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WHITE CROSS SOCIETY. An organization for the promotion of personal purity among It is sometimes called the White Cross Army, and its members are known as Knights of the White Cross, because the order is in the nature of a crusade not only for the improvement of men, but also for the elevation of women. The first White Cross Society was formed in England, by the Bishop of Durham, in his own diocese. To Miss Ellice Hopkins the bishop ascribes the honor of giving the inspiration for the movement. In speaking of the aims of the order, he says: "The obvious hopelessness of attacking the degradation of women and children from one side only, is at length forcing itself on the recognition of the Church. The weary hammering away at degraded women, while leaving all the causes that make them degraded untouched, is beginning to be recognized as not a very fruitful method. We must strike at the root of the evil. A more wholesome and righteous public opinion must be created in the matter of social purity. Not until it is generally recognized that the man who has wrought a woman's degradation is at least as great an offender against society as the man who has robbed a till, or the man who has forged a check-nay, much greater, for he has done a far more irreparable wrong-not until society is prepared to visit such an offender with the severest social penalties, will there be any real change for the better. So long as the violation of purity is condoned in the one sex, and visited with shame in the other, our unrighteousness and unmanliness must continue to work out its own terrible retribution. Is it beyond hope that, by involving widely the principle of association on a very simple religious basis, this end of creating a healthy public opinion may be obtained?" In regard to the machinery employed to reach this end the same authority says: "The White Cross movement has the advantage of flexibility. It may be worked as a parochial or a town organization, or both. It may be grafted on some existing guild or society, or it may be worked independently, as is found convenient. It may be connected with the Church of England Purity Society, or it may be erected on a narrower or a broader religious basis, as its promoters desire. The one characteristic that we regard as distinctive of White Cross fellowship is the adherence to the fivefold pledge." The pledge alluded to is as follows: "I, promise by the help of God-1. To treat all women with respect, and endeavor to protect them from wrong and degradation. 2. To endeavor to put down all indecent language and coarse jests. 3. To maintain the law of purity as equally binding upon men and women. 4. To endeavor to spread these principles among my companions, and to try and help my younger brothers. 5. To use every possible means to fulfill the command Keep thyself pure.' The age at which boys are permitted to join the society is
placed at sixteen years. It is announced that a White Cross league may be organized in a church, a Bible-class, a secular school, or in a manufacturing establishment where men are employed; that any mother may form a society in her home with her own boys and their companions; and that if a league be formed in a church, the pastor, Sunday-school superintendent, and teachers, the older and prominent men, as well as the younger, in a word, all the men and all the boys over sixteen years of age in the congregation should be asked to unite. The first efforts of the Bishop of Durham were made in 1883, and the work spread rapidly over England, men of all classes and professions enrolling themselves. The movement is said to have made special headway at Cambridge and Oxford. Immense gatherings of pitinen, clerks, and others, held to gain recruits, were addressed by ministers and laymen, and often with great effect by Miss Hopkins. Organizations were soon formed in England's colonies, in India, Africa, Australia, and Canada. The first society in America, formed in February, 1884, in New York city, now numbers over one thousand members. Branches have also been established in all the larger cities of the United States. While this work has received the countenance of the Church of England, and of the Episcopal Church in America, in so marked a degree, it has also been taken up by special organizations, and earnest men and women in all denominations. At the annual meeting of the National White Cross T. U. in Philadelphia, in November, 1885, that society created a department for social purity, with the intent that it should include efforts to organize White Cross leagues. Other vehicles for the spread of the organization have been formed in the Young Men's Christian Associations throughout the United States.
WISCONSIN. State Government.-The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, Jeremiah M. Rusk, Republican; Lieutenant-Governor, George W. Ryland; Secretary of State, Ernst G. Timme; Treasurer, Henry B. Harshaw; Attorney-General, C. E. Estabrook; Superintendent of Public Schools, Jesse B. Thayer; Railroad Commissioner, Atley Peterson; Insurance Commissioner, Philip Cheek; Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, Arasmus Cole; Associate Justices, William P. Lyon, Harlow S. Orton, David Taylor, and John B. Cassody.
Legislative Session.-The Legislature met on January 12, and adjourned on April 16, after a session of ninety-four days. U. S. Senator Philetus Sawyer, who was unanimously nominated by the Republican caucus, was re-elected. The Democratic candidate was John Winans. A bill reapportioning the State for members of the Legislature was passed at this session; also bills prohibiting aliens from acquiring or holding more than 320 acres of land, unless by inheritance or for debt, providing for the levy in
1888 or 1889 of a special tax of $200,000, if the Governor shall deem it necessary, to meet the appropriation for new buildings at the State University, and authorizing the prison officials in their discretion to purchase machinery for the State Prison, and begin the business of manufacturing therein by the State on its own account. Special appropriations were made of $65,000 for buildings at the School for Dependent Children, and of $175,000 for the construction of Science Hall and other buildings at the State University. The State also agreed to pay three dollars a week to the Veteran's Home, established by the Grand Army, for the support of each inmate thereof. A constitutional amendment, passed at the session of 1885, giving to the Legislature power to prescribe the qualifications and duties of the State Superintendent of Schools and other school officers, and to fix the superintendent's salary, was again adopted; and a new amendment, making the oldest member of the Supreme Court in point of service ex-officio chief-justice, was proposed for the first time. Other acts of the session were as follow:
Abolishing the State Board of Immigration. Providing that all factories and public buildings shall be erected with fire-escapes and outward-swinging doors.
Appropriating money for the erection of monuments on the Gettysburg battlefield.
To incorporate the city of Onalaska, the city of Juneau, the city of Richland Center, the city of Marinette, the city of Ashland, the city of Reedsburg, and eight others.
To punish the taking and carrying away by trespass of things annexed to the realty.
To provide for the formation of mutual or co-operative associations for carrying on any trade or engaging in any business.
Punishing the issue of bank checks by persons having no money on deposit.
Requiring dealers and consumers of imitation butter to posta notice of such sale or use in their establishments. To provide for the partition of personal property owned by tenants in common.
Raising the age of consent in females from ten to fourteen years.
For the confinement of habitual drunkards in an inebriate or insane asylum.
To punish the abduction of unmarried women for purposes of prostitution.
To prevent the holding of elections in saloons or rooms adjoining saloons.
To punish false pretenses in obtaining the registration of cattle and other animals, and to punish giving false pedigrees.
To prevent deception in the sale of cheese. Punishing the sale of land which the seller knows to be encumbered, without informing the purchaser in regard thereto.
Authorizing railway companies to appoint police officers to protect their property.
Making the conversion of property by a bailee pun
ishable as larceny.
Punishing by fine or imprisonment any conspiracy to "boycott" or otherwise injure a person in his repu
tation or business.
Authorizing the board of supervisors of each county to levy a tax, not exceeding one fifth of a mill, for the relief of indigent soldiers, sailors, and marines, and their wives and children, and providing a county commission for the distribution of the fund raised by this
Authorizing and regulating the organization of loca fire insurance companies.
thistles, daisies, and other noxious weeds growing on Requiring owners of land to destroy all Canada their land, before such time as they shall bear seed, and creating an officer in each town and city to enforce this act.
To provide for the construction of levees to protect bottom lands from overflow.
Authorizing town officers to suppress or license the keeping of billiard and pool tables and bowling-alleys. To prevent employers from black listing employés. Enacting a new game law and a new fish law. To provide for the burial of honorably discharged soldiers.
To prevent the killing of birds for millinery purposes.
Authorizing the use of one twentieth of its portion of the school fund income by each school district for the purchase of a school library.
To punish interference with persons employed at lawful labor, and with the use or operation of machinery. Extending the lien law to architects, civil engineers, surveyors.
To appropriate a fund for the prevention and suppression of Asiatic cholera and other dangerous dis
Finances. The report of the Treasurer for the year ending September 30 shows cash on hand at the beginning, $485,689.85; general receipts, $1,021,963.86; educational fund receipts, $783,158.90; total, $2,290,812.61. The disbursements for the same time were $755,777.82 from the educational fund, and $1,415,423.97 from other funds; total, $2,171,201.79, leaving a surplus of $119,610.82 on September 30. The largest item of receipts, $763,994.56, is derived from a tax on railroad companies. only tax levied upon individual property is a small rate for educational purposes. The total debt of the State, $2,252,000, bearing interest funds. The amount of these trust funds on at 7 per cent., is all held by the State trust September 30 was $4,738,465.99, distributed as follows: School-fund, $2,893,986.26; University fund, $194,438.47; Agricultural College fund, $228,382; Normal School fund, $1,416,903.26; drainage fund, $4,756.
Charities. The number of inmates of the several State asylums on December 31, was as follows: 643; Milwaukee hospital, 338; total, 1,485. State hospital, 504; Northern hospital, There were in county asylums at the same date 1,220 more, making a total of 2,705 cared
for at public institutions. The State School for the Deaf contained 213 pupils at the close of the year, the School for the Blind 85 pupils, and the public School for Dependent Children 97 pupils. At the new Veterans' Home, at Waupaca, 12 inmates had been received before the year ended.
Prisons. There were 446 convicts at the State Prison on December 31. The State hires their labor to a manufacturer, at a fixed rate per day for each man, and pays all the prison expenses. By this arrangement the actual cost of the prison is $10,000 annually. The industrial school for boys contained 349 inmates when the year closed.
Agriculture.—About half of the population of the State is engaged in agriculture upon 150,000 farms having an area of 16,000,000 acres, 8,000,000 of which are in cultivation. acreage of corn last year was 1,000,000, producing 32,000,000 bushels. The pasturage and grasses of Wisconsin amount annually to $45,000,000, of which the hay-crop represents $15,000,000. Farm-lands and farin-products for 1886 were valued at $600,000,000, which is $200,000,000 more than all other industries in the State.
Political. At the State election in April, the only officer to be chosen was a justice of the Supreme Court. Justice Harlow S. Orton was re-elected without opposition, receiving 127,944 votes out of a total of 128,308.
WOLFE, CATHERINE LORILLARD, an American philanthropist, born in New York City, March 8, 1828; died there, April 4, 1887. She was the youngest and only surviving child of John David Wolfe, a rich hardware merchant, and Dorothea Ann, youngest daughter of Peter Lorillard the elder. She received an excellent education, and in early life was a leader in society. On the death of her mother, in 1867, she withdrew from social life and devoted herself to her father, who died in 1872. Both parents were noted for their many deeds of charity and their ardent love of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Her father was a warden for many years of Grace Church, with which she united in early life, and to which she gave the chantry at the south side and Grace Honse at the north, the grand organ, the reredos, and a large stained-glass window (regarded as the most beautiful and costly in the United States) at the back of the transept. Her father survived the rest of Mr. Lorillard's heirs, and at his death left her sole heiress to a fortune estimated at $12,000,000 from the two estates, much of which consisted of securities and real estate. From that time till her death she gave away about $2,000,000 for religious, educational, and charitable purposes, averaging over $200,000 a year. During the last year of her life she gave $50,000 to purchase a church for the Italian mission in New York; $30,000 to the trustees of Grace Church to purchase a building on Fourth Avenue in the rear of the church, which she desired torn
down, that nothing should ever obscure the light from the stained-glass window; $170,000 for the purchase of a lot and the erection of a diocesan house in Lafayette place; $25,000 to the Virginia Seminary; $40,000 to the American Church in Rome, Italy; $20,000 to the American school in Athens, Greece; $30,000 for educational purposes in Iowa, besides endowing the chair of English Literature and Belles Lettres in Griswold College; over $100,000 to home and foreign missionary societies; and corresponding amounts to sev
CATHERINE LORILLARD WOLFE.
eral churches and schools in Nevada, California, Colorado, Georgia, Kansas, and Minnesota. She had previously given $50,000 to Union College, $50,000 to St. Johnsland College, $30,000 toward purchasing the site on which the Home for Incurables, at Fordham, N. Y., is built, and a large sum for the endowment of the Wolfe Fund for Infirm Clergymen, besides establishing the Newsboys' Lodging House, and supporting the Wolfe expedition to Asia Minor in 1884. She had a house and lot, valued with the furniture at over $300,000, in New York City, and an estate at Newport, R. I., the lot, house, and furniture of which represented an outlay of $500,000. In her will she gave her entire collection of oil paintings and water-color draw ings to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, bequeathing $200,000 for their preservation, and gave the corporation of Grace Church $350,000 for the care of the edifice and the buildings she had previously provided, and the promotion of worship according to the rites of the Protestant Episcopal Church.
WYOMING TERRITORY. Territorial Government.-The following were the Territorial officers during the year: Governor, Thomas Moonlight; Secretary, Elliott S. N. Morgan, succeeded by Samuel D. Shannon; Auditor, Mortimer N. Grant; Treasurer, William P. Gannett; Attorney-General, Hugo Donzel
man; Superintendent of Public Instruction, John Slaughter; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, William L. Maginnis; Associate Justices, Jacob P. Blair and Samuel T. Corn.
Population. The number of people in the Territory at the close of the year is estimated at 85,000, an increase of 10,000 since 1886.
Finances. The Territory has no public debt, except to a very limited amount. The last session of the Legislature in 1886 authorized the issuing of $230,000 in bonds, divided as follows: For a capitol building to be erected at Cheyenne, $150,000; a university at Laramie City, $50,000; and an insane asylum at Evanston, $30,000. These bonds, payable in fifteen to thirty-five years, with six per centum annual interest, were sold at an average premium of over five cents on the dollar. The valuation of assessed property for the year was $32,089,613.12, of which $5,741,715.46 was the estimate for railroad property. The total valuatien is $1,068,829 higher than that of last year, an increase caused chiefly by an act of the Legislature in 1886 taxing all railroad lands. A tract of twenty miles wide on each side of the Union Pacific Railroad was thus placed upon the rolls. The tax-levy was 24 mills for the general fund, one quarter of a mill each for the university fund and the bond tax fund, and one hundredth of a mill for the insane asylum fund. A tax of one hundredth of a mill is also imposed on cattle, horses, mules, and sheep, for the stock indemnity fund.
Education. The following figures present the condition of the public schools in 1866, the date of the latest report: Number of schoolhouses, 111; schools taught, 180; male pupils, 2.572; female pupils, 2,416; teachers, 210. In September the Territorial University provided for by the Legislature of 1886 was formerly opened at Laramie City.
YOUMANS, EDWARD LIVINGSTON, an American scientist, born at Coeymans, Albany County, N. Y., June 3, 1821; died in New York city, Jan. 18, 1887. His father was a farmer and wagon-builder, whose independence and gifts of clear, incisive expression made him one of the leading men in the neighborhood. His mother, a woman of energy and capacity, had been a teacher before marriage. In her blood was a Celtic strain, which came out distinctly in the vivacity and enthusiasm of her son. To pay the subscription to the local circulating library he planted a potato-patch in a corner of his father's farm. This local library contained not more than four hundred volumes, of which the only work of science was Buffon's "Natural History," which young Youmans read and reread. In his fourteenth year he was attacked with a malady of the eyes, which afflicted him more or less throughout his life. He persisted in
Charities. The building for the Territorial Insane Asylum, at Evanston, was nearly completed at the close of the year, and will afford accommodations for the insane who are now cared for by the different counties and by individuals. The Institute for the Education of Deaf-mutes has been located at Cheyenne, and was ready at the close of the year.
The Capitol.—The Capitol is the fourth public building in course of erection by the Territory during the year, all of them being provided for by the Legislature of 1886. It is of cut and dressed stone, and is of ample proportions. At the close of the year it was sufficiently completed for use by the incoming Legislature.
Mining.-Gold, silver, copper, and iron are found in the mountainous sections of the Territory, but not in quantities sufficiently rich to make mining profitable; some mines are worked on a limited scale, but their total annual product is not known. Deposits of coal underlie a large part of the Territory.
Stock-Raising. The interests of cattle-growers have suffered during the year from low prices, and from losses during the severe winter of 1886-'87. The number of cattle returned as assessed for the year, 753,608, shows a large decrease from the assessment of 1886. Their assessed value, $10,186,360, is nearly one third of the entire valuation of the Territory. More horses and sheep were assessed in 1887 than ever before.
Oil.-Large developments have been made during the past few years, in the oil-fields.
Railroads.—The number of miles of railroad assessed in 1887 was 669-64, of which 498-54 miles were owned by the Union Pacific Railroad, 92-34 by the Oregon Short Line, and 78.76 by the Wyoming Central. The last line is in process of construction westward through the central part of the Territory.
reading and study when his eyes demanded rest, and his imprudence resulted in so serious an aggravation of his case that at seventeen his vision was almost totally lost. He was obliged to relinquish his post as teacher in a common school and his purpose of entering college. Until he was thirty he remained practically blind. Finding the services of the local oculist of no avail, in 1840 he went to the metropolis for treatment in the eye infirmary. He remained there several weeks without improvement, when he was informed by the physician in charge that his case was hopeless. He left the infirmary only to go from one oculist to another for examination. Among these, Dr. Elliott gave him most encouragement, and to the care of this skillful physician he committed himself, and the first moderate fee was the only one the doctor ever accepted during years of constant treatment. Until 1851 Mr. Youmans did not measurably
recover his vision; short intervals of improved sight alternated with long periods of total blindness. The mental depression incident to this experience was deepened by the severity of his struggle for bread. He managed to pay his way by assiduous literary toil in various fields; but the incidental hardships of his lot did much to retard his recovery of sight. Friendship, however, won by his intelligence, courage, and address, he enjoyed in many useful quarters. To the end of his life he recalled with feeling kind services rendered him in days of poverty and blindness. In 1845, the sixth year of his residence in New York, his sister, Miss Eliza Ann Youmans, came to live with him and aid him in his work.
While earning a livelihood with his pen, Mr. Youmans prosecuted a course of scientific
EDWARD LIVINGSTON YOUMANS.
study, centering his interest in the chemistry of agriculture. His blindness made it impossible for him to see chemical experiments, much less perform them, so that he could form clear conceptions of chemical fact and law only by asking many questions and applying himself perseveringly to study of the information he received. His difficulties as a student, faithfully overcome, enabled him, when he took up the task of exposition, to make clear and interesting to others the knowledge he had with so much pains first made clear to himself. While occupied one day with the subject of presenting chemistry attractively and intelligibly to those uninformed about it, he planned a graphical method of picturing to the eye the principal compounds of chemistry and their component atoms. His "Chemical Chart" resulted. It won acceptance at once as a valuable aid in teaching chemistry, and from educators throughout the country came requests that the author should prepare a book to go with it. Mr. Youmans then applied himself to this task, his sister acting as reader and
amanuensis. Carefully studying the standard chemical text-books of the day, he found them technical, abstract, and diffuse-quite unsuited for such common schools as he had attended when a boy. Keeping in mental view such pupils as he himself had been, he dictated his Class-Book of Chemistry." Its style was so simple and clear, its presentation so animated by an evident love of the subject, its illustrations from every-day matters so well chosen, that the volume sprang into popularity at once. With its two subsequent and rewritten editions, the "Class-Book" has found more acceptance than any other work on chemistry ever issued. In 1854 Mr. Youmans published a "Chemical Atlas," an extension of the method employed in the "Chart." It presented pictorially the chemical changes involved in combustion, respiration, fermentation, and the solar influences exerted on the earth. The atlas was accompanied by text as lucid as that of the "Class-Book."
His success as author of these publications determined his career. Debarred from adding to science by original research, he decided to devote himself to the work of making science known and appreciated by the common people. His remarkable gifts in conversation soon led to his being asked to lecture on the topics that so much interested him. His talents in elucidation and enthusiasm of manner filled the halls wherever he appeared. His lectures, delivered throughout the United States, comprised courses on the "Relations of the Living World to the Atmosphere," the "Chemistry of the Sunbeam," and the "Dynamics of Life." In 1856, the year after its publication, Mr. Youmans read Mr. Herbert Spencer's "Psychology," and was so much impressed with its ability that a correspondence with the author ensued, resulting in the publication in New York of Mr. Spencer's essays on education. The acquaintance with Mr. Spencer soon ripened into a friendship which lasted to the end of Mr. Youmans's life, and largely determined his course as the chief popularizer in America of the philosophy of evolution. In 1866, when Mr. Spencer's losses from his works had compelled him to suspend publication, Mr. Youmans raised a subscription of $7,000 among the American admirers of the English philosopher, enabling him to resume his plans.
Convinced that one of the principal fields for science was in its application to household economy. Mr. Youmans published in 1857 his "Hand-Book of Household Science." It was characterized by the same good style as the "Class-Book," and proved very successful. In 1864 he published the "Correlation and Couservation of Forces," a collection of expositions by eminent scientists of the new theory of the relations of forces. His introduction to the volume set forth the work done in America toward establishing the new philosophy. Three years later he issued the "Culture demanded by Modern Life," presenting the views