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which the French teftified for the religious practices of the natives, enabled those who hated them, on this account, to inftil their hatred into others, and to inflame their indignation againft men who prefumed to more fenfe in thofe matters than other nations.
maffacre of all the French they could meet with. Rumours were circulated, that Beaulieu, ftrongly reinforced, was on his march to Milan, and that a number of French detachments had been surprised and put to the fword. Incenfed at the ideas of equality upheld by the French, the nobles had difmiffed their domeftics, telling them, that being their equals, they could no longer employ them as fervants.. The partifans of Auftria were, in fhort, exerting all their activity to raife commotions, and no place was free from them.
The two claffes, whofe inveteracy to the French was most notorious, were the nobility and the clergy; as the French did not fcruple to avow their enmity and contempt for both, it was natural that thefe fhould hold them in abhorrence. In their Speeches and converfations, public and private, the former feldom failed to represent the nobles as tyrants, and the priests as impoftors. The depreffion which both thefe orders of men had fufferred in France, fhewed what was intended for them in other parts of Europe, were the French to fucceed in the vaft defign imputed to them, of intirely fubverting the political and religious fyftem of this quarter of the globe. Actuated by thefe apprehenfions, feveral of the most refolute of the nobility, and moft zealous of the clergy, refolved, it was laid, to incite the commonality to rife against the French, on the first opportunity that fhould feem favourable to fuch a defign. The day fixed upon for its execution, was the twenty-fourth of May. Early in the morning, Buonaparte fet out for Lodi, at the head of a strong detachment. He had hardly reached that place, when he was informed, by an exprefs, that an almoft general infurrection was fpreading through Lombardy. The alarm bells were ringing every where, and the peafantry and lower claffes throughout the country, inftigated by the nobles and the clergy, were up in arms, and intent on the
On the receipt of this intelligence, Buonaparte hafted back to Milan with a large body of horte and foot. He arrested a number of fufpected perfons, and ordered thofe to be fhot who had been taken in arms. He intimated to the archbishop, and to the clergy and nobles of the city, that they fhould be refponfible for its tranquillity. A fine was impofed for every fervant difcharged, and every precaution taken to prevent the confpiracy from gaining ground.
It was principally at Pavia, that the confpirators were the most numerous. They had seized on the citadel, guarded by a fmall party of French, whom they made prifoners. Being joined by fome thousands of peafants, they refolved to defend the town, and refufed admittance to Buonaparte, on his fummoning them to furrender. But a body of French granadiers burit open the gates, on which thofe who had the cuftody of the French, who had been compelled to furrender in the citadel, fet them at liberty. None of them were miffing: had violent hands been laid upon them, the determination was taken to destroy Pavia, 
and to erect on its fite a pillar with this infcription, Here ftood the city of Pavia."
In order to deter the inhabitants of this, and the other towns inclined to ftir up infurrections, the promoters of that at Pavia were fentenced to be fhot, and two hun dred hoftages, for their peaceable behaviour, were delivered to Buonaparte, who fent them to France. He next iffued a proclamation, declaring, that those who did not lay down their arms within twenty-four hours, and take an oath of obedience to the French republic, fhould be treated as rebels, and their houfes committed to the flames.
The nobles and priefts in the infurgent diftricts were to be arrested and fent to France. The places within the precincts of which a Frenchman was aflaffinated, were condemned to pay triple taxes till the aflaffin was given up. The › fame fine was laid on places where concealed arms and ammunition were found. Perfons of rank and fortune who excited the people to revolt, either by difmifling their fervants, or by holding inimical difcourfes against the French, were to be fent to France, and to forfeit part of their eftates.
Injunctions and declarations of this nature were pofted up in every place of note throughout the Milanefe. Particular precautions were taken for the fecurity of the city of Milan, the caftle of which still remained in poffeffion of the Auftrians, who might, in cafe of any formidable infurrection, have given it effectual affiftance.
Freed from the perplexity occafioned by these difturbances, Buonaparte prepared to profecute the plans he had been forming. The
broken forces of the Auftrians had in their retreat taken refuge on the Venetian territory. Hither they were closely pursued by the French. But previoufly to the commencement of operations in the Venetian state, Buonaparte was careful to give formal notice of his intentions to the fenate.
The difpofition of the Tetian government, towards France, was juftly fufpected to be inimical. Had it been friendly before the entrance of the French into Italy, their fucceffes, and the powerful footing they had now obtained, would have rendered them too dangerous to be viewed with a favourable eye. Situated between two fuch powers as France and Auftria, Venice had no inclination to befriend the one more than the other, and would gladly have been delivered from the proximity of both. Unwilling to offend a state, between which, and the French republic, an amicable intercourse fubfifted, the French general publithed an addrels to that government and people, wherein he affured them, that in following the enemies of France into the Venetan territories, he would obferve the firictest difcipline, and treat the inhabitants with all the amity and confideration duc to the ancient friendship exifting between the two nations.
In the mean time, the Auftrians had taken poffeffion of Pefchiera, by the connivance of the Venetians, to whom that town belonged. Here Beaulieu hoped to be able to make a fiand, till fuccours arrived to him from Germany. Buonaparte, defirous to expel him from Italy, or to compel him to furrender, 'advanced to that town, intending to cut off his retreat to the Tyrol, by the eaftern fide of the lake of Garda. Early
May, feveral divifions of the French approached the bridge of Borghetto, by which Buonaparte propofed to effect a paffage over the Mincio, and furround Beaulieu's army. The Auftrians made the utmost efforts to defend the bridge; but the French crolled it after a warm action: the Auftrian general perceiving their intent, withdrew in hafte from his pofition at Pefchiera, and retired with the utmoft expedition to the river Adige, which, having paffed, he broke down all the bridges, to prevent the French from perfuing him. By thefe means he fecured his retreat to the Tyrol, the only place of fafety now remaining to
in the morning of the thirteenth of the late refidence of the French prince. He now determined to lay fiege to Mantua, the only place of ftrength and importance left to the emperor in Italy. The reduction of this fortrefs would effectually put an end to the influence of the court of Vienna, and transfer to France, the power and credit exercised by the emperor in all the affairs of Italy.
Buonaparte might now confider himself as the undisputed mafter of Italy. He was fo much viewed in that light by the fenate of Venice, even previously to his pallage of the Mincio, and the defeat of Beaulieu; that, foreleeing the danger of appearing too well inclined to the houfe of Bourbon, they had warned out of their territories the unfortunate brother of the late king of France, who had, on the death of his nephew, fon to that monarch, alfumed the name of Lewis the eighteen, together with the royal
The circumstances of his difmif fion did the Venetians no credit: on that prince's demanding the fword, formerly prefented to the fenate by his ancestor, the celebrated Henry the fourth of France,as a token of his regard, they refused to restore it, on pretext that a large fum of money, due from him to the state, had never been discharged.
Buonaparte took poffeffion, on the third of June, of the city of Verona,
This was a deprivation to which the head of the houfe of Auftria could not bear the idea of fubmitting, and every effort was refolved upon to prevent it. The ill fuccefs of Beaulieu had been fuch, that it was determined, at Vienna, to subftitute another commander in his room. Marshal Wurmfer; a veteran general in high efteem, was appointed to fucceed him, though he had himfelf experienced several defeats by the French.
In hope of reducing Mantua before fuccours could arrive, Buonaparte determined to lay immediate fiege to it. On the fourth of June, it was invested by the French, who drove the out-pofts into the town, which was now clofely surrounded on every fide.
But the want of artillery prevented him from doing any more than blockading it. He had formed hopes of reducing that city by other means than a formal fiege; which were to cut of all fuccours from Germany, and all provifions from its neighbourhood.
In order to effect the first of these purposes, he refolved to carry the war into the Imperial dominions in Germany, and to invade the Tyrol itfelf. This was doubtless a very bold and hazardous attempt: the natives of that difficult and moun tainous country being not only a [H2] refolate
refolute and hardy race of men, but extremely attached to the family of Auftria; of whom they had for centuries continued the faithful and affectionate fubjects.
Buonaparte did not, however, defpair to make an impreflion upon them in his favour, through the medium of thofe addreffes, of which he he had experienced the efficacy on other occafions. On the fourteenth of June he published a manifeito, wherein he informed them, that he intended to march through their country, in order to force the emperor to come into terms of peace with the French, who defired a termination of the war, not only for themfelves, but for the benefit of all Europe, fo long harraffed and defolated through the ambition of the Imperial family; for which alone the people of its dominions were involved in the horrors of war, as well as the people of France. The French, he told them, bore no hatred to the inhabitants of Germany, but folely to their ambitions fovereigns, and felt the fincereft fentiments of good will and fraternity for their oppreffed fubjects. He invited them, therefore, in the name of the French, to receive their army with hofpi. tality, and abstain from all hoftili.. ties; promifing the ftricteft honour and punctuality, in all dealings and tranfactions with them, but admonishing them, at the fame time, that if compelled to have recourfe to their arms, the French would, however, unwillingly, prove as terrible to them, as they had unvariably done to all their other enemies.
But while he was preparing to follow up this manifefto, by marching his army into the Tyrol, he was called away by the indifpenfible neceflity of providing for the fecurity
of his conquefts; menaced by a variety of unfavourable circumftances, against which vigorous exertions were required without delay.
The distance at which the forces of the French were at this time, from feveral diftricts, known by the name of Imperial Fiefs, and fituated on the borders of Piedmont, Genoa, and Tufcany, had emboldened the people there, who were in the intereft of the emperor, to act a very hoftile part against the French; they attacked their convoys, intercepted the communication with Buonaparte's army, and killed his couriers, Such were the complaints and reprefentations of the French. In order to put a ftop to thofe proceedings, which were fecretly countenanced by thofe numerous enemies of the French, who did not dare to avow themselves, Buonaparte was obliged to difpatch large detachments from the main body of his forces, to reprefs them. This was the very end propofed by those infurrections, but the celerity with which he acted, quickly effected their fuppreffion: the infurgents were compelled to fubmit, and deliver up their arms and hoftages for their obedience. Heavy fines were impofed upon them, and ordinances iffued; a`refufal to comply with which, was made punishable with military execution.
The motive that led to this feverity, was the determination to proceed, without the danger of being recalled by new commotions, in the plan of extending, through the moft diftant parts of Italy, an unrefifting fubjugation to the dictates of France. Rome and Naples were the two ftates against which Buonaparte was intending to act. The enmity of both to the French was
ceffity with the beft grace in the world. He difcharged his fubjects from molefting, and even from reviling the French. He exhorted them to use them well, and even to pray for them. In former ages, the popes were wont moft bitterty to curfe even their own fpiritual fons, when they thewed any degree of a refractory fpirit. The piety of the church, fmothered by wealth and power, appeared to be revived with perfecution. The Chriftians feemed. to return to the principles of loving their enemies, bleffing thofe that curfed them, doing good to thofe that hated them, and praying for fhole who defpitefully uled and perfecuted them." Had the pope with the Romish clergy been fincere in fuch profeffions of humility and benevolence, and credit been given. to fuch profeffions, the church might have fprung, like a phoenix, from its own afhes, and the tide of affairs. been turned: but, without inquiring too minutely into the piety of the pope, we must commend his prudence, in advifing the Romans to give up a part of their wealth, rather than the whole. His holiness was a more prudent man than the Roman knight Nonius, who was put to death by Tiberius, for refufing to part with a very exquifite and precious piece of feulpture. All perfons impritoned for their opinions were now to be fet at liberty; the ports of the ecclefiaftical fiate to be open to the French, and fhut to their enemics, and a free pallage allowed to the French troops through the papal territories. This armiice was figned on the twenty-third of June: but the directory, though willing to negociate a, peace with the pontiff, refused to receive the minifters he had fent to Paris for [H 3]
undeniable. The inability of the Pope to refift them was an additional motive to invade his territories? Ferrara, Bologna, and Urbino, all cities of importance, were taken poffeffion of, and Rome itself was threatened.
The partifans of the French in Italy, and elsewhere, expreffed open fatisfaction at their conduct towards the Roman fee. The difreputable means by which it had rifen to power, and acquired the territories compofing its fovereignty, were not forgotten. The arrogance of its pretenfions, and the daily diminution of the reverence and veneration which it formerly commanded, jointls induced people to view its humiliation with pleasure. Confcious of these sentiments in the generality, Buonaparte felt the lefs fcruple in the feverity of his tranfactions with the court of Rome, with which it feems he had determined to keep no measures; commiffioned doubtless by the government of France to act in this rigorous manner.
Terrified at this invafion of his dominions, and totally unable to relik it, the pope was reduced to the neceffity of fuing for an armiffice, which was granted to him, on conditions fimilar to thofe on which the dukes of Parma and Modena had obtained it: to which was added, the furrender of the cities of Bologna, Ferrara, and the citadel of Ancona, with the territories of the two former, and a larger proportion of pictures and ftatues, and fome hundreds of the moft curious manufcripts from the Vatican library. The pope, with a refignation more becoming the head of the church, than fo many of the ambitious and daring actions of his predeceffors, yielded to ne