VOL. 328 — MARCH 27, 1926 — NO. 4264

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to one principle has been unquestioned: THE TURMOIL AT GENEVA

the permanent members were to be Great The crisis at Geneva, which is at its

Powers. This automatically involved the

recognition that Germany would receive height as these lines are written, overshadows all other European news,

a permanent seat when she joined the

League. The same thing would occur if national or international, at the mo

the Soviet Union or the United States ment, and justifies, even at the risk of were to become members. But the suggesrepetition, a restatement of press tion to give Poland, Spain, or Brazil opinion from the countries principally permanent seats involves changing the concerned. Speaking for France, Le

fundamental idea of the Council. Temps thinks anyone naïve 'who imagines that Germany has endorsed

Frankfurter Zeitung, another Liberal the policies of Geneva and Locarno in

organ, adopts the same position:the interests of general peace,' and

Disregarding the anti-German tendencies argues that the Powers have a perfect that have unquestionably influenced some right to make Germany's admission to

of our country's enemies. the whole dispute the Council subject to the reorganiza

is over two distinct questions which have tion of that body. 'It is a question other: the fulfillment of a promise un

not the slightest connection with each that has been discussed at Geneva

conditionally made to Germany to give and in the press for more than two

her a permanent seat in the Council; and years. Is n't it quite logical to take

the reorganization of the Council itself, advantage of Germany's application which has been agitated for several years to arrange the matter and to give the ' by those who do not like its present constiCouncil its final constitution?' Against tution. The first point we cannot discuss. this thesis Berliner Tageblatt, which

The German Government must insist that is a pro-League daily, says:

the promise be fulfilled. .

The only

object for which the special meeting of the The constitution of the League Council Council was called is to receive Germany is not the point at issue. It is possible that into the League. That meeting should the Council should be reformed; but hither- not raise questions that lie outside its

Copyright 1926, by the Living Age Co.

original purpose.

The reorganization Agreement is to make it impossible for of the Council should be postponed until France to conclude any alliance, even the the next regular session, which occurs under simplest military convention. Having acthe constitution in September, when every complished this and thereby deprived us member of the League will be prepared to of the agencies of defense that proved our have its say.

salvation in 1914, some English statesmen

would like to push their advantage to the Spain's attitude is thus voiced by utmost. They refuse us the right of advoEl Sol, a Liberal-Nationalist daily of cating the admission into the League CounMadrid:

cil of a nation whose interests accord with Two antagonistic principles are fighting

our own, under the pretext that it would

disturb the "régime of unanimity' under for supremacy inside the League: the

which we should henceforth live with aristocratic principle of the Great Powers,

Germany. Unquestionably, in the bottom and the democratic principle of the smaller

of their hearts they are quite aware that Powers. It may have been necessary to

such unanimity will be purchased at the classify the members thus when the


of the little States of Eastern League was organized and during the first

Europe. However this may be, steps of its development. But so far as

France cannot survive without alliances natural right and the League's main pur

face to face with that great, secret, and pose are concerned, such a distinction

powerful alliance that is called Pan-Gerbetween Great Powers and smaller Powers

manism throughout Eastern and Central is absurd and self-contradictory. Unless

Europe. Sooner or later a balance of the League of Nations succeeds in adopting

power will become imperative and will a truly democratic constitution, its future

destroy the work of Locarno. will be continually compromised. It will be an organization to favor the strong. The military and naval strength of a

Well-informed nonpartisan British country does not necessarily bear any opinion is nowhere better expressed direct relation to its service to the ends of than by the London Economist in its peace, for which the League of Nations comment upon Sir Austen Chamstands. Quite the contrary, the weaker berlain's 'surprising and disquieting' Powers are likely to be the most active speech at Birmingham on February laborers in behalf of international peace,

23:because their instinct of self-preservation 'He declared that “on the occasion compels them to be so. Consequently their

of the reconstruction of the Council, exclusion from the Council as permanent members cannot be approved either on the

which the entry of Germany involved, grounds of justice or of efficiency. The only

there had arisen inevitably and unequitable solution would be to abolish avoidably the question of what the permanent seats altogether and to give the future composition of the Council Assembly power to elect all the Council ought to be”: and he tried to party members.

the criticism that this implied an at

tempt to counterbalance Germany's Pertinax, writing in L'Echo de Paris, influence (a policy which, it is satisdisposes of Lord Grey's objection that factory to note in passing, he repudito make Poland a permanent memberated) by submitting that these other of the Council would constitute a re

claims to permanent seats had been turn to the old system of alliances, and

under discussion before the admission a betrayal of the Locarno spirit, with

of Germany became practical politics. a virtual declaration that the Locarno

He denied that the simultaneous grant spirit ought to be betrayed:

of permanent seats to other Powers The principal object of the Locarno besides Germany would be contrary

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to the spirit of Locarno, and “claimed of Locarno it was himself” would that if anyone was familiar with the assume a very sinister meaning. It understanding at Locarno it was him- would mean that Locarno was not at self."

all what the German Government "That is Sir Austen Chamberlain's and nation believed it to be, or what case; but he was silent on one pertinent the British nation believed it to be. question which his defense raises, and It would mean that in 1925, as in 1919, by which it stands or falls. If, as he the saving spirit of reconciliation and maintains, the conferment of perma- reconstruction had had its wings nent seats upon other Powers had been clipped secretly by the statesmen of canvassed so long and so often that the the principal Allied Powers before it whole composition of the Council was had been let out of its cage and given recognized, among its members, as leave to fly if it could.' being in the melting-pot by the time of the Locarno Conference, was this highly relevant fact in the situation

SOME FOREIGN COMTEMPORARIES frankly and fully explained to Ger- To a journal like the Living Age, which many? Was she warned that, while is called upon occasionally to reconcile a permanent seat on the Council was eighty-year-old traditions with modern assured to her, the Council itself was exigencies, the intimate little causerie

, probably on the point of becoming in which the editors of the London a different body, with a different com- Spectator notify their readers of their position from the Council of 1920–1925? intention, not to change the color of

'If this warning was given, and if their cover, but to take the far more Germany signed the Locarno Agree radical step of donning for the first ments with full knowledge of it, then time any cover, strikes a responsive Sir Austen Chamberlain's case is chord. They approach this delicate morally sound - though we still feel subject of apparel with the following strongly that any considerable enlarge- well-weighed introduction:ment of the Council would gravely 'It is not easy, nor is it always weaken it and not strengthen it, as desirable, to make even a slight change Sir Austen asserted that it would in in a paper. People have become his speech on Tuesday. But was Ger- used to seeing a paper produced in many given fair warning? The British a particular shape and a particular Foreign Secretary has not yet affirmed manner, and, as the saying is, they this, and the German Government has “know their way about it.” The feeling emphatically denied it. Unless Sir of proprietors is similarly shy of Austen Chamberlain can clear this up, changes, because those who own things, he rests under the imputation of hav- whatever their principles may be in ing come to a secret understanding politics and the other affairs of life, with France, either before or during are notoriously conservative about the Locarno Conference, without Ger- their own belongings. Thus no one is many's knowledge. If that unfor- more commonly opposed to change tunately proved true, it would be than the man who owns land, or the tantamount to having induced Ger- schoolboy or the soldier or the sailor, many to sign the Locarno Agreements each of whom has grown up to regard under false pretenses. In that case, his school, or his regiment, or his ship Sir Austen's claim that "if anyone in a real sense belonging to him. was familiar with the understanding We too do not make a change in the Spectator without having carefully us that 'there is no reason why every weighed the pros and cons.

advertisement should not be almost The purpose of this innovation is a work of art. ... The philosophy, not to exchange the old-time black the uses, and the methods of advertisand white for the colors of the rainbow ing' interest them intensely:or the sunset. The new cover will be "We live, it is said, in an age of ‘of the ordinary paper, bearing the advertisement. We cannot escape from name of the Spectator and an advertise- it; the right thing to do is to inspire ment.' Thus conservatively does one and use it and bend it to our will so enter on the downward path. Nor is that we get all its advantages without this step taken willfully and entirely futility or vulgarity. Most people do of the editors' own initiative. Several not understand even now how much complaints have reached them, “es- the public depends upon advertisepecially from old readers whose opin- ments. Advertisements simplify life ions we value,' that the Spectator, after for everyone. They make buying easier being read and handed about a good because readers of advertisements have deal, “is apt to become untidy.' But in their memories a ready-made catanow comes another consideration. 'A logue of what there is to buy. If great many readers have written us advertisements suddenly stopped, peoagainst interleaved advertisements' ple would, we think, be almost stagan abomination to which the Living gered by the difference which the Age has not hitherto succumbed. Until absence would make. In trade we the war the Spectator kept these neces- should seem to have taken a step back sary evils discreetly hidden at the into the Dark Ages. ... Finally, adverend of its pure reading-matter.' But tisements are an enormous benefit to circumstances have greatly changed. the public for this reason. By conInstead of a profit on every copy of the tinually making the goods advertised Spectator, apart from advertising reve- better known, they increase the sales nue, as there was before the war, 'the of those goods, and it thus becomes cost of producing the Spectator is now possible to produce them more cheaply. more than three times what it used to The greater the amount produced, the be, yet the price of the Spectator is still lower the cost of individual production. sixpence. In no industry, we believe, In brief, from the point of view of the has the cost of production risen so much readers of a paper, advertisements as in the printing trade; not only does ought to be eagerly encouraged. They it cost much more than formerly to provide the wherewithal for a larger print the paper, but the cost of paper and better paper. A larger and better itself is much higher. Under these paper brings more readers; and the conditions we could not possibly give more readers there are, the more are our readers the variety of articles and advertisers willing to advertise. This reviews which we now publish every brings in still more revenue, which in week ... unless we were enabled to its turn makes possible further imdo it by our advertisement revenue. provements in the paper. Here indeed Advertisers are willing to pay a higher is a beneficial circle.' rate for advertisements which, as the A still more venerable colleague, technical phrase is, "face matter” – Le Figaro of Paris, comes to our desk that is to say, which are interleaved.' with the announcement that it is ‘one

But lest advertisers take offense at hundred years young.' This centenaso many apologetics, the editors assure rian boast is a trifle premature. Its

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first issue appeared on July 16, 1826, in repairing a railway line near Paris, as a four-page weekly; and it carried in which several Poles were critically in its infancy a cover design, represent injured, calls attention to what may ing the Figaro of Beaumarchais, his

prove an embarrassing condition should razor in his right hand, his left holding a wave of unemployment like that from the nose of Bartholo emerging like which Great Britain and Germany are a Matterhorn from a snowy expanse suffering sweep across the neighboring of lather, and bearing this legend: republic. According to the Paris corRaillant les sots, bravant les méchants et respondent of L'Indépendance Belge, faisant la barbe à tout le monde. ... To- there are more than two million alien day this great daily, whose owner and laborers in France. In order to cope political editor, Senator François Coty, with this flood, the French are trying is better known in America for his to make naturalization easy for the perfumery than for his press interests, newcomers. Three years' residence represents the Nationalist Radicals suffices to win citizenship, but even and shows few survivals of the pica- twelve months is enough for a man who resque spirit of its youth.

shows exceptional ability. A FrenchAt the other end of the Paris press woman retains her nationality on margamut stands Le Quotidien, three years riage to a foreigner. This may lead to a old on the twelfth of February, and al- rapid assimilation of the Poles, who are ready one of the widest read and often- mostly single men and are living in a est quoted papers of the French capital. country not contiguous to their own. It contrives to be sensational in its edi- But the Italians, who migrate to torial columns and fairly conservative France in families and who settle close in its news columns. Espousing the to the frontier of their native land, in cause of the Cartel, it is none the less a districts which their countrymen recutting critic of that body's internal gard as historically belonging to Italy, dissensions and remissness. Picture the present a different problem. It is not conventional, hard-bitten American yet three score years and ten since Nice editor thus addressing his readers on and Savoy were Italian -- and historithe third birthday of his journal: 'We cal accidents and plebiscites have alhave tried to make our paper more luring possibilities. sympathetic, more generous,

The Paris correspondent of the Lonhumane than newspapers commonly don Times tells us that this foreign inare. We have sought to make it a vasion is 'getting on the nerves of the mouthpiece of incessant protest against French.' The nation is unsettled by a life's harshness, inequalities, and in- feeling that people of other races difference. We have sought through it are quietly laying hold of bits of their to address a continuous appeal to country, and penetrating their national mankind in behalf of mutual helpful- existence, without their being able to ness, justice, and goodness.'

prevent it. France cannot afford to follow the example of the United

States and close her doors to aliens. IMMIGRATION AND LABOR IN

She needs them too badly.' But even

this need does not make them welA BRIEF dispatch in the London Daily Herald describing an attack made by Of the newcomers, the Italians, who two hundred unemployed French labor- number over eight hundred thousand, ers on ninety Polish laborers engaged are the most numerous. Next in order


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