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CHAP. CXLII.

EUTHALIUS, BISHOP OF SULCA, IN EGYPT.

1. EUTHALIUS has been already mentioned in thisa · work. I must now give a more distinct account of him, and his performances in the service of the gospel : still referring to others, those who are desirous of farther information, or who may be willing to compare several accounts together.

2. Euthalius, as is supposed, was at first deacon in the church of Alexandria, or some other city in Egypt: and afterwards bishop of Sulca ; probably, in Egypt, though its situation is not certainly known.

3. In the year 458, he published an edition of St. Paul's epistles; and afterwards, about the year 490, an edition of the Acts of the Apostles, and the seven catholic epistles, having first compared them with the exact copies in the library of Cæsarea in Palestine.

4. It is generally supposed, that all the books of the New Testament were at first written by the apostles and evangelists in one continued tenor, without any sections or chapters: the most ancient distinction, which we know of, is that of Eusebius's canons for the four gospels. In the yeard 396, some learned christian, whose name is not known, divided St. Paul's epistles into chapters or lessons. This is collected from what Euthalius says in his prologue to St. Paul's epistles : those chapters Euthalius made use of in his own edition of the same epistles. He added some other lesser sections, or subdivisions : he likewise collected all the testimonies, or passages, cited by St. Paul, from the Old Testament, or from other writings, marking the sec

a See Vol. iii. ch. lix. and ch. lxxv.

• Vid. Zacagn. Collectan. in Præf. n. 45, &c. Cav. Hist. Lit. Tom. i. Oxon. 1740. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 367, &c. Mill. Proleg. n. 941, &c. Wetsten. Proleg. ad N. T. edit. accurat. p. 73, 74, Oudin. de Scr. Ec. T. i. p. 1266.

Vid. Zacagn. Collectan. p. 513. et Conf. hujus operis T. iii. ch. lix. d Vid. Zacagn. in Præf. n. 48. p. 57.

“ Καθ' έκατην δε συντομως επισολην εν τοις εξης προταξομεν την των κεφαλαιων εκθεσιν, ένι των σοφωτατων τινι και φιλοχρισω πατερων ημων πεπονημενην. . Ου μην αλλα και την των αναγνωσεων ακριβεςατην τομην, την τε των θειων μαρτυριων ευαποδεκτον ευρεσιν ημεις τεχνολογησαντες ανακεφαλαιwoapeda. "Euthal. Prol. ap. Zac. p. 528, 529. Conf. ib. p. 536, 537.

tious in which they were to be found. This Euthalius did when a deacon : afterwards, when bishop of Sulca, at the desire of Athanasius, who was made bishop of Alexandria in 490, he published an edition of the Acts of the Apostles, and the seven catholic epistles; now dividing these also into lessons, chapters, and verses, which had never been done before ; collecting also all the passages of the Old Testament, and other writings, quoted by Paul or Luke in the Acts, or by other apostles in the catholic epistles. And to the several parts of this work he prefixed a prologue or preface: I mean to St. Paul's epistles, the Acts, and the catholic epistles.

5. There are several things in the manuscript copies of Euthalius, now extant, which are not certainly known to be bis. Ats the end of his prologue to St. Paul's epistles, is a martyrdom of Paul, or a note concerning the time of St. Paul's last suffering : which is also in Ecumenius, prefixed to bis Commentary upon the Acts of the Apostles. That note, as it seems, was written by the learned author before inentioned, who first divided St. Paul's epistle into chapters. There are also Arguments prefixed to all St. Paul's epistles, which are not known to be Euthalius's; nor the writer's who first divided those epistles into chapters. Zacagni thinks, they h belong to weither: forasmuch as Euthalius does not particularly mention them in his account of what that more ancient author had done ; nor in the account of his own performance. Zacagni therefore concludes those arguments were composed by some learned man afterwards: and the transcribers of Euthalius's work in after times, inserted those Arguments, as an useful improvement of his edition. All those Arguments are likewise in Ecumenius : and in Mill's edition of the New Testament, they are prefixed to St. Paul's epistles severally, with the name of Ecumenius, as author.

6. The Argument' likewise of the Acts of the Apostles, and thek Peregrination of St. Paul subjoined to it, and the Arguments of the catholic epistles, Zacagni does not ascribe to Euthalius : he thinks there is no good reason to

'Vid. Prolog. in Act. Ap. ap. Zacagn. p. 405, 409. et Prolog. in Cathol. Ep. p. 477. Vid. et p. 481.

8 Ap. Zac. Collect. p. 535, 536. Ei Conf. Zac. in Præf. n. 48. p. 57.

+ Præf. n. 50. p. 60. Ap. Zac. Coll. p. 421-425.

p.

425-427. | Dubitari tamen potest, an argumentum Actuum apostolorum, et Peregrinationes Pauli apostoli eidem subjunctæ, Euthalii opus existant, quippe quod ipse in fine prologi in apostolorum Actus nonnulla de Lucá evangelista eorumdem scriptore posuerit, quæ cum argumenti vices supplere possint, parum verisimile est, Euthalium de novo ejusdem libri argumento conscribendo

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k Ibid.

say they are his, since Euthalius himself is silent about them. The forementioned Argument is in Ecumenius also, prefixed to the Acts of the Apostles : and the Peregrination is in Ecumenius, after the Acts, or before the epistle to the Romans. The arguments of the catholic epistles are also in Ecumenius: and in Mill's New Testament they are prefixed to the said catholic epistles with the name of Ecumenius.

7. I shall now mention a few observations, and make some extracts.

8. It hence appears that, in the fifth century, all the seven catholic epistles were received at Alexandria, and in other parts of Egypt.

9. Possibly, we may also hence conclude, that the Revelation was not received there; or at least that it was not publicly read, nor so generally recommended to the use of all christians, as the other books of the New Testament: for if it had, it might be reasonable to expect, that it should have been now divided into lessons, chapters, and verses.

10. Euthalius ascribes the Acts of the Apostles to Luke. In his prologue to the Acts, he says, • That" Luke the evangelist, disciple of Paul, was a physician of Antioch, and that he wrote two books: one of wbich, and the first, is that of the gospel ; the other is this book of the Acts of the Apostles ; in which he relates the ascension of Christ to beaven ; the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the holy apostles; and how the disciples preached the doctrine of Christ; and what miracles they wrought by prayer and faith in bim; and the divine call of Paul, from heaven, and his apostleship, and successful preaching'; and, in a word, the labours of the apostles for Christ, in the midst of many dangers and difficulties. In the prologue to St. Paul's epistles, he again calls the Acts,° Luke's second book. cogitåsse. Accedit, quod nunquam asserat Euthalius, se in Novi Testamenti libris, quos illustrandos suscepit, argumenta ulla scripsisse, et quæ Pauli epistolis in ejusdem editione præfiguntur, ea alterius auctoris esse, superius ostensum est. Quamobrem idem prorsus de Actuum apostolorum et catholicarum epistolarum argumentis censendum esse videtur, ea nempe, uti et alia epistolarum Paulinarum argumenta, post vulgatam Euthalii editionem, ab aliquo pio viro edita, et ab antiquis librariis eidem inserta fuisse, quo suis codicibus majorem existimationem conciliarent. Zacag. Præf. n. liv. p. 66. Conf. Eund. p. 421. not. 4.

m Ecum. T. i. p. 192. Αντιοχευς γαρ 8τος υπαρχων το γενος, ιατρος δε επισημην, προς Παυλα μαθητευθεις, δυο βιβλες συνεγραψατο, μιαν μεν, και προτεραν, την τ8 ευαγγελια, δευτεραν δε ταυτην την περι των αποφολικων πραξεων. Ιbid. p. 410.

2 Και Λακας ιστορει εν τη δευτερα βιβλφ εαυτό. Ρrol. in Paul. Ep. ib. p. 517

mon.

11. The prologue to St. Paul's epistles contains the history of Paul, collected from the Acts of the Apostles, and from his epistles, chiefly from the former; and then an enumeration of his epistles; and after that, in the third section, a farther account P of St. Paul's actions in the order of time, partly taken from Eusebius's Chronicle, and Ecclesiastical History. He says, • That beside many other labours in the course of his life to bring men to the practice of virtue, Paula wrote fourteen epistles, containing instructions for every part of a holy conversation.' He enumerates the epistles in this order: to the Romans; two to the Corinthians; to the Galatians; to the Ephesians; to the Philippians; to the Colossians; to the Thessalonians; to the Hebrews; the epistles to Timothy, Titus, and Phile

12. Euthalius placeth Paul's epistles, according to the proficiency which they had made, to whom they were sent; beginning with the least perfect, and proceeding to the more perfect. This is evident, from several things: for he says, the' epistle to the Romans is placed first, as containing instructions for those who had yet learned only the first principles of the gospel; this notion appears also in what be says upon the epistle to the Ephesians, the fifth in order: and then he says, that the epistle to the Philippians, the sixth in order, is written to the faithful who had made progress, and had brought forth good fruit. And at the end of his enumeration of the fourteen epistles, he expressly says, they are placed according to the order of men's proficiency.

13. I do not think this to be an observation of any importance; but as it is uncommon, I bave taken notice of it. And it is very true the apostle Paul's epistles are suited to promote the benefit of cliristians of all ranks, and of every degree of attainment in religious knowledge and virtue, whether greater or smaller.

14. I choose now to conclude this chapter" with St. Paul's

P Αναγκαιον δε ηγησαμην εν βραχει και τον χρονον επισημειωσασθαι τα κηpuyuaros Navid, k. 1. Ib. p. 529–535. Et Conf. (Ecumen. T. i. p. 193— 195.

9 Ετι δε και όλως δια της υφης των δεκατεσσάρων επισολων τ8των την όλην ανθρωπους διεγραφε πολιτειαν. Ιb. p. 523. Περιεχει 8ν ή προς Ρωμαίους επισολη κατηχησιν εις Χρισον-διο πρωτη

Οία προς αρχην εχοντας εις θεοσεβειαν γραφεισα. Ιb. p. 523. Vid. p. 524.

Εκτη τετακται η προς Φιλιππησιες, κατα προσαυξησιν πισοις όμα και καρποφοροις, κ.λ. p. 525. in. "Ουτως ή πασα βιβλος περιεχει παντοιον ειδος πολιτειων κατα προσαυξησιν.

Μαρτυριον Παυλα τα αποσολο.

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P. 528.

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martyrdom, before" mentioned, drawn up in the year 396, and ascribed to the learned and pious writer who first divided St. Paul's epistles into chapters, or sections. It is to this purpose: “ In* the time of Nero emperor of the Romans, Paul the apostle, having exercised a good exercise, coinpleted his testimony (or suffered martyrdom] • at Rome, being beheaded with a sword, in the thirty and • sixth year of our Saviour's passion, on the fifth day of the * month Panemus, according to the Syro-Macedonians; * which, with the Egyptians, is the fifth day of Epiphi; • and with the Romans, the third before the Calends of

July (that is, the 25th of June]; upon which day the • holy apostle completed his testimony, in the sixty-ninth

year of the advent of our Saviour Jesus Christ. The 'space of time, therefore, since his martyrdom, is three hun

dred and thirty years to this present consulship, the fourth • of Arcadius, and the third of Honorius, august emperors • and brothers ;' that is, the year 396 of our Lord's nativity, according to the common account.

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CHAP. CXLIII.

DIONYSIUS, FALSELY CALLED THE AREOPAGITE.

1. THAT the books of the Celestial and Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, and other works, with the name of Dionysius the Areopagite, are spurious, and were not composed by Dionysius, member of the Athenian senate, and disciple of Paul, mentioned in the Acts, is now the general opinion of learned mon; but all are not agreed about the time when they were written.

2. Daillé, who examined those writings with great diligence, was of opinion, that they were not published before the beginning of the sixth century; possibly about the year 520 ; Pearson has since argued, that they were written about the year 330; Cave placeth this author at the year " See p. 68.

* Επι Νερωνος τα Καισαρος Ρωμαιων εμαρτυρησεν αυτοθι Παυλος και αποτολος, ξιφει την κεφαλην αποτμηθεις, εν τω τριακουφ και έκτω ετει το σωτηρια παθες τον καλον αγωνα αγωνισαμενος, εν Ρωμη, κ. λ. Ap. Zacag. Monum. p. 535, 536.

omninoque videri istum, vel quinto præcipiti seculo, vel, etiam ineunte sexto vixisse, neque ante annum Christi circiter 520, fetus suos Dionysio immani fraude suppositos Dionys. Areop. et Ignat. 1. i. c. 32. p. 184. Ĝenev. 1666. Vind. Ignat. P. i. cap. 10.

H. L. T. i. p. 225.

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