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of the foremost modern physicists, chemists, and other scientific specialists regarding the value of science, not only as knowledge for guidance of life, but as affording the best mental discipline. Mr. Youmans's contributions to the volume were on "Scientific Study of Human Nature" and on "Mental Discipline in Education." Not only as author and lecturer did Mr. Youmans do much for the diffusion of science in America, but also by causing the republication in New York of the most valuable English scientific works as they appeared in London. On his advice Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. produced American editions of Bagehot, Buckle, Carpenter, Darwin, Huxley, Lubbock. Lyell, Roscoe, Spencer, Tyndall, Whewell, and others. In every case the author was paid exactly as much as if he were an American enjoying copyright. In 1871 Mr. Youmans gave further extension to this enterprise by planning the "International Scientific Series," the volumes to appear simultaneously in New York, London, Paris, Leipsic, Milan, and St. Petersburg. The project gave all the

ZANZIBAR, a nonarchy on the eastern coast of Africa. The reigning sovereign is Seyid Burgash ben Said, who succeeded his brother in 1870. The area of the sultanate is 23,960 square kilometres. The island of Zanzibar contains about 200,000 inhabitants. The population of the continental possessions of the Sultan is not known. His annual revenue is about $1,250,000, derived chiefly from customs duties, which are regulated by a treaty of commerce concluded with Germany on Aug. 19, 1886. The principal products are cloves, gum-copal and other gums, red pepper, and cocoanuts. The transit trade in elephants' tusks amounts to $1,500,000 per annum.

Anglo-German Agreement. The Sultan of Zanzibar formerly held dominion over the island only. He acquired and garrisoned points on the mainland for the purpose of keeping open and guarding trade-routes into the interior. Under compulsion from England he suppressed the slave-trade. His continental possessions were not defined, and, when the German East African Company acquired territory in the region, disputes arose. In 1886 a joint commission, representing Great Britain, Germany, and France, fixed the boundaries of his dominions, and England and Germany entered into an agreement as to their respective spheres of influence. The work of the commission was embodied in a formal agreement

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effect of international copyright to the authors concerned. By judicious selection of eminent specialists in whatever land they were to be found, the whole civilized world had popular expositions of interesting scientific topics from the most competent sources rendered into the reader's own tongue.

In 1872 Mr. Youmans was appointed editor of "The Popular Science Monthly," a magazine established, at his suggestion, by the Messrs. Appleton. Its purpose was to present the constant advances of science in all departments, and to discuss the larger relations of science to history, education, the state, and the problems of life. His editorials on current topics were crisp, forcible, and characteristic, often widely quoted, and sometimes combated, and served to maintain his influence as an educator. In the winter of 1880-'81 he was attacked by pneumonia, and his constitution, early impaired by lack of exercise through blindness, never recovered. He married in 1861 the widow of William L. Lee, who survives him.

by Germany to recognize the sovereign rights of the Sultan over Zanzibar and Pemba, with adjacent islands, Lamu, Mafia, and a strip of coast of 10 nautical miles' breadth extending from the mouth of the Miningani River in the Bay of Tunghi as far as Kipini. North of Kipini the Sultan has the stations Kismaju, Barawa, Merka, and Makdishu, each with a radius of 12 nautical miles, and Warsheik with 5 nautical miles of territory. Great Britain agreed to use her influence to induce the Sultan to allow the Germans to have possession of the ports of Dar-es-Salaam and Pangani, paying over the customs receipts to the Sultan; also to promote a friendly agreement with Germany in regard to conflicting claims to districts in the Kilimandjaro mountains. The authority of the Sultan of Vitu, who stands under German protection, was recognized over a strip of coast including Manda Bay. The sphere of influence of England and Germany in the region lying between the Rovuma and Tana rivers is divided by a line beginning at the mouth of the river Wanga or Umbe, running to Lake Jipe, then along its eastern and northern banks, across the river Lumi, so as to bisect the districts of Taveta and Dshagga, and then along the northern slope of the Kilimandjaro mountain to a point on the eastern bank of the Victoria Nyanza, where it is intersected by the first parallel of south latitude.

INDEX TO THIS VOLUME.

A complete index to the twelve volumes of the series is issued separately.

Abeel, Gustavus, obit., 567.
Absorption of liquids through
stomach, 676.

Abyssinia, 1.
Acclimatization, 669.

Adams, James Osgood, obit., 567.
Adventists, Seventh-Day, 3.
Afghanistan, 4.

Agiar, Antonio Augusto, obit., 621.
Aiken, David Wyatt, obit., 567.
Aiken, William, obit., 567.

Alabama, 8.

Astrophotographic Congress, 87.
Atlantic City, 119.

Atomic Weights, 110.

Australasia, 45.

Austria-Hungary, 49.

Roumania and Austria-Hun-
gary, 720; between New York
and New Jersey, 543; between
Bulgaria and Servia, 736;
Montenegrin, 774.

Ayres, William Orville, obit., 569. Boussingault, Jean Baptiste Joseph
Ayub Khan, 7.

Babbitt, Elijah, obit., 570.

Baird, Spencer Fullerton, sketch
and portrait, 54.

Baker, Valentine, obit., 621.
Bald-knobbers, 516.

Andrew Jonathan, Baldwin, Prof., obit., 622.

Alcohol, effect of, 672.

Alexander,

obit., 568.

Algeria, 298.

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Dieudonné, obit., 624.
Bove, explorer, obit., 624.
Bradford, 119.

Brassey, Lady Annie, obit. and
portrait, 70.

Bratiano, M., attempted assassina-

tion of, 719.

Brazil, 71.

Baldwin, Jesse Garrettson, obit., Breakwater at Ceará, 260.

570.

Baldwin, Samuel, obit., 570.
Ballentine, William, obit., 622.
Baptists, 55.
Barbadoes, 800.

Barnewall, Robert Aylomer, obit.,
570.

Bartlett, Washington, obit., 570.
Bartol, James Lawrence, obit., 571.
Bartow, Morey Hale, obit., 571.
Batbie, Anselm Polycarpe, obit.,

622.

Baynes, Thomas Spencer, obit.,
623.

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Brennan, Margaret, obit., 573.
Brevoort, James Carson, obit., 573.
Brewster, Henry, obit., 573.
Bridges, at Poughkeepsie, 252;
Tay, 253; at Taranto, 254;
Stiffened Suspension, 254; at
Oak Park, 255.
Brinz, Aloiz von, obit., 624.
Brooks, Horatio G., obit., 573.
Brown, Dyer Date Stanley, obit.,
573.

Brown, Sir Thomas Gore, obit.,
625.

Brüggemann, Karl Heinrich, obit.,
625.

Bubastis, Temple of, 19.

Buddicom, William Barber, obit.,
625.

Beecher, Henry Ward, sketch and Buffalo, or Bison, Extermination of

portrait, 60.

Beers, Henry Newell, obit., 571.
Belgium, 64.

Beresford-Hope, A. J. B., obit.,
623.

Bernhardi, Theodor, obit., 624.
Betts, Charles Wyllys, obit., 571.
Bible Societies, 67.

572.

Blackburn, Luke Pryor, obit.,
Blake, Samuel H., obit., 572.
Blood, temperature of, 678; specific

gravity of, 673; color of, 673.
Bodwell, Joseph R., obit., 572.
Bolingsoff, Catherine, obit., 572.

Asteroids discovered, 42.
Astor, Charlotte Augusta, obit., Bolivia, 68.
569.

Astronomical Progress and Phe-
nomena, 35; Prizes, 45.

Boundaries, between Honduras and
Salvador, 360; between Peru
and Ecuador, 661; between

the, 74

Buffum, James N., obit., 574.
Bulgaria, 76; election of Ferdi-

nand, 80; new cabinet, 80.
Bunzl, Julius, obit., 574.
Burmah, 81.

Burtis, Divine, obit., 574.
Burton, Nathaniel J., obit., 574.

Cain, Richard Harvey, obit., 575.
California, 85.

Canada, Dominion of, 88.
Canals, Cape Cod ship, 459; Nica-
ragua maritime, 563; Panama,
138; Suez, 240; Chesapeake
and Ohio, 456.
Cantagrel, Félix François Jean,
obit., 625.

Cape of Good Hope, 91.

Capital Punishment, commission to
decide on Method of, 548.
Carnochan, John Murray, obit.,

575.

Carnot, Marie François Sadi, sketch

and portrait, 93.

Caro, Elme Marie, obit., 625.
Carpenter, Henry, obit., 575.
Carriers, Mechanical, 94.
Cartter, David Kellogg, obit., 575.
Ceará Break water, 260.
Chemistry, 99; New Substances,
104; New Processes, 106.
Chetwood, George Ross, obit., 575.
Chicopee, 120.

Chili, 113; contract with Peru, 114.
China, 115; opium traffic, 200;

suzerainty over Indian states,
383.

Cholera in Chili, 114.
Christian, William Henry, obit.,
575.

Christian Churches, 118.
Churches, building-fund commis-

sion, 706; work in Mexico,
706; documents affecting the
Reformed Church, 709; Uni-
farian, 774.

Cilley, Joseph, obit., 576.
Cinchona-Bark, 69, 140.

Ciparin, Timoteo, obit., 625.

Cities, American, Recent Growth

of, 118 et seq.

Delaware, 221; U. S. Centen- Duffield, Samuel Willoughby, obit.,

nial Anniversary of, 780.
Contract, Grace-Aranibar, 662.
Convention, New Hebrides, 539.
Conway, Thomas William, obit.,
578.

582.

Dulles, John Welsh, obit., 582.
Duncan, Thomas, obit., 583.
Dunn, William McKee, obit., 583.
Dupin, Jean Henri, obit., 626.

Cooke, Phineas Baldwin, obit., 578. Duruy, Aibert, obit., 626.
Cooking-schools, 233.

Copyright, International, 755.
Cornell, John Black, obit., 578.
Cornly, James Madison, obit., 579.
Corvée, Abolition of, in Egypt, 243.
Costa Rica, 210.

Cotton, cultivation of, in Japan,

402.

Cotton, large yield in South Caro-
lina, 738.

Courcy, Roussel de, obit., 626.
Court of Claims bill, 189.
Cox, Mr. Bell, case of, 13.
Craik, Dinah Maria Mulock, sketch

and portrait, 212.

Craven, Thomas Tingey, obit., 579.
Crawford, County plan for elec-
tions, 247.
Crete, 773.
Crotia, 54.

Crocker, Uriel, obit., 579.
Crofters, Highland, 342.
Cuba, 214.

Curry, Daniel, obit., 579.
Cuvillier-Fleury, Alfred Auguste,
obit., 626.

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Clark, Alvan, sketch and portrait, Dana, Alexander Hamilton, obit.,

137.

Clark, Patrick, obit., 576.
Clark, William Audley, obit., 576.
Cleveland, Chauncey Fitch, obit.,
576.

Coates, Benjamin, obit., 577.
Cobb, Sylvanus, Jr., obit., 577.
Cocoa, 231.

580.

Dancer, John Benjamin, obit., 626.
Danenhower, John Wilson, obit.,
580.

Davic, Winston Jones, obit., 580.
Dearborne, Frederick M., obit.,
580.

Death Penalty in Ecuador, 232.

Coggswell, Elliot Colby, obit., 577. Decorations, Sale of, in France,

Cohoes, 120.

Collins, Jennie, obit., 577.

Colombia, 137.

Colorado, 140.

Columbus's remains, burial of, in

Genoa, 217.

Comber, T. J., obit., 626.
Comets, 42.

Commerce, bill on Interstate, 178;
and Navigation, of the United
States, 143.

Confederate Monument, 9.
Congregationalists, 145.
Congress of the United States,
153.

Congress, Sanitary, 663.
Connecticut, 208.

Conner, James Madison, obit., 578.
Constitution, California's amended,

86; convention to change, in

294.
Delaware, 220.

Denmark, 221.

Duval, Raoul, obit, 626.

Eads, James Buchanan, sketch and
portrait, 228.

Earthquake at Guayaquil, 232; in
Mexico, 504.

Eaton, Hosea Ballou, obit., 583.
Ecuador, 230.
Edmunds-Tucker act, 789.
Education, attitude of Mormons to-

ward, in Idaho, 372; compul-
sory, in Hawaii, 350; in Ne-
braska, 526; in New Mexico,
544; geography in, 316; indus-
trial, 232; institution, bequest
of José Sevilla, 663; of In-
dians, 386; medical, of women,
in India, 382; technical, in
Massachusetts, 233; in New
York, 234; in Missouri, 236;
in Illinois, 236; in Ohio, 286;
in Maryland, 237; in Penn-
sylvania, 237; in New Jersey,
238.

Egypt, 238.
Elder, Robert, obit., 583.
Elections, contested in Indiana,

384; frauds in Indiana, 386; of
Greek Patriarch, 773; special,
in Rhode Island, 714; Craw-
ford County plan of, 247; Clar-
ion County plan of, 248; Laws,
Customs, and Theories of, 244.
Electrical phenomena, 494.
Electro-plating with aluminum,
483.

Eliot, William Greenleaf, obit., 584.
Emancipation in Brazil, 73; in Cu-
ba, 215.

Embree, Effingham, obit., 584.
Emery-wheels, 248.

Emin Pasha, 250.

De Pauw, Washington C., obit., Emory, William Helmsley, obit.,

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Fairchild, Charles Stebbins, sketch

and portrait, 775.
Fairfield, Francis Gerry, obit., 585.

Doniphan, Alexander W., obit., Famine in Asia Minor, 774.

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Farre, Arthur, obit., 627.
Fäustle, Johann, obit., 627.
Fellows, John F., obit., 585.
Ferry, Jules, Attempted Assassina-
tion of, 297.

Financial Review of 1887, 264.
Fine arts in 1887, 274.

Hague, William, obit., 588.
Hall, Benton J., sketch, 649.
Hamilton, 122.

Harrar, Conquest of, 2.
Harrington, Henry F., obit., 588.
Harris, John Wesley, obit., 589.
Harris, William Logan, obit., 589.

'Fisheries Questions, 280; Riots, 66; Harvey, William Street, obit., 589.

bill to protect, 178.

Florida, 285.

Hassinger, David Stanley, obit.,

589.

Fontes, Periera de Mello, A. M. Hathorn, Henry H., obit., 589.

de, obit., 627.

Foster, Abby Kelly, obit., 585.
Fowler, Orson Squire, obit., 585.
France, 288.

Francis, Charles S., obit., 586.
Frederick William (crown prince),
portrait, frontispiece; illness
of, 327.

Frederick William (prince), por-
trait, 321.
Friends, 299.

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Hauser, Miska, obit., 628.

Hawaii, 349; Revolution in, 358;

New Constitution of, 354.
Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer,
sketch and portrait, 356.
Hayes, John Lord, obit., 589.
Hayti, 357.

Hazen, William Babcock, sketch
and portrait, 358.

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Heat, radiation of, from human Jacobini, Cardinal Ludovico, obit.,

body, 487.

Henne, Antonia, obit., 590.

630.
Jamaica, 801.

Hennequin, Alfred Nicoclès, obit., Japan, 400.

628.

Herrmann, Herr, obit., 628.
High License in Minnesota, 512.
Hitchcock, Roswell Dwight, sketch
and portrait, 358.
Hittite Inscriptions, 25.
Holland. See NETHERLANDS, 359.
Holliday, Ben, obit., 590.

Jauréguiberry, Jean Bernard, obit.,
630.

Jeffries, Richard, obit., 630.
Jewell, James Stewart, obit., 592.
Jew-fish, 756.
Jews, 403.

Johnston, Archibald, obit., 592.
Jupiter Olympius, Temple of, 21.

Homes, Henry Augustus, obit., Jurisdiction, Disputed, of Greer

590.

Honduras, 359.

Hope, James Barron, obit., 591.
Hopkins, Mark, sketch and por-
trait, 360.

Hops, in Washington Territory,

800.

Horses, racing, 767 ; running, 770;
trotting, 768.

Hot Water, effect of, on uterus, 677.
Houses, 361.

Hovey, Charles M., obit., 591.
Howland, Robert Southworth,obit.,
591.
Hudson, 122.

Hungary. See AUSTRIA, 53.
Hunt, Robert, obit., 629.
Hunter, Robert Mercer Taliaferro,
sketch and portrait, 371.
Husband, William, obit., 629.
Hussey, John, obit., 591.
Hutchison, Joseph C., obit., 522.

Greer County, Texas, claimed by Hyderabad, 382.

United States, 760.

Greig, Samuel Alexcivich, obit.,

628.

Griffin, Samuel P., obit., 588.
Guatemala, 346.

Guerin, Thomas J., obit., 588.
Guiana, British, 800.

Guns for Coast Defense, 348.

Hadji, Loja, obit., 628.

Hyksos, the, 21.

Iceland, 223.

Idaho, 372.

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Labor, Foreign Contract, 207; Leg-
islation in Belgium, 66; in the
United States, 85, 444; Strikes,
in Belgium, 66; in Illinois,
376. See also STRIKES.
Laighton, Albert, obit., 594.
La Motte, Charles E., obit., 594.

Land-Grant Railroads, 202.

Langenbeck, Bernhard von, obit.,

632.

Langer, Karl, obit., 632.

Langiewicz, Marian, obit., 632.
Lanoline, 670.

L'Argar, discoveries at, 23.

Laurent, Francis, obit., 633.

Maracaybo, Lake, Survey of, 790.
Marcy, Randolph Barnes, obit.,

597.

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National League Proclamation, 341.

Mariuaduke, John Sappington, Natural Gas in Indiana, 386.

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Law and Order League of the Massachusetts, 458.

United States, 413.
Lawrence, Albert Gallatin, obit., Maté, exportation of, 72.

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Mayhew, Henry, obit., 634.
Medal of Honor, the United States,
463.

Medina, Territory of, 415.
Memorial Day, 475.
Menthol, influence of, 673.
Mercur, Ulysses, sketch and por-

trait, 478.

Metallurgy, 479; new processes,
485; to weld by electricity,
486.

Meteorology, 487.

Emmanuel

Methodists, 495.

Charles, obit., 633.
Legislature, extra session in Mon-
tana, 518.

Lemaire, Pierre Auguste, obit., 633.
Lent, Lewis Benjamin, obit., 596.
Lequesne, Eugène Louis, obit., 633.
Léray, Francis Xavier, obit., 596.
Liberia, 416.

Library Legislation, 418.

Nervous System, 670.

Netherlands, 527.

Nevada, 530.

Newberry, John Stoughton, obit.,
601.

New Brunswick, 532.

Newdegate, Charles Newdigate,
obit., 634.

Newfoundland, 533.

New Guinea, British, 48. See also
PAPUA.

New Hampshire, 533.
New Hebrides, 537.
New Jersey, 540.

New Jerusalem Church, 543.
New Mexico, 544.
Newport, 125.

Meuse, Fortification of the Valley New substance, 670.

of the, 64.

Mexico, 500.

Meyrowitz, Alexander, obit., 598.
Michel, Francisque Xavier, obit.,

634.

Michigan, 504.

Mills, Zophar, obit., 598.
Milon, Pierre Solidor, obit., 599.

Lind (Goldschmidt), Jenny, sketch Mind-Reading, 506.

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New York (city), 553.
New York (State), 546.
New Zealand, 48.

Niagara Falls, utilizing the Power
of, 561.
Nicaragua, 562.

Nicholson, James William Augus-
tus, obit., 601.
Nickel-plating, 485; nickel-steel,
485.

Nordman, Johannes, obit., 635.
Norristown, 126.
North Carolina, 564.
Nova Scotia, 565.

Oakland, 126.

Obituaries, American, 567, et seq.

Missionaries, expelled from Caro- Ohio, 641.

line Islands, 741.

Mississippi, 513.

Missouri, 515.

Mitchell, Alexander, obit., 599.
Monrad, Ditlev Gothard, obit., 634.
Montana, 517.

Montenegrin Boundary, 774.
Montreal, 124.

Moody, Granville, obit., 599.
Moon, influence of, on weather, 487.
Morley, Thomas, obit., 599.
Morrill, Anson P., obit., 599.
Morrison, Pitcairn, obit., 600.
Morrison, Robert Francis, obit.,
600.

Morse, Charles Walker, obit., 600.
Mound-Builders, Funeral rites of
Certain, 16.

Moya, Gen. Casimiro N. de, 733.
Muhlenberg Centenary, 450.
Mullany, James Robert Madison,
obit., 600.
Music, Progress of, 519.

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