by after being completely defeai ze in · Buonaparte Animated with this an eng gi-ment, the lali oi july, hope, lie allailed the French at Salo, wherein they lost great nuinbers. on the western side of the Lake of From Brelcia, where the Auftri. Garda, and at Corona on the east. ans were again totally routed, on the He had the good fortune to dislodge first of Auguit
, they withdrew in dithem on the twenty-ninth of July, order towards the Tyrol, where they from both of these positions: those took refuge in the mountains. On at Salo retired to Peschiera, and the third, marthal Wurmler, who, apthose at Corona to the city of prised of the ill fortune tha: had 3:Verona.
tended bis other dirihou, hd ada Buonaparte, who perceived the vavced with all Ipeed to its alliance, crit calness of his lituation, allembled came up with Buonaparte, in ein all his forces to oppole the Austrian pecting bin, was prepared for bottles general, who, after seizing Brescia, The Austrians bad fome advanla e in consequence of the capture of at first, through the ralli impoteolity Salo, on the one side the lake, of an advanced corps on hull,
ANNUAL REGISTER, 1796. which was surrounded and taken; gerous and difficult part of the but the centre, forming into a com- business still remained to be de. pact body, charged them with such cided. vigour, that they soon gave way,
He collelled the whole of his and were broken on every side. À force, and made the most advantagedivision of them endeavoured to ous arrangements to meet the ene. make good its retreat to Salo: but my, whote attack he hourly exthat place was already occupied by peeled. He visited every poft, in the left wing of the French, and order to ascertain the numbers that this division, in attempting to gain could be spared to reinforce his the mountains, towards the Tyrol, main body. - Repairing for this purfell mostly into the hands of the pole to Lonado, he found it occu. French. General Augereau, who pied by no more than twelve huncommanded the right wing, atlailed drod of his troops, while a division the left of the Austrians, pofted at of the Austrians, consisting of four Castigliona. Here a furious fight thousand men, had encompafled was maintained the whole day be- it, and lent an officer to fummon the tween both parties. The French French to surrender. Buonaparte at length prevailed, and the Austri- concluding, from certain circum. ans sustained an entire defeat. Be- stances, that this body of Auftrians tween two and three thousand fell belonged to the defeated part of in the field, and about four thoufand their army, and was endcarouring to were made prisoners, among whom make good its retreat; with remarkwere three generals. The French able presence of mind, told the offialso lost a considerable number, and cer, that he was mistaken in thinksome officers of great note
ing that he had met only with a de. On the fourth, a division of the tachment of the French army, the French attacked a large body of main body of which was there with Austrians, who were posted at Buonaparte himself, who now spoke Gavardo, towards the western side to him, and required him immediof the lake. The conflict was warm, ately to return to his general
, and rebut the Austrians were again worst- quire that he should surrender ined, with the loss of near two thou- ftantly. The commander of the
Auftrians, struck with aftonishment, Notwithstanding the successes of requested a parley to settle conthe third and fourth, Buonaparte was ditions. But Buonaparte, aware of not yet assured of a fortunate termi- the danger attending the least delay, nation of this obstinate dispute. infifted that they fhould directly surMarshal Wurmser had drawn toge- render themselves prisoners of war, ther all the troops that could be ral. On their still demanding time to conlied, to which he added a part of sider, Buonaparte gave orders for a the garrison of Mantua, now re- body of chosen grenadiers and art lieved from the fiege, and every tillery to advance against them. This other corps within reach. When decided the matter, and they all assembled, they formed an army laid down their arms, without atformidable enough to renew the tempting to make the least resistance. contest with Buonaparte, who was Escaped from this imminent perit, fully convinced that the most dan. in lo extraordinary a manner; the 3
French general determined to lose amounted to seventy pieces of canno time in bringing the contest to a non, all the carriages belonging to final issue. Feigning to be desirous his army, more than twelve thouof avoiding an engagement with fand prifoner's, and fix thousand Wurmfer, he ordered a retrogade lain. motion to be made by his army, in But the principal loss was that of order to induce him the more rea- reputation. The troops thus beaten dily to advance. This order was wore chiefly veterans. Those who executed on the morning of the fifth, came with Wurmler were deemed with fuch dexterity, that while the the flower of the Austrian army, Austrian general, deceived by ap- that had so obftinately contended pearances, was approaching the with the best troops of France upon French army to attack it, the the Rhine. Wurmser himself was right wing of the French, under reputed an officer fecond to no one general Serranier, an officer of great in the Imperial service, nor indeed ability, turned the left of the Austri- in Europe, for valour, fkill, and exans, and affailed its rear, while any perience, and was in a manner the ther division attacked a redoubt in last hope of Austria, for the reçoits front. The left of the French, very of Italy, in like manner, moved with unex- All there were circumstances pected rapidity against the right of deeply mortifying to the court of the Auftrians, and their centre was Vienna, and proportionably procharged at the same time with such ductive of triumph and exultation, impetuosity and vigour, that, für- to the French 'republicans,
and prised at movements so contrary to their well-wishers. their expectation, they were in a man- The first intelligence of marsal ner taken unawares. They made, Wurmser's marching against Buonahowever, a resolute defence, but parte, at the head of lo selected an fortune declared for the French. ariny, had revived the expectations The Austrians were thrown into of all the enemies to France, and confusion; and, notwithstanding not a little alarmed the directory itthe skilful dispositions of Wurunler, self. But those who were able were not able to stand their ground. judges of the military talents of They retired with all expedition, Buonaparte, never felt a moment's after losing two thousand men, despondency, and it is but justice to and would certainly have lost many acknowledge that he fully answered more, had not the French, from the their utmolt expectations. Throughexcessive fatigue of so many suc- out the whole course of this arduous cessive conflicts, been disabled from trial, his abilities astonished both a pursuit.
friends and foes. Surrounded by This victory was comp'etely de- difficulties of every fort, he acted cifive of the contest between these with a clearness of penetration that two rival generals. The battle foresaw and obviated them all. He might be said to have lasted five removed impediments as fast as they days, as there was no intermission arose, and took his measures with lo of fighting during that time. The much prudence and sagacity, that he lofses of the Auftrians, precluded could not be charged with having all hopes of keeping the field. They committed one falle Atep. His body
and and his mind appeared reciprocally occupied the strong line alung the calculated for the support of each Mincio, and a fortified camp before other. Both were incesantly em- Peschiera. But the French aitacked ployed, the one in planning, the them on the fixth, forced their camp other in personally forwarding every and lines, and compelled them to defign that was conceived. Such withdraw to the other side of the were the indefatigable qualities with Mincio, with a great loss of men which nature had endowed him, that and cannon. They pursued them while his thoughts were uninter- to Verona, where the Auftrians, ruptedly on the stretch, he allowed through the connivance of the Vehimself no kind of repose ; and, dur- netians, endeavoured to make a ing the last seven days and nights of stand: but they were driven from this dreadful contest, he was never this city, and fled in disorder to known to have laid himlelf down to wards the Tyrol. This action comrest.
pleted their route, and the garrison Notwithstanding this terrible de- of. Mantua excepted, no Autirian feat, the Austrian general, though troops remained in Italy on the pnable to keep the open field, still louthern side of the Adige
CH A P. VIII.
Italian Mobs excited again the French.-Suppreljed by a Terror of the sidorious French.--Mar/hal Wurmfer, pursued by Buonaparte, retreats into the Tyroleje.-The Siege of Mantua resumed.-Marshal Wurmfer, pozeerfully reinforced, makes Head against the French in the Venetian Territories.—But is defeated. The French take Pofleffion of Trent. Continued Success of Buonaparte.--Marthal IV urmser, with the Remains of his Army, makes good his Retreat, and takes Shelter within the Walls of Mantua. -Corfica, eracuated by the English, returns under the Government of France. — Pacification letueen France and Naples—including the Batavian Republic.- Religious Zeal of the Romans.-Awakened by the Court of Rome into rage, and avowed Preparations for War against the French.-A nere Republic, composed of several small States.- Prevalence of the Republican Spirit in Italy.--The Aufirians reinforced with Troops from Germany, advance agains the French.-Retake Trent.--But are defeated with prodigious Lofs at Arcola.--The Aufirians, though frequently defeated, return to the Charge.- High Spirit and Courage of the Tyrolians. - Devotion of the Army in Italy to the French Republic. Palience of the French Soldiers under manifold Privations.
(HILE the fate of the Im- ful governments and to destroy re
perial and the French armies remained in suspence, the par- The superstitious imbecility, for tisans of Austria, preluming that which the Italian commonalty is they would recover all their lolles, noted, was easily worked upon by began to act in the most hottile man- initigations of this nature. Mobs ner to all who were friendly to rose in some places, and maltreated the French. Falligintelligence was the French and their adherents. But every where circulated, and the re- the more prudent opposed this rasa publican army represented as van- behaviour, and the generality of quished and Aving before the Auf people did not participate in these trians. The intervention of heaven demonftrations of enmity. Numwas called in, and its aid held out bers, at the same time, who were as certain, in the expulfion of the decidedly in their favour, had the iniquitous invaders, as they were courage cpenly to espouse their fyled, fent by France to destroy law- caufc, even when the Audrians had