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From the Second Usurpation of Napoleon Buonaparte to his Second Abdication. THE
HE sovereigns and statesmen assembled at the the only legal title on which his existence depended: congress of Vienna bad closed their deliberations, and by appearing again in France, with projects of confusion the former had announced their departure for their re- and disorder, he has deprived himself of the protection spective capitals, when they received the unwelcome of the law, and has manifested to the universe that intelligence that Buonaparte had quitted the isle of there can be neither peace nor truce with him. The Elba, and had landed, with an armed force, 'at Frejus. powers consequently declare, that Napoleon Buona
The astonishment with wbich this news was at first parte has placed himself without the pale of civil and received was naturally succeeded by the most serious social relations; and that, as an enemy and disturber apprehensions. The force with which the invader had of the tranquillity of the world, he bas rendered himlanded was certainly feeble and contemptible ; but it self liable to public vengeance. was highly probable that the discontented soldiery of They declare, at the same time, that, firmly resolvFrance would flock to his standard, and enable him ing to maintain entire the treaty of Paris of May 30, again to disturb the tranquillity of Europe. It was 1814, and the dispositions sanctioned by that treaty, therefore necessary, by some prompt and decisive ma- and those which they have resolved on, or shall herenifesto, to avow their resolution of opposing him with after resolve on, to complete and to consolidate it, they their united forces. The following declaration was ac will employ all their means, and will unite all their cordingly published at Vienna on the 13th of March :
efforts, that the general peace, the object of the wishes of Europe, and the constant purpose of their labours,
may not again be troubled, and to provide against “ The powers who have signed the treaty of Paris, every attempt which shall threaten to re-plunge the assembled in congress at Vienna, being informed of the world into the disorders and miseries of revolutions. escape of Napoleon Buonaparte, and of his entrance
“ And, although fully persuaded that all France, into France with an armed force, owe it to their own rallying round its legitimate sovereign, will immedidignity, and the interest of social order, to make a so- ately annibilate this last attempt of a criminal and lemn declaration of the sentiments which this event has impotent delirium, all the sovereigns of Europe, aniexcited in them.
mated by the same sentiments, and guided by the same “ By thus breaking the convention which established principles, declare, that if, contrary to all calculations, him in the Island of Elba, Buonaparte bas destroyed there should result from this event any real danger, 1.
they will be ready to give to the King of France, and having taken into consideration the consequences which to the French nation, or to any other government that the invasion of France by Napoleon Buonaparte, and shall be attacked, as soon as they shall be called upon, the actual situation of that kingdom, may produce with all the assistance requisite to restore public tranquillity, respect to the safety of Europe, have resolved, in conand to make a common cause against all those who junction with his majesty the, &c. &c. to apply to that should undertake to compromise it.
important circumstance the principles consecrated by “ The present declaration, inserted in the register of the treaty of Chaumont. the congress assembled at Vienna on the 13th of March, “ They have consequently resolved to renew, by a 1815, shall be made public."
solemn treaty, signed separately by each of the four
powers with each of the three others, the engagement Soon after the publication of this document, an event to preserve, against every attack, the order of things, occurred at Vienna which excited a considerable sensa- so happily established in Europe, and to determine tion. Several persons arrived in the villages near upon the most effectual means of fulfilling that engageSchoenbrunn, the residence of the little Napoleon. ment, as well as of giving it all the extension which Among them was Count Montesquieu, a nephew of the the present circumstances so imperiously call for. child's governess. He contrived to gain admittance “ Article 1. The high-contracting parties above meninto the palace, under the pretence of visiting his tioned solemnly engage to unite the resources of their aunt; and, having corrupted some of the domestics, respective states for the purpose of maintaining entire formed the plan of carrying off the son of Buonaparte. the conditions of the treaty of peace concluded at Paris, The time was fixed, carriages were appointed to be in on the 30th of May, 1814; as also the stipulations dewaiting, and relays were ordered at every post to the termined upon and signed at the congress of Vienna, frontiers of France.
with the view to complete the disposition of that treaty, Fortunately it happened that some suspicious lan-ta preserve them against all infringement, and partiguage was overheard by a chamber-maid from one of cularly against the designs of Napoleon Buonaparte. the women who attended on the young prince. She For this purpose, they engage, in the spirit of the de- · immediately hastened to convey her suspicions to the claration of the 13th of March last, to direct in comemperor; while the police, having gained intelligence mon, and with one accord, should the case require it, of the whole plot, suffered it to proceed to the last mo- all their efforts against him, and against all those who ment, that all the accomplices might be secured. should already have joined his faction, or shall hereafter
Every thing was now fully prepared. A maid-servant join it, in order to force him to desist from his projects, had the young Napoleon in her arms, and, attended by and to render bim unable to disturb in future the tranone of the principal conspirators, was just stepping into quillity of Europe, and the general peace under the the carriage, when the officers made their appearance, protection of which the rights, the liberty, and indeand the whole party was arrested.
pendence, of nations had been recently placed and The declaration of the allied powers was, for a con- secured. siderable time after its promulgation, kept back from “ Art. 2. Although the means destined for the attainthe French papers; and, when it was published in them, ment of so great and salutary an object ought not to be it was accompanied by a commentary, the object of subjected to limitation, and although the high-conwhich was to prove that Talleyrand alone had infused tracting parties are resolved to devote thereto all those into it that spirit of personal invective against Buona- means which, in their respective situations, they are parte, by which it was distinguished : and it was added, enabled to dispose of, they have nevertheless agreed that the allies, having put forth this declaration before to keep constantly in the field, each, a force of one they knew how he was received in France, would re- hundred and fifty thousand men complete, including call, or at least not repeat it, when they learnt that be cavalry in the proportion of at least one-tenth, and a had entered the metropolis in triumph. Many persons just proportion of artillery, not reckoning garrisons ; in England were of the same opinion : but the follow- and to employ the same actively and conjointly against ing treaty of the allied powers, signed at Vienna on the the common enemy. 25th of March, as soon as they received the intelligence “ Art. 3. The high-contracting parties reciprocally of the entry of Buonaparte into Paris, plainly demon- engage not to lay down their arms but by common constrated their resolution to drive him out of France. sent, nor before the object of the war, designated in
the first article of the present treaty, shall have been " His majesty the king of the united kingdom of attained; nor until Buonaparte shall have been renderGreat Britain and Ireland, and his majesty the; &c.&c., l'ęd absolutely unable to create disturbance, and to re
new his attempts for possessing himself of the supreme most Christian majesty is invited to accede under cerpower in France.
tain stipulations, is to be understood as binding the “ Art. 4. The present treaty being principally appli- contracting parties upon principles of mutual security, cable to the present circumstances, the stipulations of to a common effort against the power of Napoleon Buothe treaty of Chaumont, and particularly those con- naparte, in pursuance of the third article of the said tained in the sixteenth article of the same, shall be treaty; but is not to be understood as binding his Briagain in force, as soon as the object actually in view tannic majesty to prosecute the war, with a view of shall bave been attained.
imposing upon France any particular government. “ Art. 5. Whatever relates to the command of the “ However solicitous the Prince Regent must be to combined armies, to supplies, &c. shall be regulated see his most Christian majesty restored to the throne, by a particular convention.
and however anxious he is to contribute, in conjunction “ Art. 6. The high-contracting parties shall be al- with his allies, to so auspicious an event, he neverlowed respectively to accredit to the generals command-theless deems bimself called upon to make this declaing their armies, officers who shall have the liberty of ration on the exchange of the ratifications, as well in
orresponding with their governments, for the purpose consideration of what is due to his most Christian maof giving information of military events, and of every jesty's interests in France, as in conformity to the printhing relating to the operations of the armies.
ciples upon which the British government has invaria“ Art. 7. The engagements entered into by the pre- bly regulated its conduct.” sent treaty having for their object the maintenance of the general peace, the high-contracting parties agree The treaty thus ratified, and with this declaration anto invite all the powers of Europe to accede to the nexed, was sent back to Vienna; and it appears from
an official letter from the Earl of Clancariy, the British “ Art. 8. The present treaty having no other end in ambassador there, that the views and intentions of the view but to support France, or any other country which other allied powers were the same as those of Great may be invaded, against the enterprises of Buonaparte Britain; for he expressly states, that “ the allies are at and his adherents, his most Christian majesty shall be war for the purpose of obtaining some security for their specially invited to accede hereunto; and, in the event own independence, and for the re-conquest of tha of his majesty's requiring the forces stipulated in the peace and permanent tranquillity for which the world second article, to make known what assistance circum- has so long panted. They are not even at war for the stances will allow him to bring forward in furtherance greater or less proportion of security which France can of the object of the present treaty."
afford them of future tranquillity, but because France,
strated that, in such a situation, he will not suffer other This treaty was sent over to Great Britain to be rati- nations to be at peace; whose restless ambition, whose fied; and at the same time that it was ratified, the fol- thirst for foreign conquest, and whose disregard for the owing explanatory declaration was annexed to it on rights and independence of other states, must expose the part of the Prince Regent:
the whole of Europe to renewed scenes of plunder and
“ However general the feelings of the sovereigns “ The undersigned, on the exchange of the ratifica- may be in favour of the restoration of the king, they tions of the treaty of the 25th of March last, on the no otherwise seek to influence the proceedings of the part of his court, is hereby commanded to declare, French in the choice of this, or any other dynasty or that the eighth article of the said treaty, wherein his I form of government, than may be essential to the safety
and permanent tranquillity of the rest of Europe: such and by the intrigues of the Prince of Benevento, that reasonable security being afforded by France in this Maria Louisa and her son were thus despoiled, .espect, as other states have a legitimate right to claim “ 4. Eugene, the adopted son of Napoleon, was to in their own defence, their object will be satisfied; and have obtained a suitable establishment out of France; they shall joyfully return to that state of peace which but he has received nothing. will then, and then only, be open to them; and lay down “ 5. The emperor had stipulated for the army the those arms, which they have only taken up for the pur-preservation of their rewards given them on Monte pose of acquiring that tranquillity so eagerly desired by Napoleon. He had reserved to himself, the power to them, on the part of their respective empires.” recompense his faithful followers. But every thing has
On the 2d of April, tbe Corsican published a mani- been taken away, and abused by the ministers of the festo in justification of his conduct. After adverting Bourbons. M. Bresson, an agent from the army, was to the style of the manifesto of the allies, of which it despatched from Vienna to assert their claims; but bis asserts, that "it provokes the crime of assassination, representations were ineffectual. and is almost unparalleled in the history of the world," “6. The preservation of the property, moveable and it proceeds to state the instances in which the treaty of immoveable, belonging to the emperor's family, was Fontainebleau was violated by the allies and the Bour-provided for; but all was robbed, -in France by combons, and by which Napoleon considered himself re- missioned brigands,-in Italy by the violence of the leased from all obligations to observe it.
military chiefs. “ The treaty of Fontainebleau has been violated by “7. Napoleon was to have received two millions, the allied powers, and by the house of Bourbon, in and his family two millions five hundred thousand what respects the Emperor Napoleon and his family, francs per annum. The French government, however, and in what regards the interests and rights of the constantly refused to discharge its engagements, and French nation.
Napoleon would soon have been obliged to disband his “ I. 'The Empress Maria Louisa and her son were to faithful guards, for want of the means of paying them, obtain passports, and an escort, to repair to the em had be not found an honourable resource in the conperor; but, in direct violation of this promise, the duct of some bankers and merchants of Genoa and husband and wife, father and son, were separated Italy, who advanced twelve millions, which they had under painful circumstances, when the firmest mind offered to him. has occasion to seek consolation and support in family “ 8. In short, it was not without a cause that it was and domestic affections.
desirable by every means to remove from Napoleon the “ 2. The security of Napoleon, and of his imperial fa- companions of his glory, the unshaken sureties of his mily and their suite, were guaranteed by all the powers; safety and of bis existence. The Island of Elba was yet bands of assassins were organized in France under assigned to bim in perpetuity; but the resolution of the eyes of the French government, and even by its robbing him of it was, at the instigation of the Bourorders, for attacking the emperor, bis brothers, and their bons, fixed upon by the congress. Had not Proviwives, in default of the success anticipated from this dence prevented it, Europe would have seen an attempt first branch of the plot. An insurrection was prepared made on the person and liberty of Napoleon, left hereat Orgon, on the emperor's route, in order that an at- after at the mercy of his enemies, and transported, far tempt might be made on his life by some brigands. from his friends and followers, either to St. Lucie or The Sieur Brulart, an associate of Georges, had been St. Helena, which had been named as his prison. sent as governor to Corsica, in order to make sure of “ And when the allied powers, yielding to the wishes the crime; and, in fact, several detached assassins and the instigations of the house of Bourbon, condeshave attempted, in the Isle of Elba, to gain, by the cended to violate the solemn contract, on the faith of murder of the emperor, the base reward which was which Napoleon liberated the French nation from its promised them.
oaths; wben he himself, and all the members of his “3. The duchies of Parma and Placentia were given family, saw themselves menaced, attacked in their perin full property to Maria Louisa, for herself, her son, sons, in their properties, in their affections, in all the and their descendants. After a long refusal to put her rights stipulated in their favour as princes, in those in possession, the injustice was completed by an abso- even secured by the laws to private citizens,-what lute spoliation, under the illusory pretext of an ex- conduct was Napoleon to adopt? change, without valuation, or sovereignty, and without “ Was he, after enduring so many injuries, and supher consent. And the documents in the office of porting so many acts of injustice, to consent to the foreign affairs prove that it was on the solicitations complete violation of the engagements entered into
with him, and, resigning himse f personally to the fate she dislikes, to the feudal chains which she has thrown prepared for him, to abandon also bis wife, his son, his off, and to the seignorial or ecclesiastical prostrations family, and his faithful servants, to their frightful des- from which she has emancipated berself; if they do not
wish to impose laws on her, to interfere with her inter“ Such a resolution seeins beyond the endurance of nal concerns, to assign a form of government to her, human nature; and yet Napoleon would have embraced and to give masters to her to satisfy the pleasure or the it, if the peace and happiness of France had been the passions of her neighbours. price of this new sacrifice. He would have devoted “ Nothing has been changed: if, when France is ochimself for the French people, from whom, as he will copied with preparing the new social compact which declare in the face of Europe, it is his glory to hold shall guarantee the liberty of her citizens, and the every thing; whose good shall be the object of all his triumph of the generous ideas which prevail in Euendeavours, and to whom alone he will be answerable rope, they do not force her to withdraw herself froin for his actions, and devote his life.”
those pacific thoughts and means of internal prosperity, The manifesto then proceeds to state the causes, to which the people and their chief wish to consecrate arising from the internal state of France, and the themselves in a happy accordance, and again direct errors of the Bourbons, which occasioned the return of their energies to war. Napoleon; the renunciation by the emperor of all bis “ Nothing has been changed: if, when the French former plans of aggrandizement, and his resolution to nation only demands to remain at peace with all Euabide by the conditions of the treaty of Paris. It also rope, an unjust coalition does not compel it to defend, deprecates the interference of foreign powers in the as it did in 1792, its will and its rights, its independchoice of the French people, and concludes as follows: ence, and the sovereign of its choice.”
* And now, replaced at the head of the nation which Two days afterwards, the following circular letter, had thrice already made choice of him, and which has written by Napoleon himself, was despatched to the a fourth time designated him by the reception which it courts of all the allies :has given him in his rapid and triumphant march and arrival, what does Napoleon wish from this nation
“ Paris, April 4, 1816. by which, and for the interest of wbich, be wishes to “ SIR, MY BROTHER, reign ?
“ You have no doubt learned in the course of the last “What the French people wish-the independence month my return to France, my entrance -into Paris, of France, internal peace, peace with all nations, and and the departure of the family of the Bourbons. the execution of the treaty of Paris, of the 30th of May, The true nature of these events must now be made 1814.
known to your majesty. They are the results of an “What is the change, then, which has taken place irresistible power ; the results of the unanimous wish in the state of Europe, and in the hope of that repose of a great nation which knows its duties and its rights. wbich was promised to it? What voice is raised to de- The dynasty which force bad given to the French mand assistance, which, according to the declaration, people was not fitted for it. The Bourbons neither asought only to be given when called for ?
sociated with the national sentiments or manners; “ Nothing has been changed: if the allied powers France has therefore separated herself from them. Her return, as it is expected they will do, to just and mo- voice called for a liberator. The hopes which induced derate sentiments; if they acknowledge that the exist-me to make the greatest sacrifices for her have not been ence of France, in a respectable and independent state, deceived. I came; and, from the spot where I first as far from conquering as from being conquered, from set my foot, the love of my people has borne me into dominating as from being subjugated, is necessary to the heart of my capital. the balance of great kingdoms, and to the guarantee of “ The first wish of my heart is to repay so much afinferior states.
fection by the maintenance of an honourable peace. “ Nothing has been changed: if, respecting the rights The restoration of the imperial throne was necessary of a great nation which desires to respect the rights of for the happiness of the French people. It is my sinall others, which, high-minded and generous, has been cerest desire to render it at the same time subservient lowered, but never degraded, they allow it to retake a to the maintenance of the repose of Europe. Enough sovereign, and give itself a constitution and laws suit- of glory bas shone by turns on the colours of the vaable to its manners, its interests, and its wants.
rious nations. The vicissitudes of fortune have often “ Nothing has been changed: if they do not attempt enough occasioned great reverses, followed by great