the same brawny limh, confined in a sling, spirited boy enters the school room prac. would soon wither into imbecility, tically unconscious of the claims of the

Thus, then, are you to treat propensi- tear her to any token of respect from him, ties and habits, and every sin or defect, that had never been required around the which you find besetting you or opposing hea: th-stone of his own home. Conseyour progress towards the standitrd you quently, his manner may be rough, his have set up for your own att:innient. tones loud and coarse, his language ill.

A discipline like this terminates at last chosen, his carriage clownish, even on his in that self-conquest so important in every first introduction to the teacher. Should situation of life, and is of unspeakable ad- such a one come under your observation, vantage to nim who is the guide of the judge him not hastily ; check him not young in the beginning of their career. harshly. There may lie within that re

The importance of self-government has pulsive exterior the best elements of our been proverbial from the days of Solomon. nature; and he may be wholly unconIt enables its possessor to make the best scious that he has infringed any of the use of his powers under any circumstances laws of civility. Ascertain, therefore, the that may arise. It decides the contest be- facts in the case, before you arraign him tween two individuals, in other respects for his delinquency. equal, derlaring for him " who ruleth his Every variety of temperament, too, may own spirit.” Nay, it comes, in lieu of in- be found among your pupils. The merry, tellectual power, in the dispute, and se- the daring, the timid, the artful; one, so cures the victory to him who is in other overrunning with fun and frolic, that he respects the weaker man. It is highly commits many a breach of good manners useful in every sphere; and, in that of the quite involuntarily ; another, easily exciteacher, is in requisition every hour of the ted by passion, answers rudely, under its day.

impulse, when, in his sober judgment, he The last of the elements of preparation would stand self-condemned, although his is self-renunciation, or self-sacritice, a state pride might forbid his acknowledging his of mind the most difficult to reach, and fault. yet the noblest of all ; for it was the lead- Cases will be continually occurring to ing characteristic in the Great Teacher- test the principle of self-sacrifice within the purest, safest model for every other you; and well will it be for your own teacher.

happiness, and better still for your pupils, You will, very naturally, in the outset if you shall have so firmly established it, of your pedagogical course, feel jealous of as to enable you to endure from them, for your authority and dignity, and require a a time, what you would, perhaps, be dis. deference and respect from your pupils, posed, if coming from others, to consider which, if withheld or rendered tardily, you an insult. may be disposed to resent or make the oc- But do not misunderstand me. I would casion of severe discipline to the offender. have you pupils behave with strict proIt is fitting that this point should not be priety; would have you enforce it as a neglected; but be not hasty to act or to rule. My object in these remarks is to adopt extreme measures in such a case.- guard against precipitate action; nay, to Assure yourself first that disrespect was prepare you to carry the martyr-spirit inintended. The low state of manners at to your government, when the welfare of this day is notorious. In many families, the children shall require it. The mother of good standing in the world, it is a sub- sometimes comes to her knees before her ject that scarcely comes within the cog- offending child. The spirit that dictates nizance, or, apparently, the thought of such an act should move the teacher in parents. The children are not trained to cases demanding it. Cases so extreme observe the courtesies of civilized society, would rarely occur in school ; but when but actually grow up like the untutored they do happen, he should be prepared to savage of our western wilds. If any re- meet them in this maternal spirit. finement exists around them, they are When the first Napoleon had an object somewbat affected by it; but they do and to gain, whether it was the currying of a speak as others-leading individuals in bridge, the taking of a city, or the subdu. the families-do. Hence, many a noble- sing of a kingdom, difficulties did not daunt

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him, nor the cost in men or treasure cause their true value ; but I would have, withhim to waver in his purpose. The only out any compromise whatever, those question was, “how many men will it things take the first place, on which the cost?" and they were detached for the character, integrity, moral worth, and that service. With a similar determination, happiness which springs from pure founbut for a far nobler end, the teacher is to tains, and which is alone worth striving ask himself, "what amount of labor, what for, depend. degree of personal sacrifice, will it require. The teacher who conscientiously beof me to save this child ?” The ques-lieves this, and has made a faithful effort tion being solved, the generous effort is, to fit himself to carry out the views prewith Bonapartean promptness, to be com- sented in this letter, is worthy to mould menced. The debasing passion is sub-the rising race,--to fit the embryo men to dued; the repulsive habit reformed; the become voters under a free government, evil tendency put in check, and the boy to become legislators capable of making is redeemed!

wise laws, and upright magistrates to ex. Do you ask me if this is the prepara- ecute them. tion for keeping school? I answer, the Such teachers the republic emphaticalcourse I have recommended comprises the ly needs. Such must be had, if we would initiatory steps. They are the most ne- perpetuate the glorious institutions of our cessary ones of all; first, because they Heaven-favored country. Prosperity in involve the bighest good of a human be-commerce, in wealth, in power, in fame, ing; and, secondly, because they come in population, is of little value, if there not within the scope of the examination be not a foundation in something more of school committees, either at the time substantial--more enduring; if, in short, the teacher receives his certificate of com- public and private virtue be not the grand petency to take charge of a school, or at basis—"the stability of our land.” the public examinations, when he ap- The foundation of all practical educapears before the people, to prove or dis- tion must be in the department of morprove the accuracy of the committee's als; and this should be insisted on by all written opinion.

supervisors of schools throughout the I am well aware of the check that this land. Teachers should be examined in perversion of the relative value of things this as "the principal thing;” and if among School Committees, must have a found deficient, whatever their attaintendency to impose on the ardor of a ments in science, should be rejected. It young teacher of high aims; and how is full time that some practical use should great the danger to discouragement that be made of the doctrine assented to by he must have to encounter as he antici- all, that the moral and social nature pates the non-appreciation of his ac- should be educated; and this can be best quirements in his school of self-discipline, secured by engaging the services of peramong those who are to be his publicly sons who have made it a matter of parconstituted legal advisers or directors.- ticular attention. Still, I cannot consent that he should lower his standard. If he adopts the teacher's vocation as a permanent one, these

[For the Journal of Education, things will be needful to his complete suc

MUSIC. cess; and he should be ambitious, for the benefit he may confer on his pupils, as

THERE's music in the sun-shine,

Streaming through the trees, well as for his own fame, to leave such

Music in the star light, marks of his training and careful instruc

Soft music in the breeze. tion on their feelings, habits and princi

There's music in the water fall, ples, as will show to the good and wise

And in the budding flowersthat he measured his duty in the school- Music in the bird's song, room by a standard more lofty, more Glad music in the showers. grand, than that which is satisfied with a

There's music all the world around, moderate acquaintance with grammar, ge

Sweet music in the air : ography and arithmetic. These in their

For looks and words, and tones of love order. I would not derogate an iota from Make music everywhere.

C. E. A.

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[From the Ohio Journal of Education.

SAYS, DISMISS TUAT TEACHER. ExpediTHE RELATIONS OF SCHOOL BOARDS ency says, it will make an opposition to

the school; it will make us odious; we TO TEACHERS.

shall be blamed, slundered perhaps. Now which shall prevail, duty or expediency?

Which does coinmonly prevail ? I reTHEY must be exempt from all favor- gret to say, expediency--a low, miserable

itism. The man who urges his wife fatal expediency. The tendency is in that or child, or favorite neighbor into a school direction; and in so far as it does prevail should he told he has mistaken his mis- it is most disastrous to any school syssion. No person, so related to a member tem. Let this experiency come, as come of a Board, should ever be employed, un- it may, in whatever form, it is to be conless there is a strong outside demand for demned, despised, repudiated by every it. As in many other things, " the very school Board. appearance of evil" is to be avoided here. You will not understand or misunderA little indiscretion brings upon a Board stand me to say that school Boards may such a charge of partiality as to cripple exercise any arbitrary control — may them in all their school duties.

clothe them with 'a little brief authority' All favoritism aside then; a fair open-may sympathise with complaints from understanding should be had, and a defi- disorderiy scholars, or dissatisfied parents. nite contract made with the teacher.— That I despise and condemn. Nor do I The specific requirements--such as the say a teacher may be dismissed for a first, specific branches to be taught-the order second or third failure, if that teacher to be maintained—the deportment in and shows a willingness and power to recover out of school to be secured, etc., are all the school. Any discerning man can soon subjects of special contract. If you were tell whether a teacher is willing to make hiring a joiner to build you a house you the needed effort, and if willing, whether would have a fair contract, specifying ev- capable. A teacher who had succeeded ery thing, even to the number and kind another in the middle of a term, and who of doors, the window casings, the cup had been told she would be expected, by boards and the closets and then you the use of reasonable means only, to supwould hold him to the contract. Suppose press all communications between the now you hire a teacher with a general scholars in school hours, and other simicertificate of qualifications, and a general lar things, was asked, after a few days, guessing that he or she will keep a pretty how she succeeded. She replied: "I fair school, with no distinct specifications have not acoomplished it yet, but if I stay of what will be expected and required, in this school I will." That teacher you do just what in all common business could be allowed much longer probation, transactions would lead to bankruptcy Another teacher had serious disorders and ruin.

pointed out to her, and was requested to Again, suppose a teacher has been hir-correct them. “0," said she, “I don't ed without favoritism, and with special think it is well to be too severe; I guess contracts, then suppose that teacher you can not prevent such things." It proves quite incompetent, (and the Board was high time for that teacher to start.should not let many days pass before they It is not of course till after fair trial and know how this is) suppose the teacher fair warning that the last resort is to be fails in any essential thing, here comes had. But when the incompetency is asone of their severest trials. Duty says, certained, be the cause what it may, then dismiss the teacher and seek another. - if the Board fail to march right up to duty Expediency says, do not make a disturb- the wrong men are in the Board. A disance-don't risk any excitement among astrous policy is adopted; the moral sense influential friends don't offend an amia- of that school and of the community is ble person-don't cut off a much needed outraged. compensation. Duty says dismiss that Our schools must be conducted on printeacher. Expediency says, let it run iples of strict justice and impartiality.-along through the term-another year; They are sacred public institutions, esmay be the evil will cure itself. DUTY tablished for the goodi of all. Any hu

moring individual caprice-- promoting it was thorough and would be effectualprivate selfish interests, or yielding points that it would “work out the reaceable of wholesome discipline, to meet particu- f uits of righteousness.” The strong arms lar preferences and prejudices—any rela- of the Board should be thrown about the tion sustained to scholars or teachers, injured innocence and the natural timility that prevents even banded justice to all, of tear bers, especially the young and the and allow's special favor to none, is a fatal female tea ers. policy, a disastrous relation.

Boards of Education should be ever The correcting or dismissing incompe- ready to encourage teachers in making tent teachers is not the whole duty of a improvements, improvements in the Board. A majority of our teachers, course of study--improvements in text (thanks to this Association, among other books-improvements in discipline-iminfluences,) are really competent, worthy provernents in every thing belonging to men and women, who teach the best school routine. They should not themthings in the best way--who can admin- selves, and they should see that their ister geeded discipline to Young America, teachers do not grow stagnant and stereoor needed rebuke to his over indulgent typed. They should see that the utmost mother. Against such teachers Young improvement is made of the time, so that America and his blinded mother, and their new studies may be introduced. And they partial friends, often manage to raise a should be ready when the time is gained storm of indignation. Complaints of to recommend those studies, or approve abuse are made, accompanied with orders them when proposed by the teachers.for a change in discipline, or a removal of Thus, in addition to the studies required the teacher, or the real alternative, “I'll by law, a place should early be made for take my boy out of suhool.” Here the vocal music, both in the science and the Board should protect and defend the practice--for drawing, at least so far as to teacher, and carry such an even hand as cultivate the eye or steady the hand, for shall establish good discipline.

Physiology, embracing the important vi. No Board should ever attempt or be al- tal functions--the process of respiration, lowed to attempt the ordinary government digestion and circulation, the importance of the school. Teachers who cannot gov- of ventilation, and all the general laws of ern without resort to the Board should health. Last but not least, time should resign. But the Board should make the be gained for a regular and systematic whole weight of their personal and offi- course of moral instruction, such as is cial influence felt in sustaining the teach- contained in the series of “Moral Leser in the discharge of his duty. Some sons," now preparing by one of our most extreme cases, requiring expulsions, successful teachers, M. F. Cowdery. If may be referred to them perhaps. And that work is not speedily adopted as a then they should act promptly and deci- regular school book, and daily taught in dedly. And never should any ignorant our schools, somebody will bo to blame. and conceited father, or vexed and weep. Such teaching may, added to its mental ing mother feel that he or she can gain training, save us from the gigantic frauds any sympathy, any thing more than the of a Meigs and a Schuyler,

or from such cold civility of a hearing, from a Board. villany as the burning of the Martha No inatter if “dear George Washington Washington. Boards of Education should Lafayette's back did carry the black watch for such books and be prompt to marks for a day" nor if the shoulders of introduce them and to introduce all subBenton Decatur Jackson “ had to be in stantial improvements. tea a whole week to remove the scars."'- Again, they should know what sort of No matter if they don't “believe in maul- work their teachers are actually making. ing and pounding the poor innocents."- There is not a man of us all who would It is to be assumed that George Washing- let a carpenter build a house for our famtou Lafayette and Benton Decatur Jack- ilies, or scarce a stable for our horses, son are not injured for life. And their without having at the commencement a mistaken parents should be firmly told, well settled plan, and a definite contract. that though the discipline was "not for And then we should keep up a constant the present joyous,” yet it was to be hoped Loversight and supervision. We should



visit him frequently and watch him close- er and better protectives than court
ly. We should make suggestions and houses and prisons, and that it costs in-
give advice. And when the work was definitely more to arrest, try, imprison, or
done according to contract, we shond hang a man, than it does to educate him,
congratulate ourselves on the care which so he won't need to be imprisoned or
secured it. But how many of us send our hung information in regard to tñe
own and our neighbor's children to secure school system and school law of the State,
their intellectual and moral fa-bioning, that they are among the best ever for med,
and seldom or never visit the place where needing very little modification or amend-
it is done. The workman is placed there ment, and that they are to be executed
without much definiteness of contract, and made effective, not grumbled at, and
and then is seldom visited or encouraged. neglected and resisted.
All the acts of that workman reach to an These are some of the relations and
endless future, and take hold on that fu- duties of our Boards of Education.
ture; and yet we give him no sympathy, l. But all this requires intelligence, vigi-
no suggestions, no advice, no any thing, lance, decision of character, and a hearty
but cold neglect and may be unfeeling interest in the work; certainly it does. -

At the beginning I said our Boards should
Boards of Education have not done all be composed of men of such natural and
their duty when they have established acquired abilities as to command public
good schools. They owe it to the com- confidence. They need to possess such
munity to diffuse information among the qualifications, and give such an amount
people-information in regard to the ad- of care and attention to their work as is
vantages of properly classified schools, supposed to be essential to much more
that well taught public schools give a conspicuous stations. Were I an office-
more thorough and systematic education seeker (as I am not) my highest ambition
at from one-half to two-thirds the expense would be realized in being a member of
of private schools,-information in regard a non-paid, intelligent hard working Board
to a liberal expenditure of money for good of Education, in the Ohio Common School
schools, that it is the most profitable in- System.
restment of money that can be made,--
information in regard to the relations of
ignorance to crime, that it is the chief

THE SCHOOL BOY. source from which our poor houses and penitentiary are filled, -information in regard to the connection between the intelligence and the enterprise of the State; that that intelligence has built our plankroads, our canals, our railroads, has Benold! along yon path which winds around added millions to our wealth, and has The mountain's rugged brow, a little boy made us the third State in the Union in With book and dinner satchel in his hand, population, and the second, if not the first, She first awakes the infant buds of spring,

And face as rosy as Aurora, wben in intellect and education--information in Winding his way to school, the school where oft regard to the effect of intelligence in cul- His sires mingled in the sports and wars tivating a taste for pure and refined en- Which gives variety and spice to youth. joyments, thus leading our youth away Anon he whistling turns aside to pluck from low and groveling pursuits-inform. The flowers wild, which in profusion rear ation in regard to the effects of well gov, Filling the air with such a sweet perfume,

Their tiny heads above the green-robed sod, erned schools, upon habits of order and That angels might almost be tempted to obedience, that they tend directly and come down from the ambrosial fields on high, strongly to make our youth sober, indus- And claim a portion of the home of man. trious, law abiding citizens-information Again be sees a wanton butterfly, in regard to the right of the State to tax Sporting amid the lilies of the vale, all the property of the State for the sup- Attracted by its wings of various hues,

And sipping honey from their lips; port of the schools, that the right comes And seeming quite forgetful that those wings from the duty of the State to protect her Can bear it from his eager grasp away, people that the public schools are cheap. He starts in haste to catch the favorite prize,


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