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impracticable, from the prodigious creditable and alarming: the acincrease of business in each. The counts relating to the barracks were fame objection lay to others. Never confused and erroneous; and the had the public service required reasons assigned for other measures more labour, and never indeed had were vague and unsatisfactory. more been exerted by the respec- The difference between the petive incumbents in every office. cuniary fituation of this country, in The abolition of patent places, 1783 and that in 1795, was circamanother subject of complaint, could fiantially investigated by lord Anknot be always affected with equity; and, in order to prove
the superiobut still they were in a gradual rity of our finances at the present corrse of being abolished. Re- day. The revenue was then two specting the fyftem of barracks, fo millions below the peace establishmuch reprobated; the old plan al- ment, amounting to fifteen millions, lowed them for twenty thousand but was now actually three millions men, to which the riew one had, four hundred thousand pounds above for confiderations well founded, that establishment; and, by adding added others for fifteen thousand the two millions then deficient, was more. The difficulty of a speedy in reality five millions above it. adjustment of accounts, in time of The lord chancellor, earl Spenwar, was too well known to en- cer, and lord Hawksbury, opposed large upon; but the ascertainment the motion, and it was farther supof all public expences occupied the ported by lord Moira, and lord attention of ministers to the fullest Guildford, who gave the house noextent which their magnitude tice of his intention to move an would permit, and they had not the inquiry into the state of the nation. leaft apprehenfion of being found The marquis of Lansdowne's modefective in their accounts. With tion was rejected by one hundred regard to the bank, the power and four votes against twelve. vefied in it was clearly independent The report of the committee of of minifters, and the afiittance it supply upon the resolution, for grantafforded to government was entirely ing a subsidy of two hundred thouoptional. To the other observa- fand pounds to the king of Sardinia, tions of the marquis he made such was prelented to the houle of comreplies as he thought justificatory of mons on the third of May, when it ministerial measures, and concluded was observed, by Mr. Fox, that cirby aperting, that when impartially cumstances were no longer the same - reviewed, they would meet with respecting that prince, as when that certain approbation.
subsidy was first voted. He was These answers, to the marquis of then to act against France with the Lansdowne, were, by the earl of coalition ; but it was now underI auderdale, reprelented as fallacious stood that he was about to forsake and unfounded. The immense a- it, and to make a peace with the mount of the debts, which ministry enemy. ' If luch were the case, it left unfunded, thewed their ill was proper to know whether he Tanagement and want of economy: thought himself at liberty to act in the discount given occasionally on this manner, or whether indeed he exchequer-notes was equally dif- were able to act otherwie, and mi.
nisers nifters had acceded to his defire for ought, without disguising the fact, a separate peace.
to have applied to parliament for Mr. Pitt afferted, that lately the indemnity. The house of commons king of Sardinia, in circumstances had, he said, been notoriously faulty of great difficulty, had consented to in not fetting limits to the extraora fuspension of arms with the dinaries during the American war; French, provided it were in con- and the committee appointed to junction with the emperor, but on examine and digest the public acno other terms: the emperor not counts had particularly pointed out confenting, the armistice did not the ruinous consequences of such take place. The French had, in the negligence. Mr. Pitt had cenfured mean time, offered him peace, if he it himself with peculiar severity, would make a cession of their ac- but had nevertheless been more quifitions in his country, and an al- guilty than any of his predeceflors liance with them, but he had re- in the ministry. So determined fused their offers.
was the house to put a stop to thele It was observed, by Mr. Francis, infractions of its rights, that it passed, that the motives of action with that in 1784, a resolution, that should prince would originate in the pres- parliament be dissolved before the sures he was in. His fituation re- act of appropriation had pafled, to quired him to contult the necessity misapply the money granted should of his affairs, rather than the mag- be reputed a high misdemeanour. ranimity of his difpofition ; exclu- An act had also been passed under fively of which, history had long the present minister, to obviate the thewn, that no dependance could bad consequences of balances rebe placed on the stability of the maining with the paymaster-geneprinces of the house of Savoy. Mr. ral, and to provide for the constant Pitt however being farther presled pay of the army; but this act had upon this subject, put an end to it been notoriously infringed; the payby declining to reply.
master having actually in his hands Three days after this discussion a balance of eighty-three thousand Mr. Grey brought feveral heavy pounds. Mr. Grey, after mentioncharges against ministers, and moved ing other instances of misapplicathem to be fufficient grounds of tion, adverted to the difpofitionimpeachment. They had, he said, paper, a species of voucher first violated the act of appropriation, the used in the prodigal reign of Charles main pillar of the pecuniary privi- II. and established at the revolution, leges of parliament, by diverting as an authentic document, to inform the grants of money to other pur- parliament in what manner the supposes than thofe for which they plies they had granted had been were voted, and they had endea- expended. This paper he considered 'voured to screen themselves by fpu- as a mere deception ; its contents rious accounts. He then detailed represented the lums voted by par
the particulars in proof of his ac- liament, as issued and applied conoduktion, 'adding, that if the necef- formably to its intent, which was -Aties of the times had compelled contrary to truth. This he might sther to have recourse to such me. be told was only a form ; but the --thods for procuring money, they practice was in fact directly opposite
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to the regulations enacted by the making good several millions exlegislature, in order to preferve to pended under that head ; and no itlelf the power over the national objection was ever made to the purse, against the attempts of mini- principle ittelf. He vindicated, Iters to dispose of the nation's mo- with great acuteness, the different ney at their own discretion. On parts of bis conduct in the adminithese various premises Mr. Grey Aration of the finances, and argued founded no less than fifteen resolu- with great ability against the defects tions, the last of which summing up and misconduct imputed to him. the purport of the whole, ftated, The speech of Mr. Pitt was an" that, in the instances mentioned, fwered by Mr. Fox, who enforced the king's minifters had been guilty and enlarged upon the arguments of presenting falle accounts, calcu- that had been urged by Mr. Grey. lated to mislead the judgement of Mr. Steele replied in justification of the house, of a flagrant violation of Mr. Pitt's maxims and measures, various acts of parliament, and of a and closed the debate by movmg gross misapplication of the public the previous question, which was money."
carried by two hundred and nire to The reply, made by Mr. Pitt, thirty-eight. stated, that though ministers were The tenth of May was remarkbound faithfully to appropriate the able for a motion made in each public money to the purposes. fpe- house against the continuation of cified, yet there were a multiplicity the war, and for offering terms of of cases wherein that rule could not peace. That in the houle of lords Itrictly be observed. Services, of was made by the earl of Guildford; the most critical importance, and that in the house of commons by the most imperious necessity, often Mr. Fox. The fame arguments, compelled them to deviate from the with little variation, were used by letter of the act of appropriation:: both speakers, that had so often but was that, or was any other, act to been urged in the preceding atstand in the way of ma erial services tempts of this nature, and met of due to the nation by those who were course with much the same answers. entrusted with its safety and pre- The only matter of novelty was, the servation. These deviations were construction put on Mr. Wickham's founded on wise precedents, and commiflion, to inform Mr. Barthelesanctioned as just, by long and re- my, the French minister at Bafle, peated experience. Extraordinaries of the disposition on the part of this were the inevitable attendants of country, to enter into a negociation war, especially such an one as the for peace, and that minister's reply present, which requiring unprece- to the British agent. Oppolition dented exertions, juftified unpre- treated the application of the cedented methods of conducting it. former as far from calculated to Mr. Pitt adduced a number of facts conciliate the French, while minito prove that he had acted conform Atry afferted that it was fully fufably to the practice authorised in ficient to induce them to treat, former wars, The very act of ap- had they been fincerely difposed to propriation, he said, evinced the meet us, on equitable ferm. This propriety of extraordinaries, by particular constituted the principal 8
object of debate, and exercised the ties, and almost verging to ruin; abilities of both ministry and op- and the other describing it as full polition : bat after a long and ani- of opulence and resources of every mated contest, the motion was ne- denomination, and able, with pro gatired in the house of lords, by one per management, to encounter and bundred and ten against ten ; and, surmount every obstacle, and to in the house of commons, by two fourish with more luftre than ever. bundred and fixteen against forty- Such were the most material two.
transactions of parliament during A repetition took place on the this session. An attempt was made, fame day in the house of lords, of the by Mr. Wilberforce, to enforce the discuition upon the state of the reve- déciîon of the house, that the abonue, the taxes, the imports and ex- lition of the slave-trade should take parts, and the other financial circum- place on the first day of the year liances of the nation at the close of 1796, but his motion was negatived the American war, and at the pre- by a majority of four, and his fabfent period. The earl of Moira sequent endeavours to regulate the combated the positions of lord Auk fave-carrying trade, by the proporland in the preceding debate, and tion of tonnage, was lou for want the latter exerted himself to main- of numbers io constitute a house. tain them. Numerous and intricate A bill for the relief of incligent were the calculations on both sides. curates paised in their favour, alter Lord Lauderciale zealoully support- some opponion in the commons, ed the earl of Moira, and entered on account of its originating in the into a great variety of particulars to houle of lords. But a petition from prove the justness of his researches the quakers to be relieved from and computations: herein he was imprisonment for non-payment of seconded by the marquis of Lanf- tythes, and for allowing iheir afirdowne, and opposed by lords Co- mation to be evidence in criminal ventry and Hawkesbury, who took as well as civil cales was rejeciel much pains to represent the state- by the lords, after patling the coinments of lord Moira as erroneous. mons. The humane effort made by
The same subject was resumed, lord Moira, in favour of persons on the thirteenth, by lord Lauder- confined for debt, met with no dale, who displaye! great financial better success. knowledge in his arrangement of The feition closed, on the nine. the matter of debate. His sup- teenth of May, with the cuttomaty porters were the marquis of Lant- speech from the throne. It informdowne and the earl of Moira; and ed the houle of the intention to difhis opponents, lords Grenville, solve the present, and to call a new Hawkebury, and Aukland. The parliament. The happiert e tecks, inferences from the arguments and it said, had been experience from statements produced by the respec- the provisions made for repreiding tive parties were contradictory in sedition and civil tumult, and for the extreme; the one representing restraining the progress of princithe situation of this country as re- ples subversive of all established plete with the most arduous difficulo vernment.
The commons were thanked, in a been preserved inviolate against the more particular manner, for the li- defigns of foreign and domeftic heral supplies they had granted, to enemies; the honour of the British meet the exigencies of the war. name aserted; the rank and station Peculiar notice was taken of the held hitherto by this country in increafing resources, by which the Europe, maintained ; and the decountry was enabled to support the cided fuperiority of its naval power, great expences it required. The established in every quarter of the nature of the system introduced into world. France had, the speech said, afford- Such were the principal paffages ed to that country, in the midst of in the speech. ii concluded with its calamities, the means of exer- strong recommendations of unanition, beyond the exertion of any mrty and mutual confidence beformer time; but, under the pressure tween the king and parliament, as of the new and unprecedented dif- best promoting the true dignity ficulties, arising from such a contest, of die crowy, and the happiness of the Britif confiitution had, by the the subject. counfels and conduct of parliainent,