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WINSTON'S

CUMULATIVE
LOOSE-LEAF

ENCYCLOPEDIA

A COMPREHENSIVE
REFERENCE WORK

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
THOMAS E. FINEGAN, M.A., PD.D., Litt.D., LL.D.

Superintendent of Public Instruction

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

in Ten volumes

ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS, DRAWINGS AND
COLOR PLATES; INCLUDING SEVEN COLOR PLATES FROM
THE J. L. G. FERRIS COLLECTION OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL
PAINTINGS, BY SPECIAL PERMISSION OF THE ARTIST

THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY
CHICAGO
PHILADELPHIA

TORONTO

BF2308

COPYRIGHT 1922, BY

The John C. WINSTON Co.
Copyright 1912-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21

Binder protected under
UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS OF

AUGUST 27, 1918

June 4, 1907
DOMINION OF CANADA PATENT RIGHTS OF

JUNE 24, 1919

P-10-22

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

the omins is entirely hted. This metho and in

Three methods are used to indicate the pronunciation of the words forming the headings of the separate articles :

(1) By dividing the word into syllables, and indicating the syllable or syllables to be accented. This method is followed where the pronunciation is entirely obvious. Where accent marks are omitted, the omission indicates that all syllables are given substantially the same value.

(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the word is re-spelled phonetically, in addition to the accentuation.

(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently indicated merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following system of diacritical marks is additionally employed to approximate the proper sounds as closely as may be done : a, as in fate, or in bare.

eu, a long sound as in Fr. jeûne, = ä, as in alms, Fr. âme, Ger. Bahn=å Ger. long ö, as in Söhne, Göthe of Indian names.

(Goethe). à, the same sound short or medium, as

eu, corresponding sound short or mediin Fr. bal, Ger. Mann.

um, as in Fr. peu=Ger. ö short. a, as in fat.

o, as in note, moan. a, as in fall.

0, as in not, frog—that is, short or a, obscure, as in rural, similar to u in

medium. but, ė in her : common in Indian

ö, as in move, two. names.

ū, as in tube. ē, as in meri in machine.

u, as in tub: similar to é and also to a.

y, as in bull. e, as in met.

ü, as in Sc abune=Fr. û as in da, ė, as in her.

Ger. ü long as in grün, Bühne. ī, as in pine, or as ei in Ger. Mein. ů, the corresponding short or medium i, as in pin, also used for the short

sound, as in Fr. but, Ger. Müller. sound corresponding to ē, as in oi, as in oil. French and Italian words.

ou, as in pound; or as au in Ger. Haus.

The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when, printed in Roman type, are always given their common English values in the transliteration of foreign words. The letter c is indicated by s or k, as the case may be. For the remaining consonant sounds the following symbols are employed: ch is always as in rich.

erally much more strongly trilled. d, nearly as th in this = Sp. d in

s, always as in 80. Madrid, etc.

th, as th in thin. g is always hard, as in go.

th, as th in this. h represents the guttural in Scotch

w always consonantal, as in we.
loch, Ger. nach, also other similar
gutturals.

x = ks, which are used instead.. ņ, Fr. nasal n as in bon.

y always consonantal, as in yea (Fr. i represents both English r, and in ligne would be re-written lēny).

foreign words, in which it is gen-1 zh, as s in pieasure = Fr. ;.

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