lity proposed to withdraw the coun. situated on the Baltic, among which try from the supremacy of Poland, are Libau and Vindau : the firit a and to put it under that of Ruffia. Aourishing and commercial city; the

The principle members of the grand second, likely to become one day the council made a faint opposition to fation of the Ruffian fleets. The this alteration, by obferving, that, port of Vindau, which is never obbefore they proceeded to a refo- ftructed by ice, by a little improve lution, it would be expedient to ment, might be rendered capable wait the return of the duke. The of containing a hundred thips of Oberburgraff Hoven rose up, and the line. spoke a long time in favour of Rof At the same time that she quietly fa. Sonie counsellors expressed usurped the fovereignty of Court themselves of his opinion, and others land, she sent out her arms against reproached them with treafon. The Persia. Under pretence of defenddispute grew warm on both sides; ing Lof-Ali-Khan, of the race of challenges were reciprocally given, the Sophis, the aimed at the poland swords were about to be drawn, feflion of the Perfian provinces, when the Ruslian general, Paklen, which border on the Caspian. Vat appearei in the assembly. His pre- lerian Zuboff, at the head of a numefence restored tranquillity. No one Tous army, penetrated into the propresumed to raise his voice against vince of Daghefian, and advanced Ruslia; and the propofal of the, to lay fiege to Derbent. His firft nobles was adopted. The next day' attack was directed againf a high the act was drawn up, by which tower, which defended the place; Conrland, Semigallia, and the circle and, after having made himlelf of Pilten, made a formal surrender master of it, and put the whole of themselves to the empress of Ruf- garrison to the sword, he was prefa; and it was carried to Peterf- paring to make an assault upon the burgh, where the duke of Cour. town. The Persians, intiniidated land learnt, from the mouth of his by former succesies, and the impe: own subjects, that they themselves tuofity of the Ruilians, cried out had deprived him of his dominions. for quarter; and the commandant, The empress immediately fent a go- a venerable old man, of the amazing vernor thither.

age of one hundred and twenty However some discontent remain- years, and the same who, at the ed in Courland: discontent brought commencement of the prefent cenon profcription; and the posieshons tury, had surrendered Debent to of the proferibed were given to the Peter I. came now to deliver the courtiers of Catharine. The fa- keys to Valerian Zuboff. vourite, Plato Zuboff, and his bro- Aga Mahmed was advancing ther, Valerian, obtained a great part with succours to the relief of Derof those rich and shameful ipoils. bent, when he heard that the place

The acquisition of Courland to was already in the hands of the Russia was of great importance. It Russians. Valerian Zuboff came produces much corn, as well as tim- forth from the place to offer him ber: in both of which articles it battle, in which victory declared carries on a great commerce; and for the Persians, who forced their it has several ports advantageously enemies to return into Derbent.


Catharine, being informed of this, successfal: in all her regulations, immediately gave orders for a bowly for the internal government of her of troups, which the lad in the Ku-, mighty empire, there appeared that ban, to go and reinforce the army benevolence, which, for the honour of Valerian Zuboff, not doubting of human nature, is usually found that her general would very foon in conjunction with fubliinity of give a total defeat to Aga Mah- genius. She willed, loon after her med. She also flattered herlelf with acceflion to the throne, to introthe hopes of obtaining a greater tri- duce civil liberty among the great umrb. The new treaty, which the mass of tlie people, by the emana had just concluded with Great Bri- cipation of the peasantry. It was tain, and with Austria, secured to her found impracticable to emancipate the aflifiance of those two powers their bodies without enlightening against Turkey. In a word, fie their minds. To this object the Low reckoned on the full accom- bent the powers of her inventive, plis ment of her darling project, though prudent, genius. Schools of driving the Ottomans ont of Ed- were initituted in all parts of her rope, and of reigning in Constan- dominions, and a way was opened tiruple. But the laddenly frihed, for the love of her subjects to by an caly death, the career of a liberty, by certain privileges, within Ijilendid life, in the sixty-seventh the tropa of incuitry and merit, year of her age, and thirty-fixth of The code of laws, drawn up by her reign. Sie died at Petersburgh, her own haud. was never exceeded of an apoplexy, on the tenth ot in point ether of fagacity or good. November; on which hier fon, the nels: for, we are always to bear great duke, Paul Petrowitz, was pro. in mind, that even Snon found it

expedient not to didate the belt · Catharine was the most illus- laws, but the best that the people, trious sovereign, after the exit of for whom he diciated, were capable Frederick the great, king of Prul- of beaning. Her military plans pare fia, on the theatre of Europe, for took of the strength of fimplicity. comprehension of mind, lofty am- She did not feel the same of war bition, courage, and perseverance to no purpose,' by throwing in, as in her designs, and the general it were, fagot after laygot, nor, influence of her policy and arms, walle time in tedious decours, hut, in the affairs of Europe. Ller with a mighty and irretitible con ambition was not directed merely centrated force, proceeded directly to the fecurity and extension of the to her object.

to her object. She had not the empire, but to the civilization and art of appearing affable, generous, welfare of subject tribes and na- and magnanimous, but the merit tions, by the introduction, of arts, of really being so. She was not liberal and mechanical, and the only a patrones, but a great proimprovement of inanufactures and ficient, in literature; and, had not commerce: and all this, by means her life been spent in great actions, more gentle and gradual than many it would, probably, lave been enaof those employed by Peter the ployed, though with fomewhat lefs great; and, consequently, more ef- glory, in celebrating the illustrious fecual, In all her wars the was atchievements of others. It is an


claimed emperor.

invidious thing to prý, with too and hat cealed to be a furmidable inuch curiofity, into the frailties rival. It is to be considered, farof Tuch a character. The feverest ther, that had the moved fooner, critic has not been able to charge the Turks, 01 the other fide, inftiher with anything unnatural, or, in gated by French intrigues, might her predicament, and fituation, not have mored also. The Czarina easily to be forgiven. As to the ob- waited, too, unti! (ze (lonld secure scure event that led her to the throne, peace, on the most formidable fronif this had not taken place, an event tier, by a marriage between her of another kind muit have led her grand daughter and the young king first to imprisonment, and then, moft of Sweden; an object which she assuredly, to death.

had much at heart, though it was The last of her grand designs found imposible to accomplish it. was, to curb the power and info- Catharine II. bas left a name that lence of the French republic. It will ever be memorable, and rewas the policy of the empress, who membered by future generations, to detested the French republic, with whom the benefits of her instituout loving the Austrians, to let both tions will extend, with grateful an. parties exhaust themselves: deter- miration. Yet, it was the love of mied, however, whatever might glory that was her predominant be the fate of their arms, to pre- paffion; and the humane will revent either from acquiring an in- gret that the pursued this through controlled sway in Germany. Or- seas of blood : fo that he will take ders were issued for a lery of a her station in the temple of fame, hundred and fifty thousand troops, among the great, not the good destined to all, in some flape or princes; and, in this speculative other, for the relief of the em- age, add to the odium of absolute peror of Germany. It has been monarchy, by displaying the miferies questioned, whether it would not that flow from unbounded power, have been wiser policy, in lier Im- united with unbounded ambition. perial majefty, to have moved for This year also, general Washingthe aflillance of the confederates ton, the greatest of cotemporary sooner? She, perhaps, entertained men, as Catharine was of cotema persuafion, that the allies wonid porary sovereigns, resigned the preItand firm together, and make a fidency of the United States. These more' fuccessful opposition to the illustrious characters were both rerepublic. She was, no doubt, well spectively at the head of the two enough pleased to fee almost all the latest, greatest

, and most rising emother powers of Europe weaken pires in the world; both nearly of themselves by war; whilst

, at the the same age; both of equal celesame time, it must have been her brity; though not of true glory: intention, as has fince appeared, to pure and dilinterefied patriotilin beinterfere, more and more, in the ing the ruling principle in the mind general conflict, in proportion as of Washington; the patriotism of the party the detefted gair -d ground Catharine only secondary to her on a fovereign prince; who, though ambition, and fubfervient to the a neighbour, and ancient enemy, love of fanie. General Washington yet poflefed a hereditary throne, having rescued his country from the 10


mppreffion of the English govern- most ardent prayers for the prospement, and restored it, by a commer- rity and peace of America. There rial treaty, in spite of France, and is nothing in profane history to which almost in spite of itself, to an ani- his parting address to the states can cable connection with the Englista ' be compared. In our facred Scrip nation, voluntarily retired from tures alone we find a parallel in that power, after giving the most pro- recapitulation of divine inftructions bound instruction and advice respect- and commands which the legislator ing union, virtue, liberty, and hap- of the Jews made in the hearing pines: between all of which there of Ifrael, when they were about to was a close couneâion, with the pass the Jordan.*

It In his address to congress, on the seventh of December, 1796, having given an account of the atuation of the United States, in relation to foreign powers, and strongly recommended the creation of a navy, he directs the attention of congress 10 the encou. rajonent of manufactures, agriculture, a national university, and also a military acade11. His sentiments, on these subjects, are those of an enlightened and philosophical statesman.

" I have heretofore proposed to the confideration of congress, the expediency of establishing a national univerfity, and also a military acadeiny. Tlie detir blencis of hota these institutions has fo constantly increased with every new view I have taken of the labject, that I cannot omic the opportunity of, once for all, recalling your attentio.1 to tiem.

* The assembly to which I address myself, is too enlightened not to be fully sensible how much a flourishing ftate of the artsand sciences contributes to national prosperity and reputation. True it is, that our country, much to iis honour, contains many femiparies of learning, highly respectable and ulcful; but, the funds, upon which they reit, are too narrow to command the ableit profefTors in the different departments of theral knowledge, for the institution contemplated, though they would be excellent auxiliaries.

** Among the motives to such an institution, the assimilation of the principles, opi. nions, and manners of our countrymen, by the common education of a portion of our youth, from every quarter, well deferves attention. The more liomo teneous our citizens can be niade, in these particulars, the greater will be our prospect of a permanent union; and a primary ołject of all such a national institution, should be tre education of our youth in the science of government. In a republic, wiat ipecies of knowledge can be equally important ? and what duty more prefing on its lagiature, than to patronize a plan for communicating it to those who are to be the fuiure guardians of thie liberties of the country?

" The institution of a military academy, is also recommended by cogent reasons. However pacific measures may contribute to the general policy of a nation may be, it orgie never to be without an adequate stock of military knowledke, on emers encies. That firit would impair the energy of its character, and both would hazard its safety or expose it to greater evils when war could not be avoided : besides, that war might not often depend upon its own choice.

" In proportion as the observance of pacific maxims might exempt a nation from the necesity of pradifing the rules of the mil tary art, these ought to be its care in preserving, and tranfinitting, by proper establishments, the knowledge of that art. Whatever argument may be drawn from particular examples, fuperficially viewed, a thorough examination of the subject will evince, that the art demands much previous lludy, and that the poffe (Tion of it, in its most improved and perfect state, is al vays of great moment to the security of a nation. This, therefore, ought to be a serious care of Every government; and, tor this purpose, an academy, where a rezuiar course of inItricton is given, is an obvioug expedient, which different nations have fucc:fefully employed."

Concral woudd

It has often happened, nay it the moft brilliant talents and verhas most frequently happened, that tues, in politicians and warriors,


General Washington, in September (1796), published a little piece, entitled " Letter from G=neral Washington, on his Relignation of the Office of President of the United States.” This letter, written by the father and saviour of his country to his countrymen, on an occation when his heart was wania, and open, and the tenor and grand object of his life in his full recollection, paints the man in juster and livelier colours than any thing we can record. He begs the people of the United States to be assured, that his resolution to resign the presidency had not teen taken without a ftrict regard appertaining to the reiations which bind a dutiful citizen to his country; and that, in withdrawing the tender of service, which filence, in his situation, might imply, he was infuenced by no diminution of zeal for their future interests ; no deticiency of gratitude for their pait kindness; but was lupported by a full conviction, that the dep was compatible with both. Having mentioned the motive, that induced him to accept and continue in the high cffice, to which their fuffrages had twice called him, and those which had urged him to lay it down, he says, “ In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permits me to fufpend the deep acknowledgement of that debt of gratitude which towe to my beloved country, for the many honours it has conferred upon me; still nore, for the fied. fast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have then enjoyed, of 'maniterting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and períevering, though in usefulness unequal to iny zeal. If benefits have refilted to our country from these services, let it always be iemembered to your praise, and as an initructive example in our annals, that undurcircumstances in which the pallions, agitated in every direction, liable to mislead; amidit appearances, rom times dubio::s; vicifTitudes of forcane, oiten discouraging ; in fitiations in which not untrequentiy, want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the effential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans, by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I fall carry it with me to the grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows, that Heaven may continue to you the choicest tok ns of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration, in every department, may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of thefe States, under the auspicies of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and to prudent a use of this blessing, as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.

“ Here, perhaps, 1 ought to stop; but folicitude for your welfart, which cannot end but with my lito, and the apprehension oi danger, natural to that folicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your folemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, fome fentiments, which are the result of much reflection of no inconfiderable observation, and which appear to me all important to the permanency of your felicity, as a people. Thefe will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the ditinterested' warnings of a parting friends who can possibly have no personal motives to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an i encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former, and not diffimilar occation."

He recommends the love of liberty ; the unity of government to which they were powerfully invited and urged by every inducement of fympathy and intereft ; guards them against the causes by which this union may be disturbert; all ohftructions to the excution of the laws, all combinations and assiociations, under whatever plaufible 'character, with the real design to direct, controul, and counteract, or a ve regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities; the spirit of party, and all encroachments of one department of, government on another. Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispenfible supports. In vain

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