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of the foremost modern physicists, chemists, and other scientific specialists regarding the value of science, not only as knowledge for guidance of life, but as affording the best mental discipline. Mr. Youmans's contributions to the volume were on "Scientific Study of Human Nature" and on "Mental Discipline in Education." Not only as author and lecturer did Mr. Youmans do much for the diffusion of science in America, but also by causing the republication in New York of the most valuable English scientific works as they appeared in London. On his advice Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. produced American editions of Bagehot, Buckle, Carpenter, Darwin, Huxley, Lubbock. Lyell, Roscoe, Spencer, Tyndall, Whewell, and others. In every case the author was paid exactly as much as if he were an American enjoying copyright. In 1871 Mr. Youmans gave further extension to this enterprise by planning the "International Scientific Series," the volumes to appear simultaneously in New York, London, Paris, Leipsic, Milan, and St. Petersburg. The project gave all the
ZANZIBAR, a inonarchy on the eastern coast of Africa. The reigning sovereign is Seyid Burgash ben Said, who succeeded his brother in 1870. The area of the sultanate is 23,960 square kilometres. The island of Zanzibar contains about 200,000 inhabitants. The population of the continental possessions of the Sultan is not known. His annual revenue is about $1,250,000, derived chiefly from customs duties, which are regulated by a treaty of commerce concluded with Germany on Aug. 19, 1886. The principal products are cloves, gum-copal and other gums, red pepper, and cocoanuts. The transit trade in elephants' tusks amounts to $1,500,000 per annum.
Anglo-German Agreement.-The Sultan of Zanzibar formerly held dominion over the island only. He acquired and garrisoned points on the mainland for the purpose of keeping open and guarding trade-routes into the interior. Under compulsion from England he suppressed the slave-trade. His continental possessions were not defined, and, when the German East African Company acquired territory in the region, disputes arose. In 1886 a joint commission, representing Great Britain, Germany, and France, fixed the boundaries of his dominions, and England and Germany entered into an agreement as to their respective spheres of influence. The work of the commission was embodied in a formal agreement
effect of international copyright to the authors concerned. By judicious selection of eminent specialists in whatever land they were to be found, the whole civilized world had popular expositions of interesting scientific topics from the most competent sources rendered into the reader's own tongue.
In 1872 Mr. Youmans was appointed editor of "The Popular Science Monthly," a magazine established, at his suggestion, by the Messrs. Appleton. Its purpose was to present the constant advances of science in all departments, and to discuss the larger relations of science to history, education, the state, and the problems of life. His editorials on current topics were crisp, forcible, and characteristic, often widely quoted, and sometimes combated, and served to maintain his influence as an educator. In the winter of 1880-'81 he was attacked by pneumonia, and his constitution, early impaired by lack of exercise through blindness, never recovered. He married in 1861 the widow of William L. Lee, who survives him.
by Germany to recognize the sovereign rights of the Sultan over Zanzibar and Pemba, with adjacent islands, Lamu, Mafia, and a strip of coast of 10 nautical miles' breadth extending from the mouth of the Miningani River in the Bay of Tunghi as far as Kipini. North of Kipini the Sultan has the stations Kismaju, Barawa, Merka, and Makdishu, each with a radius of 12 nautical miles, and Warsheik with 5 nautical miles of territory. Great Britain agreed to use her influence to induce the Sultan to allow the Germans to have possession of the ports of Dar-es-Salaam and Pangani, paying over the customs receipts to the Sultan; also to promote a friendly agreement with Germany in regard to conflicting claims to districts in the Kilimandjaro mountains. The authority of the Sultan of Vitu, who stands under German protection, was recognized over a strip of coast including Manda Bay. The sphere of influence of England and Germany in the region lying between the Rovuma and Tana rivers is divided by a line beginning at the mouth of the river Wanga or Umbe, running to Lake Jipe, then along its eastern and northern banks, across the river Lumi, so as to bisect the districts of Taveta and Dshagga, and then along the northern slope of the Kilimandjaro mountain to a point on the eastern bank of the Victoria Nyanza, where it is intersected by the first parallel of south latitude.
INDEX TO THIS VOLUME.
A complete index to the twelve volumes of the series is issued separately.
Abeel, Gustavus, obit., 567.
Adams, James Osgood, obit., 567.
Agiar, Antonio Augusto, obit., 621.
Astrophotographic Congress, 37.
Atomic Weights, 110.
Roumania and Austria-Hun-
Ayres, William Orville, obit., 569. Boussingault, Jean Baptiste Joseph
Babbitt, Elijah, obit., 570.
Baird, Spencer Fullerton, sketch
Baker, Valentine, obit., 621.
Andrew Jonathan, Baldwin, Prof., obit., 622.
Alcohol, effect of, 672.
Allaire, James, 716.
Alloys, new, 483.
Aluminum, alloys of, 481; produc
tion of, 482; steel, 483.
Anarchists, trials in Austria, 52;
in Illinois, 377; act to punish,
Dieudonné, obit., 624.
Brassey, Lady Annic, obit. and
Bratiano, M., attempted assassina-
tion of, 719.
Baldwin, Jesse Garrettson, obit., Breakwater at Ceará, 260.
Baldwin, Samuel, obit., 570.
Barnewall, Robert Aylomer, obit.,
Bartlett, Washington, obit., 570.
Baynes, Thomas Spencer, obit.,
Brennan, Margaret, obit., 573.
Brown, Sir Thomas Gore, obit.,
Brüggemann, Karl Heinrich, obit.,
Bubastis, Temple of, 19.
Buddicom, William Barber, obit.,
Beecher, Henry Ward, sketch and Buffalo, or Bison, Extermination of
Beers, Henry Newell, obit., 571.
Beresford-Hope, A. J. B., obit.,
Bernhardi, Theodor, obit., 624.
Blackburn, Luke Pryor, obit., 572.
gravity of, 673; color of, 673.
Asteroids discovered, 42.
Boundaries, between Honduras and
Salvador, 360; between Peru
Buffum, James N., obit., 574.
Burtis, Divine, obit., 574.
Cain, Richard Harvey, obit., 575.
Canada, Dominion of, 88.
Cape of Good Hope, 91.
Carnot, Marie François Sadi, sketch
and portrait, 93.
Caro, Elme Marie, obit., 625.
Cartter, David Kellogg, obit., 575.
104; New Processes, 106.
Chili, 113; contract with Peru, 114.
suzerainty over Indian states,
Cholera in Chili, 114.
Christian Churches, 118.
sion, 706; work in Mexico,
Cilley, Joseph, obit., 576.
Ciparin, Timoteo, obit., 625.
Cities, American, Recent Growth
of, 118 et seq.
Delaware, 221; U. S. Centen- Duffield, Samuel Willoughby, obit.,
nial Anniversary of, 780.
Dulles, John Welsh, obit., 582.
Cooke, Phineas Baldwin, obit., 578. Duruy, Aibert, obit., 626.
Copyright, International, 755.
Duval, Raoul, obit, 626.
Eads, James Buchanan, sketch and
Earthquake at Guayaquil, 232; in
Cotton, cultivation of, in Japan, Eaton, Hosea Ballou, obit.,
Cotton, large yield in South Caro- Edmunds-Tucker act, 789.
Courcy, Roussel de, obit., 626.
and portrait, 212.
Craven, Thomas Tingey, obit., 579.
Crocker, Uriel, obit., 579.
Curry, Daniel, obit., 579.
Clark, Alvan, sketch and portrait, Dana, Alexander Hamilton, obit.,
Clark, Patrick, obit., 576.
Clark, William Audley, obit., 576.
Coates, Benjamin, obit., 577.
Dancer, John Benjamin, obit., 626.
Davic, Winston Jones, obit., 580.
Death Penalty in Ecuador, 232.
Coggswell, Elliot Colby, obit., 577. Decorations, Sale of, in France,
Education, attitude of Mormons to-
384; frauds in Indiana, 386; of
Eliot, William Greenleaf, obit., 584.
Embree, Effingham, obit., 584.
Emin Pasha, 250.
De Pauw, Washington C., obit., Emory, William Helmsley, obit.,
Fairchild, Charles Stebbins, sketch
Doniphan, Alexander W., obit., Famine in Asia Minor, 774.
Foster, Abby Kelly, obit., 585.
Francis, Charles S., obit., 586.
Frederick William (prince), por-
Hauser, Miska, obit., 628.
Hazen, William Babcock, sketch
Heat, radiation of, from human Jacobini, Cardinal Ludovico, obit.,
Homes, Henry Augustus, obit., Jurisdiction, Disputed, of Greer
Hope, James Barron, obit., 591.
Hops, in Washington Territory,
Horses, racing, 767; running, 770;
Hot Water, effect of, on uterus, 677.
Hovey, Charles M., obit., 591.
Hungary. See AUSTRIA, 53.
Green, Charles, obit., 587.
United States, 760.
Greig, Samuel Alexcivich, obit.,
Griffin, Samuel P., obit., 588.
Guerin, Thomas J., obit., 588.
Guns for Coast Defense, 348.
Hadji, Loja, obit., 628.
Hyksos, the, 21.
Labor, Foreign Contract, 207; Leg-
Land-Grant Railroads, 202.
Maracaybo, Lake, Survey of, 790.
Langenbeck, Bernhard von, obit., Marcy, Randolph Barnes, obit.,
Langer, Karl, obit., 632.
Langiewicz, Marian, obit., 632.
L'Argar, discoveries at, 23.
Laurent, Francis, obit., 633.
Marsegg, Herrman Mallner von, Navigators' Islands. See SAMOA.
Massowah, Italians at, 1.
Law and Order League of the Massachusetts, 458.
United States, 413.
Lawrence, Albert Gallatin, obit., Maté, exportation of, 72.
Laws, Charles Alfred, obit., 595.
Lawson, James Anthony, obit.,688.
Mayhew, Henry, obit., 634.
Medina, Territory of, 415.
Leavenworth, Eliza Warner, obit., Metallurgy, 479; new processes,
Lee, Alfred, obit., 595.
Le Flô, Adolphe Emmanuel
Lemaire, Pierre Auguste, obit., 633.
Library Legislation, 418.
485; to weld by electricity,
Nervous System, 670.
Newberry, John Stoughton, obit.,
New Brunswick, 532.
Newdegate, Charles Newdigate,
New Guinea, British, 48. See also
New Hampshire, 533.
New Jersey, 540.
New Jerusalem Church, 543.
Mills, Zophar, obit., 598.
Lind (Goldschmidt), Jenny, sketch Mind-Reading, 506.
Mines in Bolivia, 69; in Colorado,
New York (city), 553.
New York (State), 546.
Niagara Falls, utilizing the Power
Nicholson, James William Augus-
tus, obit., 601.
Nickel-plating, 485; nickel-steel,
Nordman, Johannes, obit., 635.
Obituaries, American, 567, et seq.