feeble and ill-fupported their exer- the engagements he had contracted tions would prove, in comparison of with the republic, and published what they had been on the first a manifesto, wherein he publicly breaking out of the refifrance to charged its agents with having, poverument. They had at that under false pretences, inveigled period introduced order and regu- him to lay down his arms and sublarity among their people, and had mit to government. They had, he exercised hoitilities according to the said, given him to understand, that rules of discipline But those, on the rulers of the nation had come whom they now prevailed to join to a fixed resolution of restoring then, were no longer guided by royalty, and of replacing the famithe fame spirit. The generality in- ly of Bourbon upon the throne, as deed did not seem inclined to em- foon as such an event could take bask in a caule for which they had place with security; but the temto greatly suffered, and so vainly per of the French, they insinuated, displayed the most surprifing cou- was to be consulted, and a due rage and efforis. The majority of concurrence of circumstances waitthofe, who now followed their for- ed for, before an attempt of such tunes, were individuals long de importance could be made. He fermined never to submit to the re- enumerated a variety of particulars public, and to seize the first op- tending to delude him, and concinportunity of acting openly against ded by acculing government of it. They confifted chiefly of the having violated its faith with his ruined noblese, clergymen expelled associates; and, as a consummation from their livings, and other persons of its iniquity, of having taken off, deprived of their employinents, by poison, the innocent child of either for adhering, or being suf- their murdered sovereign. It was, pected of adherence to the royal he said, in consequence of these (a vse. The mass of their followers perjuries and enormities, that lie was made up of delerters, peasants, had come to a determination to take and others of the lower classes, im- up arms again, and never to lay pelled, by the ill-treatment of the them down till the heir to the ruling party for their difference of crown was restored, and the Cathcopinion in matters of church and lic religion re-established. fate, to fly from their homes, and Such were the contents of this beiake themselves to the protection extraordinary manifetto, which apof those who were in arms against peared so strange and unaccountagovernment, and whole numbers ble to numbers, that they were led were thus encreased and conftaníly to doubt its authenticity. recruited by fresh accessions of the In the mean time, the forces, dir. discontented and ill-used.

patched by government to suppress Those who now presided over this insurrection, met with various them were Charette and Stoflet, difficulties, from the nature of the who appeared ftill determined to warfare they were engaged in. The encounter new hazards, after hav. insurgents, conscious of their infeing escaped so many dangers. The riority in the field, avoided all reformer of these had, in the course gular action; and, dividing them. of the preceding year, renounced selves into a multitude of small


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bodies, occupied all the narrow kind, and gave themselves up to a palies and defiles throughout the predatory lystem of hoftilities, accountry, and harassed the republi- companied with as many fanguinary can troops in their marches and executions of their enemies, as they motions. The inhabitants in those thought requisite for the fupport parts, being generally in the interest of their own cause, and the intimiof the insurgents, informed them of dation of their enemies. the most convenient places where to Such had been their plan of actlie in anıbuscade, and surprise their ing since the second insurrection, eneinies. By these means they inter- which had broken out in the comcepted the communication between mencement of the foregoing fumthe republican troops, and often mer, and had continued with vaseized their convoys of provilions : rious fuccefs till the approach of and stores, and reduced them to , winter. The disappointment that the extremelt want of ammunition had befallen the expedition to the and necessaries. Whenever they coast of France from England, and found an opportunity of attacking the lok of lo many emigrants, that them to acivantage, they never had either fallen in battle, or been milled it, and occasionally defeated taken prisoners, and put to death, them with considerable flanghter. had fo effectually terrified their When these were too well situated,,, adherents, that from that day, they or too ftrong in numbers, as well as, had manifested little inclination to position, to venture an engagement, venture into new dangers, without with them, the others kept within better grounds of hope, than proforests or faitnesses that were almost unises of allifiance wherein they had inacceslible, and where, on that ac- been so much deceived, and exliortcount, they fucceeded in defending ations to loyalty, that only led them themselves. Their general mode to ruin. of attack was with mulketry, never

Ditheartened by the severe and coming to close fight, and always , atrocious vengeance exccuted upon placing hedges, pales, ditches, and their country, and the dreadful other imepediments between them- Naughter and chaltisement of its infelves and the foe, whom, as numbers habitants, the Vendeans had not, of them were excellent mark/men, ar before, crowded to the royal they contrived by these methods ftandards erected among them. The greatly to annoy, in spite of their amnefiy published atter the former courage and discipline, and their pacification, and the lenient treateagerness to rush upon them through ment they had experienced in con. all obstacles, and to fight them sequence of their submillion to the under all disadvantages.

republic, had produced the effects The chiefs of the insurgents were that had been expected. The relo conscious of the impracubility of maining majority of that unfortunate encountering the republican troops people had returned to their couns in any other manner, that their try, and resumed their former ocown people, lofing all hope of re- cupations, with the intent of neyer newing those brilliant successes they leaving them again for the rakh enhad formerly obtained, gradually terpriles to which they had been abandoned all attempts of that prompted, by the vain prospect of Vol. XXXVIII.


being being able to overturn the republic, destruction, not only of men, but of and restore the monarchy.

whatever they poffeffed. Slaughter But those, who had led them forth and conflagration went hand in to this desperate attempt, did not hand, and the country round predespair to excite them to a second sented a picture of death and defoundertaking of the same nature. lation. No man nor family were They held out every motive that had safe in their houses: the repubformerly been prevalent; attachment_lican soldiers broke into them, and to their religion, love of their kings, massacred all they found. The ophatred to the present innovations. pofite parties waylayed each other Multitudes were induced accord. on the roads, and

gave no quarter. ingly to list again under their ban- Their whole attention was employe ners : but the greater part remained ed in framing and perpetrating those - quiet in their habitations, and the horrors, and executing every

(cheme flower of the insurgents was not, as of public and private vengeance, antecedently, composed of the Ven- The pretext, for the commission deans, but of the mixed and numer- of all those enormities, was the ous mass of the inhabitants of tlie same on both sides : the royalists several provinces of Britanny, Poitou, charged the republicans with having Maine, Anjou, and others lying on violated the late treaty, and thele the banks of the Loire.

retorted the accusation. The truth Thofe who chiefly figured among was, that neither party much ap: them, were that body of men known proved of it, and had acceded to it, by the appellation of Chouans, and rather as a suspension of hoftilities, whose origin and primitive tran- than as an ablolute pacification, insactions and character have already tending to abide by the conditions been noticed. From these, the whole agreed to, no longer than they insurrection now borrowed that de- found it convenient. Hence no nomination; and, as many of their confidence was established on either actions had been marked with blood fide, and they both watched each thirstinels, as well as rapacity, those others motions with equal fufpicion who were united with them, in- of their malevolence. curred the like imputation ; whence After a long Qucluation of fortune they became equally dreaded and between the contending parties, abhorred, and acquired the general the principal commander of the naine of plunderers and murderers royalists, the famous Charette, enamong the adherents to the repub- countered a strong, body of the relican party, of which their detelia- publicans near Roche Suryan, on the tion was no less notorious, as well twenty-eighth of December, 1795, as their zeal and readiness to doom and was totally defeated. His men its partisans to extermination. were so completely routed, that he

This reciprocal dilj osition was of was unable to rally them. They fled course productive of rany atrocious from the field in various directions, deeds. The republican foldery and were fo closely pursued, that Mewed them little mercy, contider- they dispersed on every fide, and ing them in hardly any other light he was never able again to embody than that of highway robbers. It tlrem. He was compelled, for his became at last a war of reciprocal own lafety, to diluite himself like

a pea

a peasant. In this dress he wan- chiefly accelerated the submission of dered about the country without a the insurgents, was the lenity with companion, in hope of escaping his which the government came to the purluers, and gaining the lea lide, resolution of treating all those who where he might find an opportunity laid down their arms. A proclamaof flying to England. But the search tion had already been issued, during made after him was so strict and the heat of hostilities, inviting the incessant, that he fell into the hands insurgents to return to obedience, of a patrole that was in quest of under a solemn promise of burying him. He was tried and sentenced their revolt in oblivion, and of to be thot. His execution took granting them every just concession placeat Nantes on the twenty-eighth they could require the directory of April. His associate, the well availed itself of the advantages it known Stoflet, who had also been had obtained, to convince those made a prisoner, suffered death in who had been concerned in the inthe fame manner, about two months surrection, that the only use the before him.

government would make of the The fall of these two principal situation to which they were now chiefs of the insurrection, elpecially reduced, would be to deprive them the former, gave it a blow from of the means of exciting disturwhich it did not recover.

Nei- bances; and that, provided they acther the Vendeans, nor the Chouans quieled in the injunctions laid upon who had joined them, seemed to them, they would be placed on the have been overcome by defpondency fame footing with their fellows cition this occafion, and they still con- zens, and enjoy similar rights. tinued to maintain their ground with So anxious was the directory to as much obstinacy as ever : but whe- impress them with this persuasion, ther none of their remaining leaders that it published a circular address were of equal ability, or that their to the commanders of the troops people did not repose the same con- employed in fuppressing the insurfidence in them, their defeats be- rection, strictly enjoining them to came continual, and such numbers keep the intentions of the governwere flauglitered, that the generality ment in constant view, and not to of the insurgents began to loose exceed them by needless acts of courage, particularly after the loffes feverity, of those who commanded then. But the animofity of the republiNo lels than thirteen of their prin- cans against the insurgents was fuch, cipal chiefs fell in battle, and ten that they occasionally exercised great others were taken and condemned rigour over them to the serious to be fhot.

concern of the directory, which reThe death of these officers proved prehended, with marked severity, an irreparable lofs: they were men those who had been guilty of these of conlpicuous refolution, and had excelles. It anxiously reiterated it's long conducted the affairs of their orders to abstain from all harshness, party with remarkable ikill and per- and to receive all who submitted leverance in the arduous trials they with a generous forgiveness of the had lo frequently experienced paft; confidering them as deluded None at this period seemed capable brethren, whose attachment it was of supplying iheir place; but ivhat the duty of their conquerors to win


through through mildness and conciliation, of the promises made to the infurwhich were the only effectual means gents, io induce them to lay down of restoring them to the bosom of their arms, a number of publicatheir country, and converting them tions, suited to the capacity of those into good citizens.

for whom they were designed, were In pursuance of these maxims, distributed in the districts where the every district that surrendered its insurrection had taken place : and arms, and punctually conformed to those individuals on whose fidelity the conditions' prescribed, was im- and attachment to repnblican prinmediately placed under the com- ciples the government could depletest protection of the laws, and pend, were encouraged to take all nở infraction of these suffered to possible pains to inculcate the protheir detriment.

priety of uniting with the majority The measures thus taken, by the of their countrymen, and of undirectory, availed them more than feignedly abjuring those fentiments military coercion would have done. that had cost them so many lives, The dread of punishment had kept and plunged their families into lo several bodies of the insurgents to much misery. gether : but the moment they found The necessity of acting conformthat a pardon would be granted to ably to this advice, became so apthem, on acceding to the terms of parent, that even the royalift genethe proclamation that had so long rals thought themselves bound no been circulated ; and to which go- longer to obstruct the submission of vernment was yet willing to adhere, the insurgents, convinced that it they repaired in crowds to the head was the only means lest them to elquarters of the republican generals, cape destruction. A proclamation declaring their readiness to accepi to this purpose was issued and signof the conditions proffered to them. ed by viscount Scepeaux, the prin

These submissions gradually took cipal' in command in the western place in the courle of March and department. After lamenting the April. By the close of this month, fruitless efforts to restore monarchy the insurrection was so far quelled, and the Catholic religion, it acknows that no apprehentions were enter- ledged that to persist in this.attempt tained from the few ftraggling par- would only be conducting the inties that remained, and which were furgents to the daughter. looked upon as people determined horted them, therefore, to desist, to lead a predatory life, rather than and yield to superior force, in order in arms for the cause they had em- to secure their lives, and be per- ^ braced, and of which no hopes any mitted to dwell in safety at their longer exifted.

homes. After subduing this dangerous in- 1 An exhortation of this kind did surrection by force of arms, the next not fail w convince them of the 4measure was to pacify the minds of inutility of any farther oppofition: those who had lo obstinately per- and, by the latter end of July, the fifted in it, and yielded at length country of the insurgents was for only from the impractibility of any thoroughly pacified, that martial fariher resistance. To this end, in law was repealed, and civil goaddition to the punclual observance vernment restored.


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