JANUARY, 1797.)
Additional Duties— Military Establishment.

(H. OF R. expected to produce twenty-five, or thirty thousand dol- lay before the House, a list of the number of subscriblare.

ing creditors to the United States, upon the books of 4th. COTTON KANUFACTURES NOT PRINTED, STAINED the Loan officers, in each respective State in the Union OR COLORED.—These are in very general use, and are where Loan offices have been established.” commonly inported in valuable vessels, and by esta- Mr. H. observed, that the reasons why he offered blished merchants; they are for the most part bulky in this resolution, were, that applications had of late proportion to their value, and with velvets and velve been made, by several of the Commissioners of rets, are subject only to the duty of ten per centum ad Loans of the United States, for an increase of valorem. It may possibly be safe to place these articles in the class of merchandise, subject to the duty of salary, and he thought it was proper before a detwelve and a-half per centum ad valorem ; but in this House should be possessed of the best information

cision took place upon those applications, that the case, it is conceived, that adequate provision ought to relative to the duties of the officers that could be be made for the protection of the business of printing cotton goods, which has been commenced in this counc obtained. He was of opinion, that when the salatry.

ries of the Commissioners of Loans were first esA variety of modifications of the existing duties tablished, Congress could have had no other rule might be proposed, but as their principal object would by which to apportion them than the size and be the improvement of the system of collection, by population of the States, or the sums expected to means of a new classification of the articles, without be loaned therein. He thought it could easily be intending thereby to produce any considerable augmen- made appear, that neither of these principles tation of the revenue, they are at this time omitted. would produce an equitable apportioumeni of Materials for a report on this subject are preparing, but the salaries; the Commissioners in the larger it cannot be completed during the present session. States would have much the highest salaries,

With respect to a general augmentation of the duties when, it is very probable, they might have the on imports, I conceive it to be my duty to observe, that least share of business to transact, and on the the average rate already imposed, exceeds sixteen per other hand, the Commissioners of the smaller centum ad valorem ; that the last advance of the duties States would have the least salary, with perhaps was made at a time when the commerce of the United the greatest proportion of duty. The resolution States was far from being in a natural state; that the

was ordered to lie on the table. temptations to illicit trade will increase in proportion to any reduction of the general rate of mercantile profit;

MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. and that a considerable reduction of this general rate, is to be expected whenever the present war in Europe

The House again resolved itself into a Comshall terminate. On these grounds, I conclude, that mittee of the Whole on the report of the commitpresent experience affords no certain data for an opin- tee appointed to inquire whether any and what ion respecting the permanent operation of the existing amendments may be necessary to the act to ascerduties.

tain and fix the Military Establishment of the The domestic manufactures best established, are United States. those of leather, iron, flax, potters' wares, including Mr. S. Smito proposed an alteration in the inbricks, ardent spirits, malt liquors, cider, paper of all troduction of the report, merely as to form, so as kinds, hats, stuff and silk shoes, refined sugars, sperma- to make it have the proper phraseology of a resoceti and tallow candles, copper, brass, and tin wares, lution; which was agreed to. And being readcarriages, cabinet wares, snuff, gunpowder, and salt. Mr. Coit said, he rose only for the purpose

I have the honor to be, with perfect respect, sir, your inquiry. He was satisfied there was no occasion most obedient servant, OLIVER WOLCOTT, Jur.,

for a Major General; nor did he know that there Secretary of the Treasury.

was any ne:essity for a Brigadier General. He Hon. William Smith,

wished to be informed on that subject. Chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means.

Mr. VARNUM did not see the necessity of a Bri

gadier General. As the Army would be disThe report was ordered to be committed to a persed along the frontier in small detachments, Committee of the Whole House on Monday next. he did not see the use of an officer of that grade.

Mr. DEARBORN said, this subject had undergone Tuesday, January 24.

discussion last Winter. It was then urged, not The bill for enforcing the laws of the United only that a Brigadier General was necessary, but States in the State of Tennessee, was read the also a Major General, and was ultimately so carthird time and passed.

ried. It appeared to him, indeed, that at least one Mr. R. SPRIGG, jun.. moved that the resolution general officer was necessary; and he should supwhich he laid on the table some days ago, rela- pose, for the same reason which his colleague had tive to the act for regulating grants of lands for urged against the measure, viz: the dispersedness military services, &c., be referred to the commit- of the situation of the troops; for, when their ditee to whom was referred a former resolution rela- vided situation was considered, and that, in time tive to the sale of lands Northwest of the river of peace, there was less reason to expect a strict Ohio. It was so referred.

attention to discipline and economy, ihere would

scarcely be a possibility of keeping them in order, SALARIES OF LOAN OFFICERS.

without an officer of respectable rank, who would Mr. HENDERSON offered a resolution to the fol- have it in his power to overlook the whole, to lowing purpose, viz:

know the state of each garrison, and to make " That the Secretary of the Treasury be directed to strict returns with respect to military regulations ;

4th Con.-64


H. of R.)
Military Establishment.

[JANUARY, 1797. and, without such a provision, everything relative mander, and thus the Army would be embroiled. to the Army would get into disorder. Instead of A commander, it was known, must necessarily this officer being an expense to the United States, have considerable latitude of discretion allowed he believed he would, in the end, prove a great to him, and no little share of patronage. He saving to them by taking care that no abuses ex- would generally direct what officers should be isted in the service. It was said that the Majors stationed at particular posts in higher or inferior could do the duty as well as a general officer; commands. He could give preference to one but was it not reasonable and natural to expect corps over another, by ordering the distribution bickerings amongst officers of the same grade; of clothing or pay, especially where a difference and that there would not be the same promptness in quality or deficiency in quantity and sum, in obeying the orders of one of this rank, as there made it impossible for all to be equally served. would be in obeying the commands of a superior in an officer attached to no corps exclusively, officer? Persons acquainted with military affairs such things could be seen, and borne, with much knew the necessity there was for subordination in less dissatisfaction and murmuring than in one an army. He thought it not necessary to say who had a more intimate connexion and interest much on the subject; but be thought the well- with a particular part. But that was not all; for, being of the troops required that a Brigadier Ge- in the paying of the Army, the agency of a Brineral should be retained in the service.

gadier General attached to do corps was essenMr. Hartley said, he was one of those who tially necessary. The regimental pay-abstracts were in favor of retaining the Major General last were founded upon the company pay-rolls, and session ; but, from a principle of economy, the se- were required to be signed by the commanding lect committee had recommended a repeal of that officers of the regimen.s. The Commander-inpart of the act which related to the Major Gene- Chief, after having compared and checked those ral and his staff, by which means several thou- abstracts with the muster-rolls and official resand dollars would be saved; but, after they had turns, was to issue an order for the payment of the dismissed the Major General, he was surprised to money. hear it proposed that the Brigadier should be It would be truly absurd to have the same officer, struck out also. He had wished the Major Ge- in quality of Commander-in-Chief, checking and peral to have been retained; since, if there should passing upon his own returns for pay as Colonel be occasion to call out the Militia at any time, a of a regiment. There would neither be economy Major General of Militia would not be subject to nor security in the expenditures of public moneys the command of a Brigadier General of the Army; under such arrangements. and except some provision was made in the Mi- Mr. Baldwin said, he recollected when this litia bill, this circunstance would occasion dis- subject was under consideration, some member order, if ever such a situation should happen. He said it was indisputably necessary that the Army hoped, therefore, for the reasons given by the gen- should have a Brigadier General; it did not then tleman from Massachusetts, [Mr. DEARBORN,) a appear so to him. Since the war was over, and Brigadier's staff would be retained.

even suppose it continued, he thought it being Mr. Dayton.—That as they had dispensed with entirely an interior one, they might do away the the office of a Major General, as no longer ne- form which had been of regiments, and convert cessary, it appeared to him advisable to agree to the whole force into a legionary form, and by dethis part of the report of the committee which grees an army form also ; and let the form be a recommended the retaining of a Brigadier Ge- detachment of companies strung along the fronneral in service. In addition to the reasons which tier. He thought there could be no advantage by had been urged by the members of that commit- even an army form ; for the vast extent of two tee, and by other gentlemen who had preceded thousand miles frontier to guard with few men him, there were iwo which had not, he believed, as possible, would render this distribution necesbeen mentioned, and which might be thought to sary. The force, he said, was twenty-six comdeserve consideration. If a Brigadier General panies, and he supposed there were no more than should not be provided for, the command of the twenty-six posts to occupy them; these would be Army would of course devolve upon one of the distributed from the Southern frontier to the Lieuienant Colonels commanding regiments. lakes, and some on the sea-coasts; then, while Such an event would rather tend to excite jea- they remained so extensive, what use could there lousy than to promote harmony throughout the be of a Brigadier General? Where could he so well different corps. The attachment of an officer for correspond from, and conduct affairs, as the Seat his own regiment was natural, and could not be of Government? And here Mr. B. thought he suppressed or concealed, even when his seniority would be almost useless. Here we have the of rank entitled him to exercise a more enlarged War Department, the Commissary of Stores, and command. · If in such a situation he should be the Accountant General, each of which, if clothed more prudent and cautious than men so circum- with military commissions, could effect any busislanced usually are, he could not, however, es- ness that officer would have to do, and he did not cape the suspicion and charge of his favoring his see the necessity of a Brigadier General having own to the disadvantage and injury of the other the settlement of the business mentioned by the regiments. Those who might ihink themselves gentleman from Massachusetts [Mr. DEARBORN] thus aggrieved, would make a common cause of as his being clothed with a military commission their complaints against their temporary com- would not make him more fit to take cognizance


JANUARY, 1797.)
Military Establishment.

[H. OF R. of what related to the troops, than the above sta- these men were added to the fifty-two, the comtioned officers; nor did he see how he could visit plement of which each company is composed, the different posts in the manner proposed by that they would be enough to answer all casualties by gentleman. If a part of these troops were dis- death, desertion, &c., so as always to keep up the tributed on the lakes, and another part on the full number. The expense of pay, clothing, &c., Southern frontier, he could not tell where the he had estimated at thirty-eight thousand dollars. Brigadier General could have his office. It could The saving by striking off the cavalry was fiftynot be at any of the posts, and therefore he sup- two thousand dollars, certain expenses of wagons, posed it must be at the seat of Government. &c., not included in this estimate, tents and

Mr. S. Smith said, he was on the committee of camp equipage, would be sixty thousand dollars. conference last session with the Senate, on the The addition of these eight men to a company subject of the Major General. It was the opinion would give two hundred and fifty-six men, of the House of Representatives, that there should place of one hundred and four, at much less price. be a Brigadier only, because the number of troops, These would give an additional strength, at less beiog four regiments of infantry, was a Brigadier's expense than horse. Yesterday, Mr. S. said, he command. It was urged, on the part of the Se- stated that the expense of two companies of horse pate, that the Major General was necessary for was equal to a regiment of infantry, by which he the purpose of taking possession of the posts, and meant the privates of a regiment, viz: four hunit was iberefore finally agreed that he should be dred and sixteen men. If he was understood difretained until March next. At that time it was ferently, he wished this to be taken as a correcundetermined whether the Brigadier or Major tion. General should go out of the service at that time. Mr. HARTLEY said, there was some difficulty The gentleman from Pennsylvania (Mr. HARTLEY] with respect to this clause of the report. Some thought it necessary to keep up the Major General

, gentlemen thought the number of men sufficient because, if called out with the Militia, he would already. He was of a different opinion; and as have the superior command of a Major General the horse were struck out, he thought the addiof Militia ; but to strike out both the Major Ge- tional men necessary. He believed, without this neral and Brigadier General, would be to leave addition, there would not be a sufficiency of troops the Army without a head; and so far from such to garrison the posts; and he had founded his a measure being a measure of economy, it would opinion upon information from good authority. prove destructive of economy. There was a great He should therefore vote in favor of the report. saving, Mr. S. said, by an officer coinmanding the Mr. DEARBORN said, the committee was not whole; if it were otherwise, the Army would be unanimous upon this clause of the report. He disjointed.

believed it unnecessary that these men should be If the gentleman from Connecticut, who made added, and that the four regiments of artillery were the motion, had been a military man, this motion, fully equal to all the objects for which they were he thought, would not have been made; as a mi-wanted: he would sooner vote for the reduction litary man, Mr. S. declared, that such a measure of a regiment than for this addition. He had enwould be attended with the most ruinous conse-deavored to satisfy himself of the number of garquences.

risons necessary to be kept up, and the men reMr. Coit said he made no motion, but merely quired for each. As to the casualties which it inquired for information.

was said always happened amongst men, they Mr. HARTLEY said, the gentleman did not know could not be avoided; nor was it necessary to calthe consequence of such a regulation; he did not culate within four or five men for a post; as, for know who would have the command. The pre-instance, if fifty men were thought to be necessent Brigadier General, he said, was a man of sary for a post, if four or five died out of that abilities and respectability, and it would be econo- number, it could not be supposed that those who my to keep him in the service.

remained would not be able to defend it. He The question for repealing that part of the act should therefore be opposed to the resolution. which relates to the Major General and his staff The question was put on the resolution, for addwas put and carried-ayes 43, noes 32.

ing eight men to a company, and negatived withThe two next resolutions were put and agreed out a division. to; and that for adding eight privates to each The next resolution, advancing the pay of the company being under consideration,

officers, was agreed to without any opposition. Mr. Williams thought this would be improper On the last resolution, for allowing Majors four at the present time, as there was a proposition for rations per day, lessening the number. This, he said, would aug- Mr. S. Smith said, that the subsistence of the ment it two hundred and fifty-six men. Each Majors had, by mistake, been omitted in the act company now was composed of fifty-two privates, passed last session, and they had therefore introfour corporals, four sergeants, and two officers; duced it here. which made sixty-two: as he saw no need to This was agreed to. make a larger augmentation, he thought this pro- It was moved that the Committee rise; when posal wrong, and therefore hoped it would not be Mr. HOLLAND said, before the Committee rose, agreed to.

he wished to add an amendment to the first secMr. S. Smith said, this was a question discussed tion, after the word “ repealed," "and that the in the select committee. It was argued, that if I four regiments of infantry be reduced to three." H. OF R.)

Military Establishment.

[JANUARY, 1797

Does 38.

It was desirable, he said, to reduce the establish- of things, he should vote for retaining the four ment as much as possible. The Committee had regiments, as he believed it would prove a misdetermined not to reduce the infantry from four fortune to the country, if the regiment proposed to two regiments; but though they did not think was done away. it right to make so great a deduction, he trusted Mr. Williams said, if they were for a moment they would agree to reduce them from four to to suppose, for the sake of argument, that there three.

was danger of a war from European nations, he The question was put and negativedayes 37, would inquire how they should guard against it?

Would it be by garrisoning the frontier ? No, he The Committee then rose, and reported the re-believed not; and, therefore, from the arguments solutions, and the House took them up; when of the gentleman himself, he ought to reduce the

Mr. Gallatin proposed to amend the report, by number of infantry and increase that of the artilintroducing the amendment just negatived in the lery. This, Mr. W. said, was his intention when Committee of the Wholc, viz: for reducing the he proposed to reduce the four regiments to two; infantry from four to three regiments, and desired for, if there was any danger it was on the seathe yeas and pays to be taken upon it. The yeas coast; therefore, to reduce the infantry and inand nays were agreed to be taken.

crease the artillery would be real economy. Mr. HARTLEY said, they were some how or Mr. Page said, if he had thought the amendother in the habit of disorganizing. Last year ment really economical, he might bave voted for the whole complexion of our Military Esta- it; but as he believed it was quite the reverse, as blishment was changed, and now it was to un- the reduction of troops at the time that the numdergo another change. Last year the men and ber of posts were increased, and some posts were officers were appointed to each other; he hoped to be advanced far beyond any hitherto occupied, they should not become habitual disorganizers by and out of the reach of reinforcements or succor, adopting the present motion.

must necessarily endanger the loss of some posts, Mr. Buck hoped it could not be said that he which would, without counting the loss of men, was a favorer of disorganization; but he did not be found, in loss of stores, ammunition, and arms, see at present any necessity for keeping up the an expensive circumstance. It had been said that whole of the Military Establishment. Could the the Indians could not take a fortified post, however number of garrisons and of troops necessary for weakly garrisoned; but this was a great mistake, them be ascertained, he would cheerlully 'vote for they took from the British in one day, under for the number wanted; but until that informa- their leader, Pontiach, immediately after the war tion was before them, being in time of peace, and between Great Britain and France, every post not wishing to keep up more troops ihan were they held, except Detroit and Fort Pitt. As to the necessary, he should vote for the proposed reduc- state of peace we were in, said Mr. P., although tion.

he believed the Indians might at present recollect Mr. ClaiBORNE_was of the opinion, with the the circunstances which induced them to make gentleman from Pennsylvania, (Mr. HARTLEY] peace with the United States, he said he did not that they were about to reduce disorganization rely on its continuance, so as to think it politic or to a system; and, unless they economized a little economical to reduce the number of our troops, better, the whole Government would be disor- and to expose the remainder in distant posts, out ganized. He was for economizing, in order to of the reach of relief. Indeed, said he, I think it prevent that disorganization. He hoped, there- cruel to expose a small garrison in some of the infore, the amendment would prevail.

tended posts, as the savages would attack them Mr. W. LYMAN said, if this were a time of pro- whenever caprice or avarice should prompt them. found peace, perhaps this question would carry a From motives of economy, said he, I opposed the different aspect; but this country could not be first motions for raising an Army and holding posts said to be in a state of profound peace; for, though on our frontiers, and then observed, that if we we were not in hostility, there were several na- raised one regiment, we should soon be called on tions in hostility to us." Was this, then, a time for another, and that if we began to establish for reducing the Military Establishment? He posts, there would be no end to establishments; thought not. It was very uncertain whether we but having now established certain posts, be suid should continue in a state of peace or not. Under he believed it would be politic and economical to this impression, and aided by the information take care of them and their garrisons. which the select committee had given, he he- Mr. Isaac Smith said, it did not appear that any lieved it was necessary to retain the whole of the garrison held last year had been abandoned this, establishment. The committee had stated the and it was well known they had now a number of posts and the number of men required, and gave fresh garrisons on the Southen frontier; he ihereit as their opinion that the whole four regiments fore could see no propriety in reducing the four would be required. He was satisfied, and he be- regiments to three. lieved the committee had retrenched the expense Mr. RUTHERFORD said, no one respected miliof the establishment as much as possible. tary characters more than him; but he thought,

If it were profound peace, (as he had already nevertheless, it would be a valuable tning to resaid,) and there were no distant expectations of duce the infantry from four to three regiments, hostility from any quarter, he would agree to the which would inake them more complete. It was amendment proposed. But, in the present state l his sincere wish that every private should be well

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accommodated and well paid. He surely wished were unnecessary, or that the coutemplated pumthat, and he could say that he wept after the ber of men for each was too great, he should have hearse of any brave man who fell in the defence been at a loss how to have voted; but when he of his country, and would mingle tears with his bad only heard, in support of the amendment, that relatives and friends. He knew we had many our finances needed economy, he felt no embarbrave military characters. This he rejoiced in. rassment in giving it his direct negative. If the And it would be remembered that it would be an principle upon which the amendment was supeasy matter to increase the troops. if it were at ported was true, it should be carried farther; if any time necessary, perhaps more easily than to we were in profound peace, and economy were to reduce them; he was, therefore, for making the be pursued, why not disband the whole establishproposed reduction. In this case, he said, the best ment? For, if they admitted an Army of any troops would be retained ; and if any emergency kind to be necessary, they would certainly admit should at any time arise, the brave yeomanry that it ought to be sufficiently large for the purwould come forward in aid of the military corps; poses for which it was wanted. They had, he and therefore, at this time, when our revenue was said, appointed a committee on the subject, who embarrassed, if the four regiments could be re- had informed them of the garrisons necessary, and duced to three, it would be a valuable purpose of the troops proper to be placed in them, by which done for the people whom they served—it would it appeared that the whole four regiments would but be their duty.

be wanted; and therefore he believed there would Mr. SWANWICK said, some gentlemen had, on be no propriety in reducing the number on the tbis occasion, spoken of the danger of war; but ground of economy. if there was any danger of this kind, our infantry For his own part, Mr. S. said, he did not prewould not serve us. And yet, whilst gentlemen tend to be a judge of military affairs; but he were ready to increase this department of our thought, when our posts were increased, the miliforce, they were willing to do away the frigates. tary for garrisoning them ought not to be decreasThe gentleman from New York, [Mr. Williams,] ed. A state of peace with the Indians, he believindeed, very different from his usual conduct, had ed, did not do away the necessity of a Military said that he would carry the amount of the re- Establishment, because he believed that peace was trenchments in the Army to the Navy. On this only to be continued by the terror inspired by the occasion, he said, he joined in opinion with that garrisons. gentleman; he thought they had already spent too He would take this opportunity of remarking much on land and too little at sea ; and, therefore, upon what had fallen from his colleague, [Mr. in hopes that that gentleman and others would Gallarin,) who had said that he thought the vote with him for the frigates when they should four regiments necessary, but that on account of come under view, and because he thought it would the unwillingness of the House to grant revenue, answer them a much better purpose to have a he would wish to reduce them. Mr. S. said, he number of sailors than so many troops, he should believed the circumstances of this country to be vote for the amendment.

such as were fully equal to all the expenses of GoMr. S. Smith hoped this motion would not ob- vernment; he believed the people were both able tain. The question had already been tried in and willing to pay those expenses.

Indeed, if Committee of the Whole, to reduce the infantry there could be any reliance upon the decision of to two or three regiments, and both had failed; that House, there would be no doubt of revenue he trusted they would again fail. When the se- being found. If there was any unwillingness there, lect committee had estimated that the four regi- however, to find revenue, he believed there was ments would be necessary, and that the surplus none out of doors. There might, indeed, be obwould only be four companies, which it would be jections to the mode of raising revenue, but he beright to place in a proper situation to serve as a lieved the people were ready to give what was corps de reserve, which might be applied to in necessary. case of attack, he thought these attempts to reduce Mr. S. said, that when gentlemen agreed that the number was extraordinary. He did not know the four regiments were pecessary, it was their whether it was the intention of gentlemen to duty to vote for them, and to provide the means strike out the officers of a regiment only; if this for paying them. It was not right to say, " We was their meaning, the saving would be very tri- agree the men are wanted, but there will be found Aling indeed. He was apprehensive this idea of a difficulty in paying them, and therefore we will economy would carry them too far; for his part, withhold our vote;" they ought to vote for the he was not for the name of economy, when he men, and afterwards provide the money: Such was convinced it would not produce the effect. was his opinion, and he believed it to be the opinHe found men, heretofore liberal in granting mo-ion of the people in general ; he should, therefore, ney, since direct taxes had been under discussion, vote for retaining the present number of infantry. were become very sparing. He was afraid, how- Mr. Preston hoped this motion would not preever, their fear of direct taxes would carry them vail. He voted yesterday for doing away the catoo far.

valry, but he had no idea of reducing the infantry, Mr. SITGREAVES said, if he had discovered any as he believed the present establishment necessadifference of opinion among military gentlemen ry for the protection of the frontiers. It was true on this subject; if he had heard that any of the we were at peace, but it was also true that it was posts which had been proposed to be garrisoned with a faithless people, who, when their disposi

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